All Living Cells NeedEnergy Cells either make their own food (glucose) or obtain it. Autotrophic cells convert sunlight into glucose Heterotrophic cells have to obtain glucose by other means.
Energy StorageMolecules Glucose is turned into energy storage molecules called ATP. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate When a phosphate group is broken off, energy is released
Chemical Reactions Reactants – substances that enter a reaction. They are changed. Products – substances left after the reaction has taken place. Two chemical reactions are necessary for cells to produce energy: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
PhotosyntheticPigments Pigments are chemicals that absorb light. Chlorophyll (A and B) Primary pigments, green in color. Anthocyanin – red/purple Carotene – orange Xanthophyll - yellow
PhotosynthesisExplained Takes place in Chromoplasts within autotrophic cells. Primarily the Chloroplasts Reactants: Carbon Dioxide & Water Products: Glucose & Oxygen Driven by the sun
Cellular RespirationExplained Process that releases energy (ATP) by breaking down glucose Takes place in cells mitochondria Reactants: glucose & oxygen Products: H20, CO2 & ATP
Types of CellularRespiration Aerobic (sufficient O2) – very effective, 36 ATPs produced from one glucose: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + 36 ATP Fermentation (no O2) – not efficient 1. Alcoholic Fermentation: alcohol and C02 are produced 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation: l. acid produced