Motherboard- The motherboard is the main circuit board in the computer, it allows you to plug different components into it to improve performance for example, memory (RAM). The motherboard is what ALL components plug into to bring the entire computer together.
Processor – is a chip which slots onto your motherboard and its processes the data in the system. The processor is the brains of the computer, if you have a slow processor then the data will be processed slowly. The processor will process the data which the programs send.
Heat sink—The heat sink is the main cooling system for the CPU
Hard drive—This Stores all your files and the files which your computer users to run I.E the operating system. The hard drive would be connected the motherboard by either DATA or SATA connections and connected to the power supply for the power to run the hard drive.
Memory (RAM) Chips – Ram chips slot into the motherboard and data packets run through it, depending on how much capacity your ram has determines how fast the data packets can be processed.
Power Supply-This powers the board and all its components, These can be 20 or 24 pin, not they make an 24 pin which you can disconnect 4 pins the pins are what connect it to the motherboard.
Graphics Card – Most motherboards have built in graphics but to enhance the capabilities of your graphics it would be a good idea to install a graphics card, which allows you to plug in to more outputs for example HDMI, VGA and many more. The cards plug into the PCI slots on the motherboard.
Network Card – The network card allows data packets to travel from the computer to the network. Network cards have MAC addresses which is a 48 bit unique code which is used to identify the work station. You can also get wireless network cards which works in the same way but without wires.
BIOS - The BIOS is part of the starts with the computer and it keeps all the information needed which needs to be kept in case the hard drive corrupts, the sort of information it holds is date and times, and what to boot your computer to on start-up. Your BIOS could also be set to hold a password which could help to keep your computer safe if stolen. Your BIOS is held on a ROM chip and is worked by a small watch battery.
Cables & connectors – Wires are the most important thing in the computer without them things could not be connected. Wires connect the Hard drive to the motherboard allowing data to flow through them both ways, more important the mains wire supplies power to the system allowing the components to have the electricity needed to run. All wires can carry power which makes them very dangerous so they are covered with rubber which is a good insulator, any wires with cuts in this protective layer should be replaced as soon as possible.