Español grammar book 2 added

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Español grammar book 2 added

  1. 1. Español Grammar Book<br />Lily James<br />
  2. 2. Table of ContentsFirstSemester<br />1. Preterite<br />2. PreteriteTriggers<br />3. Car, Gar, Zar verbs<br />4. SpockVerbs<br />5. Cucaracha verbs<br />6. Snake Verbs<br />7. SnakeyVerbs<br />8. Imperfect<br />9. ImperfectTriggers<br />10. ImperfectIrregulars<br />11. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />11. Ser vs Estar<br />12. Verbslike Gustar<br />13. Comparatives / Superlatives<br />14. TransitionWords<br />15. El Futuro<br />16. FutureTriggers<br />17. FutureIrregulars<br />18. Por<br />19. Para<br />20. Por and Para Set Expressions<br />
  3. 3. Preterite<br />-ER/IR<br />-AR<br />-é<br />-aste<br />-ó<br />-amos<br />-aron<br />-í<br />-iste<br />-ió<br />-imos<br />-ieron<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. -car –gar –zarVerbs in the Preterit<br />ONLY IN FIRST PERSON (YO FORM)<br />
  6. 6. Spock Preterit Verbs<br /><ul><li>fui
  7. 7. fuiste
  8. 8. fue
  9. 9. fuimos
  10. 10. fueron</li></ul>D/V<br /><ul><li>i
  11. 11. iste
  12. 12. io
  13. 13. imos
  14. 14. ieron</li></ul>Dar<br />Ser<br />Ver<br />Ir<br />Hacer<br /><ul><li>hice
  15. 15. hiciste
  16. 16. hizo
  17. 17. hicimos
  18. 18. hicieron</li></li></ul><li>Cucaracha Preterit Verbs<br />Andar-> Anduv-<br />Estar -> Estuv-<br />Poner -> Pus-<br />Poder-> Pud-<br />Querer -> Quis-<br />Saber -> Sup-<br />Tener -> Tuv-<br />Venir -> Vin-<br />Conducir -> Conduj-<br />Producir -> Produj-<br />Traducir-> Traduj-<br />Decir-> Dej-<br />Traer -> Traj-<br />e<br />iste<br />o<br />imos<br />Ieron<br />e<br />iste<br />o<br />imos<br />eron<br />
  19. 19. Snake Verbs in the Preterit<br />
  20. 20. Snakey Verbs<br />
  21. 21. Imperfecto<br />
  22. 22. IMPERFECT TRIGGER WORDS<br />
  23. 23. Irregular Imperfecto<br />
  24. 24. Preterit vs Imperfect<br />
  25. 25. SER vs ESTAR<br />HELPING: Health, Emotions, Location, Present Condition, ING (-ando e –iendo)<br />DOCTORPED: Discription, occupation, Characteristics, Time, Origin, Relationships, Possession, Events, Dates<br />
  26. 26. Verbs like Gustar<br />Aburrir<br />Encantar<br />Faltar<br />Fascinar<br />Importar<br />Interesar<br />Molestar<br />Quedar<br />Doler<br />Disgustar<br />Hacer falta<br />Preocupar<br />Sorprender<br />Apetecer<br />Caer bien/mal<br />Me<br />Te<br />Le<br />Nos<br />Les<br />
  27. 27. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />Más:<br />La casa es grande.<br />El granero es MÁS grande QUE la casa.<br />El castillo es EL MÁS grande DE todos.<br />Menos:<br />Este dinosaurio es feroz.<br />Este dinosaurio es MENOS feroz WUE el otro.<br />Este dinosaurio es EL MENOS feroz DEL mundo.<br />Bueno -> Mejor Malo -> Peor Vieja -> Mayor Joven -> Menor<br />Good -> BetterBad -> WorstOld -> Older Young -> Younger<br />Bueno:<br />La manzana es buena.<br />El platano es MEJOR QUE la manzana.<br />Las cerezas son LAS MEHORES DE todos las frutas.<br />Joven:<br />Los hijos son jóvenes.<br />La madre es MENOR QUE el padre.<br />El hijo es EL MENOR DE todos.<br />Malo:<br />El chocolate caliente es malo.<br />El té es PEOR QUE el chocolate caliente.<br />El café es EL PEOR DE todos las bebidas calientes<br />Viejo:<br />El abuelo es viejo.<br />El padre es MAYOR QUE la madre.<br />El abuelo es EL MAYOR DE la familia.<br />Más o menos con números:<br />Hay MÁS DE cinco elefantes.<br />Hay MENOS DE siete elefantes.<br />Para decir “more than” o “lessthan” con numeros.<br />Comparativos de Igualdad:<br />Sofía es TAN bonita COMO Penélope.<br />
  28. 28. Connecting/Transition Words<br />Aunque- eventhough<br />También- also<br />Mientras-while<br />A pesar be- in spite of<br />Pero- but<br />Por lo tanto- therefore<br />Sin embargo/no obstante-nevertheless<br />
  29. 29. Futuro (will)<br />Yo -> infinitivo + é<br />Tú -> infinitivo + ás<br />El, Ella, Usted -> infinitivo + á<br />Nosotros -> infinitivo + emos<br />Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes -> infinitivo + án<br />¡El Futuro es muy brillante!<br />
  30. 30. FutureTriggers<br />Manana…<br />El Proximo …<br />En el futuro…<br />En seis semanas…<br />En ocho días…<br />
  31. 31. Futuro Irregular<br />Decir – Dir<br />Hacer – Har<br />Poner – Pondo<br />Salir – Saldr<br />Tener – Tendr<br />Valer –Valdr<br />Poder – Podr<br />Querer – Querr<br />Saber – Sabr<br />Caber – Cabr<br />Haber – Habr<br />Endings<br />-é<br />-ás<br />-á<br />-emos<br />-án<br />
  32. 32. Por vs Para<br />Por<br />Para<br />For when something is done…surprise PARAty<br />Destination…PARAguay<br />The purpose for which something is done…PARAsites<br />To express an opinion… PARAdon me, but…<br />To comPARA and contrast<br />To express idea of deadline…PARAmedic<br />Passing through…PORtal<br />General rather than specific location…PORtugal<br />How long something lasts…PORever<br />The cause of something…PORpose<br />An exchange …imPORt/exPORt<br />Doing something in place of or instead of someone else… I’m POR, pay for me.<br />A means on transPORtation<br />
  33. 33. Por and Para Set Expressions<br />Por<br />Por favor<br />Día por día<br />Por dentro<br />Por fin<br />Por ahora<br />Por amor de Dios<br />Por aquí<br />Por poco<br />Para<br />Para mi<br />Estar para<br />Para otra vez<br />Para que<br />Ser tal para cual<br />Para variar<br />
  34. 34. Table of Contents 2nd Semester<br />Conditional<br />ConditonalIrregulars<br />Perfect Tenses<br />Past<br />Present<br />Presentperfectirregs<br />Subjunctiveperfect<br />Tan and Tanto<br />Impersonal “se”<br />Saber vs Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Imformal/Formal<br />Affirmative<br />Nevative<br />Irregs<br />DOP placement<br />IOP placement<br />Nosotros commands<br />Mono verbs<br />Subjunctive & Irregs<br />Triggers<br />Impersonal ecpressions<br />Expressions of emotion<br />Conjuction of times<br />DemonstrativeAdj’sand Pronouns<br />
  35. 35. Conditional: WouldShouldCould<br />FormedliketheFuture (infinitive + ending)<br />Endings:<br />ía --íamos<br />ías<br />ía --ían<br />(These are thesameendingsforthe imperfecto er/ir)<br />
  36. 36. ConditionalIrregulars<br />Caber-cabr-<br />haber-habr-<br />poder-podr-<br />querer-querr-<br />saber-sabr-<br />Poner-pondr-<br />Tener-tendr-<br />Valer-valdr-<br />Venir-vendr-<br />Decir-dir-<br />Hacer-har-<br />Salir-saldr-<br />
  37. 37. Perfect Tenses:<br />PastPerfect<br />PresentPerfect<br />Presentperfectirregs<br />Subjunctiveperfect<br /> Participial endings<br />-ar-ado-er/ir-ido<br />
  38. 38. PastPerfect<br />To form the past perfect, use the imperfect of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past participle:<br />habíahablado I had spoken<br />habíashabladoyou had spoken<br />habíahabladohe/she had spoken<br />habíamoshabladowe had spoken<br />habíaishabladoyouhad spoken<br />habíanhabladothey had spoken<br />Participial endings<br />-ar-ado-er/ir-ido<br />
  39. 39. PresentPerfect<br />To form the present perfect, use the present tense of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past participle:<br />he hablado   I have spoken<br />has habladoyou have spoken<br />ha habladohe/she has spoken<br />hemoshablado we have spoken<br />habéishabladoyou have spoken<br />hanhabladothey have spoken<br />
  40. 40. PresentPerfectIrregulars<br />abrir       (open)       abierto<br />cubrir      (cover)      cubierto<br />escribir    (write)      escrito<br />morir       (die)        muerto<br />poner       (put)        puesto<br />solver     (-solve)     -suelto<br />romper      (break)      roto<br />volver      (return)     vuelto<br />satisfacer  (satisfy)    satisfecho<br />decir       (say / tell)  dicho<br />hacer       (do / make)  hecho<br />ver          (see)        visto<br />
  41. 41. SubjunctivePerfect<br />The present perfect subjunctive is a compound verb formed with the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle of the main verb.<br />Ex: HABLAR<br />Yohayahablado<br />Túhayashablado<br />Él/ella/Ud. hayahablado<br />Nosotroshayamoshablado<br />Ellos/as/Uds. hayanhablado<br />
  42. 42. Tan and Tanto<br />Tan…como… <br />(as…as…)<br />Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs<br />Ex:<br />Conduzco tan despacio como puedo.<br />Tanto…como…<br />(as much/many…as)<br />Tanto is used with nowns and verbs<br />Ex:<br />Ella tiene tanto miedo como yo.<br />
  43. 43. Impersonal “Se”<br />Impersonal expressions are used when the subject of a verb is unspecified (but is human). They are mostly used to make general statements and to express rules.<br />Ex:<br />Se necesita que la genteproteja la Tierra. (It's necessary that people protect the Earth.)<br />Se habla españolaquí. (Spanish is spoken here.)<br />
  44. 44. Saber vs Conocer<br />Saber means to know a fact or to know how to do something.<br />Conocer means to know someone or to be familiar with someone, something, or somewhere. <br />
  45. 45. Tú AffirmativeCommands<br />Tú form<br />Drop s<br /> Ex:<br />Compra el anillo.<br />Escribe la tarea.<br />Compra los libros.<br />Come la patata.<br />
  46. 46. Tú NegativeCommands<br />Yo form<br />Oppositeending<br />Add s<br />Add no beforethecommand and the DOP<br />Ex:<br />No cantes<br />No escribas<br />
  47. 47. Tú Irregular Commands<br />TVDISHES<br />Decir- Di<br />Hacer- Haz<br />Ir- Ven<br />Poner- Pon<br />Salir- Sal<br />Ser- Sé<br />Tener- Ten<br />Venir- Ven<br />
  48. 48. Ud. and Uds. Affirmative Commands<br />Yo form<br />Oppositeedding<br />For Uds. Add n totheending<br />Ex:<br />Ud. ayude<br />Uds. ayuden<br />
  49. 49. Ud. and Uds. NegativeCommands<br />Same rules for Ud. and Uds. Affirmative<br />Add “no” beforethecommand and the DOP<br />Ex:<br />No compre<br />No compren<br />
  50. 50. Ud. and Uds. Negative<br />Saber<br />Ud: sepa<br />Uds: sepan<br />Ser<br />Ud: sea<br />Uds: sean<br />Ir<br />Ud: vaya<br />Uds: vayan<br />Dar<br />Ud: dé<br />Uds: den<br />Estar<br />Ud: Esté<br />Uds: Estén<br />
  51. 51. DOP placement<br />Affirmative commands:<br />Attach DOP to end of command<br />Ex: ¡Cómpralas!<br />(Addaccentto preserve sound)<br />NegativeCommands:<br />Place the DOP in front of thecommand and behindthe “no.”<br />Ex: ¡No las compres!<br />
  52. 52. DOP’s<br />Me<br />Te<br />Lo<br />La<br />Os<br />Nos<br />Los<br />Las<br />
  53. 53. IOP Placement<br />Affirmative Commands:<br />Attach IOP between the Command and the DOP<br />Ex: Prepáramelo<br />Negative Commands:<br />
  54. 54. IOP’s<br />Me<br />Te<br />Le<br />Nos<br />Os<br />Les<br />
  55. 55. Nosotros Commands<br />Foraffirmative<br />Putverb in the nosotros form in thepresent tense.<br />Ex: Hablamos.<br />Fornegative<br />Puttheword “no” beforethesameverbform<br />Ex: No hablamos.<br />
  56. 56. Nosotros Commands: Mono Verbs<br />Afirmative commands: <br />The final “s’ of the verb formed is dropped before adding the pronoun “nos”<br />English: Let us<br />Ex: Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos.<br />
  57. 57. Present subjunctive<br />The subjunctive is not a tense. It is a mood.<br />The mood reflects how the speaker <br />feels about the action.<br />
  58. 58. Present Subjunctive Irregs<br />Dar<br />Dé, des, dé, demos, den<br />Estar<br />Esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén<br />Haber<br />Haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan<br />Ser<br />Sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean<br />Ir<br />Vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan<br />Saber<br />Sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepan<br />
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Conjuctions of Time for the Subjunctive<br />To form: Take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. <br />The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future.<br />Ex:<br />Asi que- as soon as<br />Cuando- when<br />Despues de que- after<br />En cuanto- as soon as<br />Hasta que- until<br />Luego que- as soon as<br />Tan pronto como- as soon as<br />
  62. 62. DemonstrativeAdjectives<br />Adjectivesthat are meanttopointsomethingout.<br />In english: that, this, those, these<br />Singular DemostrativeAdjectives (masculine)<br />Este (this)<br />Ese (that)<br />Aquel (thatoverthere)<br />Singular DemostrativeAdjectives (feminine)<br />Esta (this)<br />Esa (that)<br />Aguella (thatoverthere)<br />
  63. 63. DemonstrativeAdjectives (cont)<br />Plural DemonstrativeAdjectives (M)<br />Estos (these)<br />Esos (those)<br />Aquellos (thoseoverthere)<br />Plural DemonstrativeAdjectives (F)<br />Estas (these)<br />Esas (those)<br />Aquellas (thoseoverthere)<br />
  64. 64. Demostrative Pronouns<br />Wordsthatreplacenouns in a sentence.<br />Examples in english: This, that, those, these<br />Singular DemonstrativePronouns (M)<br />éste (this)<br />ése  (that)<br />aquél  (that over there)<br />Plural Demonstrative Pronouns (M)<br />éstos (these)<br />ésos (those)<br />aquéllos (those over there)<br />
  65. 65. DemostrativePronouns (cont)<br />Singular DemostrativePronouns (F)<br />ésta (this)<br />ésa (that)<br />aquélla  (that over there)<br />Plural Demonstrative Pronouns (F)<br />éstas (these)<br />ésas (those)<br />aquéllas (those over there)<br />Gender Neutral Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Esto<br />Eso<br />Aquello<br />

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