Grammar book final


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Grammar book final

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Grammar Concepts<br />Sancho Flynn<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />1. El Pretérito<br />2. PreteriteTriggers<br />3. Car, Gar, Zars<br />4. SpockVerbs<br />5. Snake Verbs<br />6. SnakeyVerbs<br />7. CucharachaIrregulars and Triggers<br />8. El Imperfecto<br />9. ImperfectTriggers<br />10. ImperfectIrregulars<br />11. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />12. Ser vs. Estar<br />13. Verbs Like Gustar<br />14. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />15. Transition Words<br />16. El Futuro<br />17. Future Irregulars<br />18. Future Trigger Words<br />19. Por<br />20. Para<br />
  3. 3. El Pretérito<br />Has a fixed point and time<br />Has a beginning and end<br />Events that happen a specific number of times<br />Events that were part of a chain of events<br />Used for sudden changes in mood, feelings, or emotions<br />-ar verbs<br />-er /-ir verbs<br />-é<br />-amos<br />-í<br />-imos<br />-aste<br />-asteis<br />-iste<br />-isteis<br />-ió<br />-ieron<br />-ó<br />-aron<br />
  4. 4. Preterite Trigger Words<br />There are many triggers words that make it a little easier to distinguish when the preterite is being used including:<br />Ayer, después, el mespasado, entonces, anoche, and el otrodía<br />
  5. 5. Car, Gar, Zars<br />-car verbs<br />-gar verbs<br />-qué<br />-camos<br />-gué<br />-gamos<br />-gaste<br />-gasteis<br />-caste<br />-casteis<br />-gó<br />-garon<br />-có<br />-caron<br />-zar verbs<br />-cé<br />-zamos<br />-zaste<br />-zasteis<br />-zó<br />-zaron<br />
  6. 6. Spock Verbs<br />dar and ver<br />-imos<br />-í<br />ser and ir<br />-iste<br />-isteis<br />fui<br />fuimos<br />-ió<br />-ieron<br />fuiste<br />fuisteis<br />ir<br />dar<br />fue<br />fueron<br />ser<br />ver<br />hacer<br />hice<br />hicimos<br />hiciste<br />hicisteis<br />hacer<br />hizo<br />hicieron<br />
  7. 7. Snake Verbs<br />Irregular preterites that change only in 3rd person (he, she, it)<br />Verbs change from e-i or o-u<br />An example for e-i would be decir which changes to dij-<br />An example for o-u would be dormir which changes durm-<br />
  8. 8. Snakey Verbs<br />Like Snake Verbs, Snakey Verbs also change only in 3rd person<br />Verbs change from i-y or e-y<br />An example for i-y would be oír which changes to oy-<br />An example for e-y would be leer which changes to ley-<br />
  9. 9. Cucaracha Irregulars<br />Examples of thesewouldbe:<br /><ul><li>Andar- anduv
  10. 10. Estar- estuv
  11. 11. Poder- pud
  12. 12. Poner- pus
  13. 13. Querer- quis
  14. 14. Saber- sup
  15. 15. Tener- tuv
  16. 16. Venir- vin</li></ul>-e<br />-imos<br />-iste<br />-isteis<br />All end in:<br />-o<br />-ieron<br />
  17. 17. El Imperfecto<br />Actions that were repeated habitually<br />For telling time<br />For stating one’s age<br />For mental states (usually)<br />For physical sensations (usually)<br />To describe the characteristics of people, things or conditions<br />For actions that “set the stage” for another past action<br />-er/-ir verbs<br />-ar verbs<br />-íamos<br />-aba<br />-ábamos<br />-ía<br />-ías<br />-íais<br />-abas<br />-abais<br />-ía<br />-ían<br />-aba<br />-aban<br />
  18. 18. Imperfect Trigger Words<br />There are a variety of imperfect trigger words including:<br />a veces, a menudo, mientras, muchasveces, todos los días, and cadadía<br />
  19. 19. Imperfect Irregulars<br />As shown below, ser, ir, and ver are all examples of irregular imperfect verbs<br />ser<br />ir<br />era<br />éramos<br />iba<br />íbamos<br />eras<br />erais<br />ibas<br />ibais<br />era<br />eran<br />iba<br />iban<br />ver<br />veía<br />veíamos<br />veías<br />veíais<br />veía<br />veían<br />
  20. 20. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />
  21. 21. Ser vs. Estar<br />Ser is associated with the acronym DOCTOR PED which stands for:<br />D: description<br />O: origin<br />C: characteristics<br />T: time<br />O: occupation<br />R: relationship<br />P: possession<br />E: events<br />D: dates<br />Estar is associated with the acronym HELPING which stands for:<br />H: health<br />E: emotions<br />L: location<br />P: present condition<br />I<br />N<br />G<br />
  22. 22. Verbs Like Gustar<br />Some verbs like gustar are:<br />Encantar: to love<br />Molestar: to bother<br />Faltar: to lack<br />Fascinar: to fascinate<br />Apetecer: to wish for<br />Disgustar: to disgust<br />Interesar: to interest<br />
  23. 23. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />The formula for comparatives and superlatives are:<br />más + adjective + que (más meaning more and que meaning than)<br />Same thing for less than which is menos + adjective + que<br />Other words for comparatives/superlatives are:<br />Tan como (as…as), tantocomo (as much as), and el más<br />There are four irregulars in bueno, viejo, malo, and joven<br />bueno mejorviejo  mayor<br />malo  peorjoven  menor<br />
  24. 24. Transition Words<br />
  25. 25. El Futuro<br />Infinitive + ending<br />I, You, He/She, We, You All, They WILL<br />The endings are the same for -ar, -ir, and –er<br />Ser, ir, and estar are actually regular<br />-é<br />-emos<br />-ás<br />-éis<br />-á<br />-án<br />
  26. 26. Future Irregulars<br />Decir dir<br />Hacer  har<br />Salir  saldr<br />Tener  tendr<br />Valer  valdr<br />Venir  vendr<br />The future of “Hay eshabrá” = There will be<br />Poder podr<br />Querer  querr<br />Saber  sabr<br />Caber  cabr<br />Haber  habr<br />
  27. 27. Future Trigger Words<br />En ___días, horas, semanas, años<br />El proximodía, hora, semana, año<br />Mañana, or any day of the to come<br />
  28. 28. Por<br />Passing through… PORtal<br />General rather than specific location… PORtugal<br />How long something lasts… PORever<br />The cause of something<br />An exchange… imPORt/exPORt<br />Doing something in place of or instead of someone else… I’m POR, pay for me<br />A means of transportation… transPORtation<br />
  29. 29. Para<br />For whom something is done… surprise PARAty<br />Destination… PARAguay<br />The purpose for which something is done… PARAsites<br />To express an opinion… PARAdon me, but<br />To contrast or comPARA<br />To express idea of deadline… PARAmedic<br />
  30. 30. Grammar Book Part 2<br />Sancho Flynn<br />
  31. 31. Conditional & Irregulars<br />Conditional Tense<br />Irregulars<br />The conditional is often used to express probability, possibility, and wonder and is usually understood to be would, could, must have or probably. Here is the suffix you would add onto –ar, -er, and –ir verbs:<br />There are 12 irregular verbs in theconditional tense.<br />They are: caber (cabr-), poner (pondr-), decir (dira-) haber (habr-), salir (saldr-), hacer (har-), poder (podr-), tener (tendr-), querer (querr-), valer (valdr-), saber (sabr-), and venir (vendr-).<br />ía<br />íamos<br />ías<br />íais<br />ía<br />ían<br />
  32. 32. The perfect tense is compound, formed with the verb haber and the past participle of another verb.<br />-ar verbs go to –ado; -er/-ir verbs go to –ido<br />The action was completed recently.<br />The perfect tense is true in both the past and the present.<br />Perfect Tense<br />he<br />hemos<br />has<br />habeis<br />ha<br />han<br />
  33. 33. Poner puesto<br />Abrir abierto<br />Hacer  hecho<br />Cubrir  cubierto<br />Morir  muerto<br />Escribir  escrito<br />Volver  vuelto<br />Decir  dicho<br />Ir  ido<br />Romper  roto<br />Ver  visto<br />Resolver  resuelto<br />Perfect Tense Irregulars<br />
  34. 34. The past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the verb haber with the past participle.<br />The past perfect tense is used when you had or have done something.<br />Like the perfect tense, you drop the –ar and<br /> -er/-ir and add –ado and –ido.<br />Past Perfect Tense<br />había<br />habíamos<br />habías<br />habíais<br />había<br />habían<br />
  35. 35. The subjunctive perfect tense is usually used to indicate that an action was completed with verbs in the present or perfect tense.<br />Used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive.<br />Present subjunctive + past participle<br />Subjunctive Perfect Tense<br />haya<br />hayamos<br />hayas<br />hayáis<br />Past participle<br />haya<br />hayan<br />
  36. 36. We use ‘se’ to avoid specifying who is doing the action.<br />The verb is always in the 3rd person when using ‘se.’<br />For example:<br />Se vende pan en el supermercado. <br />Impersonal Se<br />
  37. 37. Saber<br />Used to express factual information.<br />Yo no sé tu número de teléfono.<br />Conocer<br />Associatedwithbeingunfamiliarwith a person, place, orobject.<br />Yo no conozco a Sancho.<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />
  38. 38. Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs.<br />tan + adjective (adverb) + como<br />We are familiar with the phrase: tan…como (as…as)<br />Example: El libro es tan bueno como la película.<br />Tanto is associated with nouns and adverbs.<br />tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como<br />We are familiar withthephrase: tanto…como (as many/much…as)<br />Example: Juan tiene tanto dinero como María.<br />Tan & Tanto<br />
  39. 39. Affirmative:<br />Conjugate to the 3rd person endings: ar (a), er/ir (e)<br />Hablar habla Comer  come escribir  escribe<br />Negative:<br />Conjugate to the tú form: ar (es), er/ir (as)<br />Hablar  no hables Comer  no comas Escribir  no escribas<br />Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven<br />DOP/IOP: <br />DOPs must be attached to the end of the affrimative command, and they must be placed in front of the command if it’s a negative command. <br />Example: Cómpralas, No lascompres<br />IOPs must be placed in front of DOPs when attached to the affirmative command and when it’s a negative command.<br />Example: Compramelo, No me lo compres<br />Informal Commands<br />
  40. 40. Formal Commands<br />Usted:<br />Conjugate to the yo form, drop the O, and add the opposite ending: ar (e), er/ir (a)<br />Ex: hablar hable comer  coma escribir  escriba<br />Ustedes:<br />Conjugate to the yo form, drop the O, and add the opposite ending of the third plural form: ar (en), er/ir (an)<br />Ex: hablar  hablen comer  comanescribir  escriban<br />
  41. 41. Go to the yo form of the verb, drop the O and add the opposite nosotros form ending:<br />Comemos comamos<br />Mono Verbs:<br />When you are making the verb reflexsive for nos, you drop the s<br />Comemosnos  Comemonos<br />Nosotros Commands<br />
  42. 42. Indicative- facts, real, definite<br />Mood- attitudes, uncertainty, hypothetical<br />Put it in the yo form and change it to the opposite ending: hablar hable, hables, hable, hablemos, hableís, hablen<br />Queconnects clauses<br />When there is no change in subject from clause to clause, use infinitives.<br />Subjunctive<br />
  43. 43. Car, gar, zar are the same they always are:<br />Conducir conduzcaDecir  digaJugar  juegueAlmorzar  almuerce<br />Other irregulars are dar, estar, and saber.<br />Hay  haya<br />Subjunctive Irregulars<br />dar<br />dé<br />demos<br />des<br />deís<br />den<br />den<br />
  44. 44. Impersonal Expressions:<br />Es buenoque, esmaloque, esmejorque, esimportanteque, esnecesarioque, esurgenteque<br />All express a need, an order, or a desire<br />Expressions of Emotion:<br />Sentirque, alegrarseque, temerque, esperarque<br />All express fear, joy, anger, regret, happiness, surprise, and pity<br />Subjunctive Trigger Phrases<br />
  45. 45. Serve the same function as they do in English (obviously)<br />They are:<br />Este(a) (this), estos(as) (these)<br />Ese(a) (that), esos(as) (those)<br />Aquel(la) (that _ over there), aquellos(as) (those _ over there)<br />Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns<br />