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Beliefs about teaching well formed by the time a student begins college (Pajares (1992)
“ preservice teachers enter teacher preparation programs with well established filters for what constitutes effective teaching based on an “apprenticeship of observation” (Lortie, 1975, cited by Walls et al, 2002).
“ ..teaching must be understood in terms of its complex contributions to new, as-yet-unimaginable collective possibilities.” (Davis & Sumara, 2007)
Muijs et al. (2005) argue for a differentiated model of teacher effectiveness.
The New Teacher Education: For Better or Worse? Marilyn Cochrane-Smith AERA Presidential Address 2005, Educational Researcher, 34, 7, pp3-17 New Teacher Education constructed as: Public policy problem, based on research and driven by outcomes. “ new teacher education needs also to be informed by inquiry and scholarship that are not empirical” “ we need to make learning—not outcomes narrowly defined as tests—the bottom line of teaching and teacher education When teacher education is learning-driven, there is a focus on ensuring that all schoolchildren—including those in poor schools—have rich opportunities to learn, not just opportunities to be held accountable to the same high stakes.”
Three critical components of teacher education programmes :
Tight coherence and integration among courses and between course work and clinical work in schools;
Extensive and intensely supervised clinical work integrated with course work using pedagogies that link theory and practice and;
Proactive relationships with schools that serve diverse learners effectively and develop and model good teaching. (p300)
The “What of Teacher Education
Knowledge of learners and how they learn and develop within social contexts, including knowledge of language development
Understanding of curriculum content and goals, including the subject matter and skills to be taught in light of disciplinary demands, student needs, and the social purposes of education
Understanding of and skills for teaching, including content pedagogical knowledge and knowledge for teaching diverse learners, as these are informed by an understanding of assessment and of how to construct and manage a productive classroom. (p303)
(Darling –Hammond, 2006)
TTA: Teaching 2020 What sort of teachers will be needed then, and so what kind of teacher education and training? Whatever happens in 2020 schools and teachers will be very different. The teachers we are training now, and those currently teaching and engaging in CPD, need to be prepared to be flexible, to manage change, and more than that, to be agents of change.
International comparisons show effects of – motivating staff, focusing on T&L, enhancing the physical environment, changing the culture of the school. However, while many similar strategies used, the different context meant similar actions did not always produce similar results .
Improvements must fit the grain of society; indiscriminate borrowing from other cultures may not achieve the desired results; there is no ‘quick fix’ for school improvement; change has to be carried out by the school itself.
Scottish Teachers for a New Era Scottish Executive Education Department Hunter Foundation University of Aberdeen Opportunity for Change Research Informed Development Developing teachers : increasing pupil gains
Former College of Education. Northern College was the last of Scotland's monotechnic colleges to be merged with an institution of higher education on December 1, 2001, but remained on a separate campus.
Move to the main University Campus in the summer of 2005.
No culture of research.
Contract for STNE awarded at the beginning of 2005.
Implementation of a new (STNE) B.Ed course in October 2005.
Student teachers gain enhanced subject knowledge through academic study and learning in Arts and Sciences Faculties/Departments.
Teaching as a clinical profession
To develop a model of teaching as a clinical practice which is integrated into an extended induction programme.
Teaching as an evidence-based profession
Evidence is generated and used routinely within teacher education
Teachers (inc. beginning teachers) using and generating evidence of pedagogy to inform practice.
What is STNE ?
Working in partnership to : Build a seamless continuum of teacher development from pre-service through induction to continuous professional development.
STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed1 Field Experience Originally 2xhalf days per week, over 7 weeks (semester 2). Working in pairs (peers). Now one full day per week. Focus contexts for learning, the learner and learning. Community, school environment. 20 Elective Course Choice 2 Various 20 Elective Course Choice 1 Various 20 Introductory Psychology B PS1507 20 Introductory Psychology A PS 1007 20 Learning How Others Learn (* Includes 7 serial days placement in school and community ) ED1528 20 Learning How to Learn ED1028 Credits Course Title Course Code Credits Course Title Course Code Second Half-session: January - June First Half-session: September - January PROGRAMME YEAR 1 – 120 credit points
STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed2 Field Experience 1 full day per week over 7 weeks (semester 1). Focus on “learning experiences”. 1 full day per week over 9 weeks. Focus on particular curricular areas. 30 Either i). Advanced Psychology B or Year 2 Continuation of Year 1 Elective Course Choice 2 PS2509 Various 30 Either i). Advanced Psychology A or Year 2 Continuation of Year 1 Elective Course Choice 1 PS2009 Various 30 Learning and Teaching In and Through the Curriculum (* Includes 9 serial days placement in school and community ) ED 2503 30 From Learning to Teaching (* Includes 7 serial days placement in school and community ) ED 2044 Credits Course Title Course Code Credits Course Title Course Code Second Half-session: Second Half-session: January - June First Half-session: September - January PROGRAMME YEAR 2 – 120 credit points
STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed.3 60 Learning and Teaching: The Emerging Professional 1 ED 3005 60 Learning and Teaching: School and Community 1 (* Includes 2 x 1 week enquiry + 4 week block in Nursery context and P1-3 context + 20 further days placement in school and community in a variety of patterns) ED 3004 Credits Course Title Course Code PROGRAMME YEAR 3 – 120 credit points Whole year courses September - June
STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed.4 60 Learning and Teaching: The Emerging Professional 2 ED 4016 60 Learning and Teaching: School and Community 2 (*Includes 1 x 4 week block and 1 x 10 week block in P4-7 contexts within one school and community) ED 4017 Credits Course Title Course Code PROGRAMME YEAR 4 – 120 credit points Whole year courses September - June (NB – These courses are being developed in partnership with Local Authority Personnel during session 2007-2008)
Focus on original B.Ed1 (2005-06) cohort and the programme through B.Ed2, B.Ed3 and B.Ed4.
Entry questionnaire B.Ed1.
Exit questionnaire of B.Ed4 (2005-06)
Longitudinal Study of 20 students.
New Field experience (ASG study).
Examination of the process of change.
Phase 1 Data: 2005-2007 Year 1: Mapping Exercise; B.Ed1 Questionnaire 1; B.Ed1 questionnaire 2; ASG Data; B.Ed1 tutor interviews; B.Ed4 Focus group (sem.1) and questionnaire (sem.2); Survey : 2005 Graduate Experiences of Induction Year; Video Interactive Guidance (VIG); Literature reviews. Year 2: B.Ed2 tutor interviews; B.Ed2 questionnaire; Teacher questionnaire; B.Ed2 focus groups; B.Ed2 observations; B.Ed2 questionnaire; B.Ed2 interviews; Teacher questionnaire; Video Interactive Guidance (VIG); Literature reviews Summary reports for each of these elements have now been produced and will shortly be available on the website. Fuller reports are complete for some and in preparation for others.
comparison of data across all the ITE programmes in the School of Education,
involvement and engagement with teachers in practice and
supporting and taking forward projects with specific focuses involving staff within the School of Education in collaboration with staff in other Colleges and Departments.
STNE Phase 2: 2007-2009 While there is a continuation from phase 1 with the longitudinal case studies, phase two of the STNE research is deepening and broadening through : This model is represented in the following diagram which shows the three main components of phase 2.