Grade 8 atoms
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Grade 8 atoms

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  • particles can’t stay in crystal patternEndothermic – needing heat, absorbing heat - endergonicExothermic – releasing heat
  • particles can’t stay in crystal patternEndothermic – needing heat, absorbing heat - endergonicExothermic – releasing heat
  • particles can’t stay in crystal patternEndothermic – needing heat, absorbing heat - endergonicExothermic – releasing heat
  • Understanding atoms is key to understanding the physical world. More than 100 different elements exist in nature, each with its own unique atomic makeup. The atoms of these elements react with one another and combine in different ways to form a virtually unlimited number of chemical compounds.
  • Understanding atoms is key to understanding the physical world. More than 100 different elements exist in nature, each with its own unique atomic makeup. The atoms of these elements react with one another and combine in different ways to form a virtually unlimited number of chemical compounds.
  • Understanding atoms is key to understanding the physical world. More than 100 different elements exist in nature, each with its own unique atomic makeup. The atoms of these elements react with one another and combine in different ways to form a virtually unlimited number of chemical compounds.

Grade 8 atoms Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ATOMS Inside Out
  • 2. Atom The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.
  • 3. BEC
  • 4. Changes in State
  • 5. Changes in State
  • 6. Changes in State
  • 7. Large Hadron Collider
  • 8. Atom • • • • • An atom has three parts: Proton = positive Neutron = no charge Electron = negative The proton & neutron are found in the center of the atom, a place called the nucleus. • The electrons orbit the nucleus.
  • 9. Atomic number Atomic mass • Is the number • The total of protons in number of the nucleus of protons and the atom of an neutrons in the element nucleus
  • 10. Atomic Weight and Isotopes • Isotopes • Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons, but vary in number of neutrons • Atomic weight • Close to mass number of most abundant isotope • Atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation
  • 11. How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in the following atoms? Atomic number Atomic Protons Electrons Neutrons mass Beryllium 4 9 4 4 (Be) Neon (Ne) 10 20 10 10 10 11 23 11 11 12 Sodium (Na) 5
  • 12. Terms • Isotopes = atoms of a given element that differ in mass number – Isotopes have the same number of _____________. – Isotopes differ in the number of _______.
  • 13. Isotopes • All atoms of an element have the SAME number of protons (p+) • The p+ number is the atomic number (Z) – This is a constant – For example: All Sodium (Na) atoms have 11 p+ – If an atom loses a proton, it becomes a different element • If Na loses 1 p+, then it has become Neon (Ne)
  • 14. Z = atomic number = p+ • The number of protons identifies the atom and which element it is • In a stable atom: – # p+ = # n0 = # e– Thus, Na in its stable form has 11 p+; 11 n0; and 11 e– If it has an unequal number of p+ and n0, then it is called an ISOTOPE
  • 15. • Theoretically – an element can have as many isotopes of itself as it has neutrons, or it can add an unlimited number of n0 • For example: H has 3; C has 16; Al has 25 – These can be looked up in the CRC (the Chemistry/Physics Data Bible) or on the internet – Remember – a change in the number of n0 does not change the element’s atom – only a change in the number of protons can do that!
  • 16. The Carbon Isotope
  • 17. Ions • Ions are when an atom has an unequal number of p+ and e• Remember – a stable atom has a neutral overall charge due its equal number of p+ and e• When an atom loses or gains an e-, its charge changes accordingly – Loss of e- means a + charge; gaining an e- means a – charge for the atom
  • 18. Losing or Gaining e- . . . . . • If an atom loses an e-, then it has more p+ than e- and it will have an overall positive charge • Different elements’ atoms can lose 1, 2, 3, or even 4 electrons depending on various factors • If an atom has LOST e-, then it is called a CATION or a positive ion – A Cation would be written as Al+ (the one being understood) or Al+3
  • 19. • Atoms can also gain electrons • If an atom gains electrons (from 1 up to 4), then it will have more e- than p+ and will end up having an overall negative charge • A negatively charged ion is called an ANION – The element is shown this like: Na- (the 1 is understood) or Na-2 • The losing or gaining of electrons determines what type of bonds the atoms will form, and which atoms will bond to others
  • 20. Ions • Na atom _____ protons _____ electrons • Na+ ion _____ protons _____ electrons Name of ion: sodium ion
  • 21. Ions • Calcium atom _____ protons _____ electrons • Ca 2+ ion _____ protons _____ electrons Name of ion: calcium ion
  • 22. Ions • Sulfur atom _____ protons _____ electrons • S2- ion _____ protons _____ electrons Name of ion: sulfide ion
  • 23. Ion Charge and the Periodic Table Group # Ion Charge # e- lost/gained IA 1+ 1 e- lost II A 2+ 2 e- lost III A metals 3+ 3 e- lost V A nonmetals 3- 3 e- gained VI A nonmetals 2- 2 e- gained VII A 1- 1 e- gained
  • 24. Naming Ions • Name of a monatomic cation is the name of the element – Examples: • Ca 2+ • Al 3+ • K+ calcium ion aluminum ion
  • 25. Naming Ions • Monatomic anions are named by changing end of the name of the element to “ide” Example: S2- sulfide ion
  • 26. Naming Ions • You need to know: N3nitride ion P3phosphide ion O2- oxide ion S2sulfide ion F- fluoride ion Cl - chloride ion Brbromide ion Iiodide ion