Copernican Turn The Media/Brand set the terms of engagement User Viewer Customer Media/Brand Viewer Customer User
Copernican Turn New engagement methods are needed User, Viewer, Customer Brand App Property Media Site Service
The Challenge Great games are hard enough: Only 4% of games that go into production are profitable Add a “real world” activity and you multiply the difficulty of success Often not enough just to have the “form of a game”
Designing for Sustained Engagement III. Embrace the Domain; know the Audience Corollary: Build the right team
Two Types of Motivation Extrinsic Motivation – Behavior that is motivated by contingencies (rewards, punishments) that are separate from the enjoyment of the activity itself Intrinsic Motivation – The activity itself is its own reward because it is inherently satisfying. In particular, humans have specific intrinsic needs that motivate.
3 Drivers of Intrinsic Motivation Scott Rigby - ImmersyveC COMPETENCE A AUTONOMY R RELATEDNESS• Feeling “good at” • Freedom and agency • You matter to others ,they • Exercising volition matter to you• Expanding capability • Meaningful connections• Learning • Choosing • Competitive, cooperative,• Mastery • Many opportunities for • Even removed: characters in action a book or movie, developers of an app.
Competence, Autonomy & Relatedness: most reliable predictors of engagement (PENS) Methodology: Personal Experience of Needs SatisfactionApproach uses statistical regression analysis to predict long-term engagement • Multiple longitudinal studies with 20,000+ subjects PENS predicts • Underlying psychological causality sustained engagement... vs. solely outcome metrics (e.g., “clicks” or “fun”) “Fun” does not. Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness Predictive power with p values <.01
PENS design: Autonomy Mechanics of Choice and Opportunity Open Environment - Playground Progression choices (focus, tree-structure) Sense of purpose/volition
PENS design: Relatedness You matter to others, they matter to you Competitive cooperative Reciprocity awesome; synchronicity, meh Player to Player; P2NPCs; P2Dev; P2Brand Clear effort applied on my behalf=Relatedness “…Brave, brave Sir Hey! It’s the Robin…” Hero of Kvatch! I can’t believe it! Wow!”
Pitfalls of Behavioral AB testing Why we take action is as important as that we take action
Discomfort ≠ Sustained Engagement Kill the puppy Spam my friends
Effectively balancing user experiences across the motivation continuum can further reinforce sustained engagement Motivation Continuum REGULATORY STYLES Extrinsic Intrinsic Amotivation Motivation Motivation External Introjection Identification Integration Regulation ASSOCIATED PROCESSES:• Perceived non- • Salience of • Ego • Conscious valuing • Hierarchical • Interest and contingency extrinsic rewards • Involvement of activity synthesis of enjoyment• Low perceived or punishments • Focus on approval • Self-endorsement goals • Inherent competence • Compliance / from self and of goals • Congruence satisfaction• Non-relevance reactance others• Non-intentionality PERCEIVED LOCUS OF CAUSALITY: Impersonal External Somewhat Somewhat Internal Internal External Internal
Autonomy supportive environments are consistently associated with persistence over sustained periods of time Case Examples: Coaching and Wall Street Analysis of intrinsic-need-Persistence as a satisfaction model of workfunction of coaching performance and adjustment:climate and motivation Even on Wall Street Intrinsic .44 Motivation Manager’s WorkAutonomy .48 Autonomy PerformanceSupport .54 .43 Supportiveness Evaluation .57 Identified .24 .28 Regulation Work-Related -.41 Autonomy .25 .35 Competence Relatedness .57 -.38 Introjected Persistence Persistence .14 Regulation 10 mo. 22 mo. Autonomy Orientation .21 Well-Being (Individual Differences) and Mental Health -.28 .34 External (N=495; Baard, Deci & Ryan, 2004) RegulationControl -.67 -78 -.87 .28 Amotivation
How goal messages are framed – intrinsic vs. extrinsic – makes a significant difference in desired outcome Case Example: Healthy Behavior Change Impact Interaction effect of Goal Framing (Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic) by Social Context (Autonomy Support vs. Control) in the Prediction of Maintained Fruit Eating After Controlling For Baseline Levels in Fruit Eating• Controlling versus autonomy supportive language 20 Autonomy-• Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal focus / framing 18 support 16 - Intrinsic Goal Frame: 14 Fruit Eating 12 “Adolescents who eat well, are more likely 10 to be fit and remain healthy at later age.” 8 6 - Extrinsic Goal Frame: Internal 4 control “Adolescents who do eat well are more 2 likely to be physically appealing and look 0 younger at later age.” Extrinsic goal Intrinsic goal
Designing for Sustained Engagement IV. Motivational Psychology Intrinsic needs satisfaction
Summary for sustainability I. Establish “Game” as the user framework (voluntary) II. Design for Eustress & flow; segment the experience III. Game designer must embrace the domain IV. Focus on satisfying Intrinsic needs
LaughterDiscovery Thrill Fantasy Story Triumph Credit: Jesse Schell: The Pleasure RevolutionExpression Challenge Sensation
You CAN make your experiencesbetter Ask yourself these simple questions: Given what I know about my guests… Why will they like this experience? How can I get them to like it more? Credit: Jesse Schell: The Pleasure Revolution
ROI- Broad Definition Driving any metric the business or client is willing to assign (or can calculate) a specific monetary value Challenges in calculating value: Image Labeler (Google) The Fun Theory (VW) ($250-$500K) Bobber examples (401K provider, C.C. comp) Goal is to understand and move critical business metric(s) Specific value calculation not in the scope of this workshop
Value of Traffic Page Views: how many people visited pages with ads, and saw ads on them. Page CTR: Clicks ÷ Page Views (%). How good & well placed your ads CPC/CPA: Avg. amount of money you are earning (or paying) per click/action. Page RPM : the average amount of money you are earning per 1000 Page Views $1.00 not bad. 1% conversion (10 clicks)*$0.10/click
CPC- Cost & Revenue CPC : As cost: when trying to acquire users Reducing CPC increases ROI Increasing conversion (after click) increases ROI CPC As revenue: Avg. amount of money you are earning per click. Increasing CPC increases ROI So does increasing clicks- duh Rates depend on what advertisers are paying. Factors include: ○ Topic of your site ○ Demand Sometimes goes up wildly, but only rarely.
Gamification is working:Bunchball, BigDoor, Badgeville 150mm users Views 2x Time 2x Virality 30% $ +50-250%
Some simple calculations High variance in Conversion metrics Impact of relevance (site content & offers) is huge Page Views & Time on site while not identical track together (and have similar impact). 2X either (but only count one) ≈ 50%-100% increase in conversion (don’t get full credit) Virality “full credit” or better. Peer recommendations much more effective “Viral” users group together 30% virality ≈ 30%+ incremental revenue 30% virality = 43% more users for same cost
Implementations & Case Studies Anybody? LeaderBoarded Bunchball Big Door Badgeville LeaderBoarded Bobber
Small Group Gamification Exercise Gamify our TV & Web property “Agri-court” a reality based show where residents of a rural farming community get their disputes resolved by a colorful mediator Objectives Drive viewership Generate virality / sharing on social media Deliverable: Group lead will present one to three ideas for implementation Challenge: Curveballs Ahead!
Small Group Gamification Exercise Curveball #1 “’Great News!’ We got a huge sponsor” New Objective: Drive increased pomegranate juice consumption & sales by the viewers of the show
Small Group Gamification Exercise Curveball #2 “Great News!” “We’re getting a new “expert” to lead the team!”
Thank You! /scottcdodson First Name at bobberinteractive.com @Gamebiz
Credits Scott Rigby- CEO Immersyve, author, Glued to Games (with Richard Ryan) Jane McGonigal- Creative Director, Social Chocolate, author, Reality Is Broken, Ph.D. Berkeley Sebastian Deterding-PhD at the Research Center for Media and Communication at Hamburg University Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Claremont Graduate University, former head of psychology at the University of Chicago Amy Jo Kim- designer of social gaming systems, PHD University of Washington Wanda Meloni, M2 Research: http://slidesha.re/gg49nb Dr. Byron Reeves of the Department of Communication at Stanford & J. Leighton Read, Executive Chairman, Seriosity, Inc., authors of Total Engagement David Edery Principal, Fuzbi co-author with Ethan Mollick of Changing the Game: How Video Games Are Transforming the Future of Business Gabe Zichermann and Joselin Linder authors of Game Based Marketing http://gamebasedmarketing.com/ Chair of Gamification.co James Currier of Ooga Labs who also credits Clay Shirky and Bret Terrill Jesse Schell, Professor of Entertainment Technology CMU, CEO Schell Games. Jesse’s talk from DICE: http://tiny.cc/TebRw The pleasure revolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PkUgCiHuH8 Keith Smith, & Carrie Peters of BigDoor. Rajat Paharia & Mike Earhart of Bunchball Scott Schnaars & MattHart of Badgeville Eric Eastman, John Bito, Nathan Affolter, Jason Griffith, Jimmer Sivertsen, Julie Hill & Mike Kerr of Bobber My sincere apologies to anyone on this list or otherwise who feels they were not properly credited. Kindly point out my error and I will edit accordingly.