Gr 8 science and research
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Gr 8 science and research

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  • Have you considered how you know what you know?As you sit in classes or talk with friends, have you noticed that people differ in the way they know things?
  • As we begin our review of research, we need to understand the characteristics of scientific knowing, and how this kind of knowing differs from other ways we learn about our world.Then we'll analyze the scientific method, which is based on inductive reasoning.
  • Six students discussing their soap preference.Each of these students reflect a different basis for knowing which translation to use.Which student most closely reflects your view? How did you come to know what youknow?
  • Unless we move to another region, or go to school and study the views of others, we have nothing to challenge our way of thinking. It's just common sense! But common sense told us that “the earth is flat” until Columbus discovered otherwise. Common sense told us that “dunce caps and caning are effective student motivators” until educational research discovered the negative aspects of punishment. Common sense may well be wrong.
  • Unless we move to another region, or go to school and study the views of others, we have nothing to challenge our way of thinking. It's just common sense!But common sense told us that “the earth is flat” until Columbus discovered otherwise. Common sense told us that “dunce caps and caning are effective student motivators” until educational research discovered the negative aspects of punishment. Common sense may well be wrong.
  • When we are sick, we go to the doctor to find out what to do. When we need legal help, we go to a lawyer and follow his advice.
  • How do we test the validity of an authority’s testimony?
  • A properly trained mind intuits the truth.
  • Let’s say I know that Line segment A is the same length as line segment B. I also know that Line segment B is the same length as line segment C. From these two truths, I immediately recognize that Line segments A and C are equal. Or, in short hand,I do not need to draw the three lines and measure them. My mind immediately grasps the truth of the statement
  • You've probably heard comments like these: “We've already tried that and it failed.”
  • Determine “world view” first. Then make daily decisions which logically derive from this perspective.
  • Determine “world view” first. Then make daily decisions which logically derive from this perspective.
  • MatchesThe truths derived in this way are temporary and open to adjustment when new elements are discovered. Knowledge gained in this way is usually related to probabilities of happenings. We have a high degree of confidence that combining “X” and “Y” will produce effect “Z.” Or, we learn that “B” and “C” are seldom found in combination with “D.”
  • MatchesThe truths derived in this way are temporary and open to adjustment when new elements are discovered. Knowledge gained in this way is usually related to probabilities of happenings. We have a high degree of confidence that combining “X” and “Y” will produce effect “Z.” Or, we learn that “B” and “C” are seldom found in combination with “D.”
  • Science seeks knowledge about processes in our world.This is the nature of inductive logic, and inductive logic is the basis of scientific knowledge.
  • Science seeks knowledge about processes in our world.This is the nature of inductive logic, and inductive logic is the basis of scientific knowledge.
  • The result is temporary, open-ended truth. This kind of truth is open for inquiry, further testing, and probable modification.
  • Science seeks knowledge about processes in our world.This is the nature of inductive logic, and inductive logic is the basis of scientific knowledge.

Gr 8 science and research Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Body of knowledge that describes and explains behavior of the universe.
  • 2. methods that are employed in order to generate and organize this knowledge
  • 3.  We will first look at five non- scientific ways of knowing: common sense, authority, intuition/revelation, experience, and deductive reasoning.
  • 4. Student 1: "I use the soap “Safeguard” because that's the soap I grew up using. Everybody back home uses it.“
  • 5.  Common sense refers to knowledge we take for granted.  We learn by absorbing the customs and traditions that surround us—from family, church, community and nation.
  • 6. Student 2: "I use Palmolive soap because my Mom says it offers the best germ protection and moisture.”
  • 7.  uncritical acceptance of another’s knowledge.  Since we can not verify the knowledge on our own, we must simply choose to accept or reject the expert's advice.
  • 8.  But is the authority is correct?  Authoritative knowing does not question the source of knowledge. Yet differing authorities cannot be correct simultaneously.
  • 9. Student 3: "I've prayed about what soap to use. I like Nivea because it just feels right.“
  • 10. Intuitive knowledge refers to truths which the mind grasps immediately, without need for proof or testing or experimentation.
  • 11. A C B ?
  • 12. IF A=B and B=C, THEN, A=C
  • 13. Student 4: " I've tried five or six different soaps. After evaluating each one, I've come back again and again to Safeguard. It's the best for me."
  • 14.  Experiential knowledge comes from “trial and error learning.”  We develop it when we try something and analyze the consequences.
  • 15. Student 5: I use Dove because most of my friends are familiar with it. In a recent survey, I found that 80% of my friends use Dove.
  • 16. Deductive reasoning moves thinking from stated general principles to specific elements.
  • 17. We develop general over- arching statements of intent and purpose. Then we figure out specific actions we should take.
  • 18. Common Sense Authority Experience Intuition Deductive Reasoning
  • 19. What type of “knowing” is employed in Science / Research?
  • 20. Inductive reasoning moves thinking from specific elements to general principles.
  • 21. Research is inductive in its study of a number of specifics and its use of these results to formulate a conclusion.
  • 22. Researchers gather information through observation.
  • 23. They then mold this information into theories.
  • 24. The scientific community tests these theories under differing conditions to establish the degree to which they can be generalized.
  • 25. The result is temporary and open-ended. It is open for inquiry, further testing, and probable modification.
  • 26. The transport of knowledge from book to write-up. The generation of new knowledge. The compilation of knowledge from several books into write up.
  • 27. What is Research?
  • 28.  Systematic, objective and comprehensive investigation of certain phenomenon which involves accurate gathering, recording, and critical analyzing and interpreting of all facts about the phenomenon.
  • 29. This means that the other types of obtaining knowledge have no place in the research process.
  • 30. Still remember the types of research?
  • 31. According to goal According to the levels of investigation According to type of info sought
  • 32. Basic / Pure Applied / Practical
  • 33. Basic / Pure  conducted for the sake of knowing  done for the development of theories or principles
  • 34.  Extraction of an anti-cancer protein/enzyme from saliva  Proving the use of virgin coconut oil for radioprotection  Designing a coastal electrical generator that harnesses wave energy
  • 35. Applied / Practical ◦done to obtain knowledge for useful ends ◦application of results of pure research
  • 36.  The use of an all-organic nutrient solution for hydroponics  The use of mango peelings as source of bioethanol  The use of blue green algae for bioremediation of nitrate in deep well water
  • 37. Descriptive Experimental Technical
  • 38. Descriptive ◦Collects data from one or more groups, and then analyzes it in order to describe present conditions.
  • 39.  A taxonomic study on two species of Nostoc  A study of the population distribution of Rafflesia speciosa on Panay Island  A study of the membrane dynamics in renal brushborder membranes
  • 40. Experimental ◦ carefully controlled procedures to manipulate one (independent) variable, such as and measure its effect on other (dependent) variables.
  • 41.  The use of titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based solution as an algal growth inhibitor  The use of crushed mussel shells to improve the quality of biodegradable plastics
  • 42. Technical  results in the development of a technique or procedure  uses established theoretical concepts or technologies as a basis for coming up with the methodology
  • 43.  Development of a backward trajectory-based software to assess air quality  Development of a method for synthesizing cellulose acetate from coconut husk
  • 44. Quantitative Qualitative
  • 45. Quantitative  makes use of quantitative methods to describe, analyze and interpret phenomena and their relationships  employs of statistical analysis to describe the results of the study
  • 46. Qualitative  presents data in the form of words, rather than numbers  uses systematic procedures to explain non-quantifiable relationships between variables
  • 47.  Corrects perceptions  Gathers information on subjects we lack or have little knowledge of  Develops and evaluates concepts, practices, and theories
  • 48.  Obtains knowledge for practical purposes  Provides hard facts which serve as bases for planning and decision-making