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Outline of Phase 1 of STNE and research at the Teacher Education Teacher Work seminar in Glasgow 2008.

Outline of Phase 1 of STNE and research at the Teacher Education Teacher Work seminar in Glasgow 2008.

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  • The education research community needs to make it clearer to the public and to policymakers that there are significant complexities in what happens to policies on their way, as Susan Fuhrman (2001) puts it, from “capitols to classrooms.” These complexities depend on the cultures and contexts of schools, the resources available, and the neighborhoods, communities, and larger environments where schools are located. To get the most out of the new teacher education, we need a broader notion of science that includes but is not limited to the investigation of causal questions, and a broader notion of evidence that includes but is not limited to clinical trials. The new teacher education needs also to be informed by inquiry and scholarship that are not empirical. Margaret Eisenhart (2005) recently coined the phrase “science plus” to refer to science that incorporates experimental research and qualitative research in combination with historical, theoretical, critical, and ethical scholarship. My argument here is that we need to make learning—not outcomes narrowly defined as tests—the bottom line of teaching and teacher education When teacher education is learning-driven, there is a focus on ensuring that all schoolchildren—including those in poor schools—have rich opportunities to learn, not just opportunities to be held accountable to the same high stakes.

Transcript

  • 1. Teacher Education, Teacher Work
    • 12 February 2008
    • University of Glasgow
    • Presentation by Donald Gray
  • 2. Scottish Teachers for a New Era Dr Donald Gray School of Education, University of Aberdeen
  • 3. Structure of presentation…
    • In the beginning……
    • Consideration of meanings and the development of a rationale.
    • The changing environment – context of the study.
    • What is STNE?
    • Structure of the B.Ed course.
    • Phase 1 – some reflections.
    • STNE phase two… addressing the issues.
    • Moving forward….
  • 4. The Invitation
    • DEVELOPING TEACHERS, INCREASING PUPIL GAINS
    • A NEW PILOT PROGRAMME TO FURTHER DEVELOP TEACHING AS A
    • VALUED AND RECOGNISED PROFESSION IN SCOTLAND
  • 5. Sanders and Rivers
    • Cumulative teacher effects in mathematics from grades 3 to 5.
    • Teachers influence on the rate of academic growth.
    • “the single most dominant factor affecting student academic gain is teacher effect”
    Teacher effectiveness construed only in terms of academic test results. Study was reductionist, purely quantitative and focused entirely on numerical causal links.
  • 6. Our children tested to destruction English primary school pupils subjected to more tests than in any other country The Independent. Friday 8 th February 2008
  • 7. Characteristics of Effective Teachers?
    • Beliefs about teaching well formed by the time a student begins college (Pajares (1992)
    • “ preservice teachers enter teacher preparation programs with well established filters for what constitutes effective teaching based on an “apprenticeship of observation” (Lortie, 1975, cited by Walls et al, 2002).
    • “ ..teaching must be understood in terms of its complex contributions to new, as-yet-unimaginable collective possibilities.” (Davis & Sumara, 2007)
    • Muijs et al. (2005) argue for a differentiated model of teacher effectiveness.
  • 8. The New Teacher Education: For Better or Worse? Marilyn Cochrane-Smith AERA Presidential Address 2005, Educational Researcher, 34, 7, pp3-17 New Teacher Education constructed as: Public policy problem, based on research and driven by outcomes. “ new teacher education needs also to be informed by inquiry and scholarship that are not empirical” “ we need to make learning—not outcomes narrowly defined as tests—the bottom line of teaching and teacher education When teacher education is learning-driven, there is a focus on ensuring that all schoolchildren—including those in poor schools—have rich opportunities to learn, not just opportunities to be held accountable to the same high stakes.”
  • 9. Constructing 21 st Century Teacher Education
    • Three critical components of teacher education programmes :
    • Tight coherence and integration among courses and between course work and clinical work in schools;
    • Extensive and intensely supervised clinical work integrated with course work using pedagogies that link theory and practice and;
    • Proactive relationships with schools that serve diverse learners effectively and develop and model good teaching. (p300)
    • The “What of Teacher Education
    • Knowledge of learners and how they learn and develop within social contexts, including knowledge of language development
    • Understanding of curriculum content and goals, including the subject matter and skills to be taught in light of disciplinary demands, student needs, and the social purposes of education
    • Understanding of and skills for teaching, including content pedagogical knowledge and knowledge for teaching diverse learners, as these are informed by an understanding of assessment and of how to construct and manage a productive classroom. (p303)
    • (Darling –Hammond, 2006)
  • 10. TTA: Teaching 2020 What sort of teachers will be needed then, and so what kind of teacher education and training? Whatever happens in 2020 schools and teachers will be very different. The teachers we are training now, and those currently teaching and engaging in CPD, need to be prepared to be flexible, to manage change, and more than that, to be agents of change.
  • 11. Globalisation (Mortimore, 2001)
    • International comparisons show effects of – motivating staff, focusing on T&L, enhancing the physical environment, changing the culture of the school. However, while many similar strategies used, the different context meant similar actions did not always produce similar results .
    • Improvements must fit the grain of society; indiscriminate borrowing from other cultures may not achieve the desired results; there is no ‘quick fix’ for school improvement; change has to be carried out by the school itself.
  • 12. Scottish Teachers for a New Era Scottish Executive Education Department Hunter Foundation University of Aberdeen Opportunity for Change Research Informed Development Developing teachers : increasing pupil gains
  • 13. Change vs Transformation
    • Context:
    • Former College of Education. Northern College was the last of Scotland's monotechnic colleges to be merged with an institution of higher education on December 1, 2001, but remained on a separate campus.
    • Move to the main University Campus in the summer of 2005.
    • No culture of research.
    • Contract for STNE awarded at the beginning of 2005.
    • Implementation of a new (STNE) B.Ed course in October 2005.
    • Research ‘team’ appointed in October 2005.
  • 14. What is STNE ?
    • Design Principles
    • Decisions driven by evidence
    • Engagement with Arts & Sciences
    • Teaching as an academically taught clinical practice
    • Key Aims
    • To develop a :
    • Teacher for a New Era
    • New Learning Environment
    • New Framework for Continuous Learning
    • New Professional Culture
  • 15. What is STNE ?
    • Transforming initial teacher education , through
    • Developing ITE Programmes, particularly although not exclusively, the BEd(P) Programme
    • Research
    • Enhanced Partnerships
    • Developing and contributing to quality professional learning opportunities for teachers who are mentoring, coaching and assessing student and beginning teachers
  • 16.
    • Pupil learning gains and achievements
    • Student teacher knowledge and performance
    • Beginning teacher knowledge and performance
    • Programme review and development
    What is STNE ? Research: a multi-disciplinary team of researchers and practitioners are developing evidence gathering activities related to:
  • 17.
    • The engagement of Arts and Sciences
    • Student teachers gain enhanced subject knowledge through academic study and learning in Arts and Sciences Faculties/Departments.
    • Teaching as a clinical profession
    • To develop a model of teaching as a clinical practice which is integrated into an extended induction programme.
    • Teaching as an evidence-based profession
    • Evidence is generated and used routinely within teacher education
    • Teachers (inc. beginning teachers) using and generating evidence of pedagogy to inform practice.
    What is STNE ?
  • 18. Working in partnership to : Build a seamless continuum of teacher development from pre-service through induction to continuous professional development.
  • 19. STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed1 Field Experience Originally 2xhalf days per week, over 7 weeks (semester 2). Working in pairs (peers). Now one full day per week. Focus contexts for learning, the learner and learning. Community, school environment. 20 Elective Course Choice 2 Various 20 Elective Course Choice 1 Various 20 Introductory Psychology B PS1507 20 Introductory Psychology A PS 1007 20 Learning How Others Learn (* Includes 7 serial days placement in school and community ) ED1528 20 Learning How to Learn ED1028 Credits Course Title Course Code Credits Course Title Course Code Second Half-session: January - June First Half-session: September - January PROGRAMME YEAR 1 – 120 credit points
  • 20. STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed2 Field Experience 1 full day per week over 7 weeks (semester 1). Focus on “learning experiences”. 1 full day per week over 9 weeks. Focus on particular curricular areas. 30 Either i). Advanced Psychology B or Year 2 Continuation of Year 1 Elective Course Choice 2 PS2509 Various 30 Either i). Advanced Psychology A or Year 2 Continuation of Year 1 Elective Course Choice 1 PS2009 Various 30 Learning and Teaching In and Through the Curriculum (* Includes 9 serial days placement in school and community ) ED 2503 30 From Learning to Teaching (* Includes 7 serial days placement in school and community ) ED 2044 Credits Course Title Course Code Credits Course Title Course Code Second Half-session: Second Half-session: January - June First Half-session: September - January PROGRAMME YEAR 2 – 120 credit points
  • 21. STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed.3 60 Learning and Teaching: The Emerging Professional 1 ED 3005 60 Learning and Teaching: School and Community 1 (* Includes 2 x 1 week enquiry + 4 week block in Nursery context and P1-3 context + 20 further days placement in school and community in a variety of patterns) ED 3004 Credits Course Title Course Code PROGRAMME YEAR 3 – 120 credit points Whole year courses September - June
  • 22. STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007 B.Ed.4 60 Learning and Teaching: The Emerging Professional 2 ED 4016 60 Learning and Teaching: School and Community 2 (*Includes 1 x 4 week block and 1 x 10 week block in P4-7 contexts within one school and community) ED 4017 Credits Course Title Course Code PROGRAMME YEAR 4 – 120 credit points Whole year courses September - June (NB – These courses are being developed in partnership with Local Authority Personnel during session 2007-2008)
  • 23. Phase 1 Research
    • Focus on original B.Ed1 (2005-06) cohort and the programme through B.Ed2, B.Ed3 and B.Ed4.
    • Entry questionnaire B.Ed1.
    • Exit questionnaire of B.Ed4 (2005-06)
    • Longitudinal Study of 20 students.
    • New Field experience (ASG study).
    • Examination of the process of change.
  • 24. Phase 1 Data: 2005-2007 Year 1: Mapping Exercise; B.Ed1 Questionnaire 1; B.Ed1 questionnaire 2; ASG Data; B.Ed1 tutor interviews; B.Ed4 Focus group (sem.1) and questionnaire (sem.2); Survey : 2005 Graduate Experiences of Induction Year; Video Interactive Guidance (VIG); Literature reviews. Year 2: B.Ed2 tutor interviews; B.Ed2 questionnaire; Teacher questionnaire; B.Ed2 focus groups; B.Ed2 observations; B.Ed2 questionnaire; B.Ed2 interviews; Teacher questionnaire; Video Interactive Guidance (VIG); Literature reviews Summary reports for each of these elements have now been produced and will shortly be available on the website. Fuller reports are complete for some and in preparation for others.
  • 25. B.Ed1 B.Ed2 B.Ed3 Shifting Sands? Evidence Evidence
  • 26. STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007. Issues
    • Peer working of students accepted very positively.
    • Field experience model – mixed views but principles and potential viewed very favourably.
    • Implementing new paradigms in traditional contexts.
      • Concerns with shift from teaching as “practice” to teaching as reflection on learning.
      • Need for strategies to develop shared vision and focus.
    • Need for greater engagement and reflective professional development for tutors, and additional elements for CPD for teachers.
      • Need for transformative as well as informative PD.
    • Organisation and communication among all stakeholders.
    • Compartmentalised working, links to communication and sharing of vision and focus. Fragmentation.
    • Lack of cohesive teams.
  • 27.
    • Assessment and effective feedback for students.
      • Need for development of effective modelling of assessment on the courses.
    • No clear strategy for assessing impact of initiatives on pupil learning.
    • Greater need for clarity with respect to the role that other courses play in the B.Ed programme, and exploration of other roles that arts and sciences may have.
    STNE Phase 1: 2005-2007. Issues
  • 28.
    • Greater sharing and discussion of data.
    • More in-depth analysis and critical review of existing data to provide foundations for further research within the School of Education.
    • Creation of space for dialogue and sharing of ideas and information needs to develop.
    • Greater emphasis on creating a shared vision, and understanding of personal values and beliefs.
    • Needs effective linkage with schools through action research initiatives and school placement and internal (to the school) and external comparative measures of impact on pupil learning.
    Identified Needs
  • 29.
    • comparison of data across all the ITE programmes in the School of Education,
    • involvement and engagement with teachers in practice and
    • supporting and taking forward projects with specific focuses involving staff within the School of Education in collaboration with staff in other Colleges and Departments.
    STNE Phase 2: 2007-2009 While there is a continuation from phase 1 with the longitudinal case studies, phase two of the STNE research is deepening and broadening through : This model is represented in the following diagram which shows the three main components of phase 2.
  • 30.  
  • 31. STNE Phase 2: 2007-2009
    • Continuation of focus with B.Ed course and the process of change.
    • Continuation of longitudinal study of B.Ed sample.
    • Observations of students on first block placements.
    • Building on Graduate surveys of Induction year to inform support and partnership developments of future beginning teachers (e.g. Beginning Teacher Support Network)
    • Extension of entry and exit surveys to cover all programmes (PGDE primary and secondary, B.Ed and B.MusEd and MA.Ed). To be analysed using advanced modelling techniques.
    • Collaboration and partnership through Teacher Action Research – linked to pupil gains & B.Ed student research.
    • Linking to LTS & ACfE trialling in the six partner authorities.
      • Secondees from each authority to work with SoE/STNE and T A-R.
    • Support and development of research capacity building and other ‘learning projects’ within the School of Education.
  • 32. A-R SCHOLARSHIPS
    • Research seminars
    • University mentors
    • Links with APS (Masters route)
    • Focus on classroom practice
    • Focus on pupil (learner) gains
    • 2007 : Funded 15 teachers
  • 33. School based A-R projects B.Ed3 A-R classes CT, A-R teachers as tutors/participants in workshops B.Ed4 A-R project B.Ed4 B.Ed3 Teacher/B.Ed4 students A-R conference Training/support for A-R teachers Baseline pupil measures Baseline pupil measures Endpoint pupil measures Endpoint pupil measures Baseline pupil measures Control? Induction Year Action Research and Pupil Gains
  • 34. STNE A-R SCHOLARSHIPS 2007
    • Examples (P&S) :
    • The impact of using drama in media studies in a CfE.
    • New approaches to introducing P1 children to ICT.
    • Video-based approaches to problem solving (maths recovery).
    • Writing through role-play structured activities.
    • Personal Learning Planning
    • Enterprise in mathematics
  • 35. PUPIL GAINS ?
    • Debate about what is meant by pupil gains. What kind of gains? E.g. Parsons et al .
    • Link to Curriculum for Excellence four capacities.
    • Collaboration with LTS in six partner authorities trialling schools.
    • Links with Teacher Action Research
  • 36. Learning Projects
    • E.g.
    • ATLAC: Arts as a Tool for Learning Across the Curriculum. In collaboration with Aberdeen City Council with Arts Council Funding.
    • Communities for Learning group. Actor Network Theory: a Theoretical Framework for Examining the School Experience
    • Student Impact on Schools group.
    • Literature Review Group -
  • 37. Needs:
    • Effective database management to keep track of all projects.
      • Now under development
    • Template for information gathering on all projects at regular intervals e.g every six months.
      • In development
    • Agreed structure for final reports to enable efficient meta-analysis.
      • Preliminary structure undergoing refinement.
    • Effective communication strategy.
      • Central repository and Project Co-ordinator. Multi-level website under development.
      • Evidence seminars and open research meetings.
    • Needs driven training and support e.g. research and writing workshops
    • Plan for publication and dissemination.
      • Writing up of Phase 1 underway for different audiences. Continued
  • 38. Phase 1: Some Outcomes
    • A model to look at the course’s tutorial coherence, theoretical framework and teaching philosophy.
    • A model to reflect on teaching, what it means and how it changes.
    • A model to empower teachers and schools.