Inductive ReasoningResearch is inductivein its study of a numberof specifics and its useof these results toformulate a conclusion.
Researchers gatherinformation throughobservation.
They then mold thisinformation intotheories.
The scientific community teststhese theories under differingconditions to establish the degreeto which they can be generalized.
The result istemporary and open-ended.It is open for inquiry,further testing, andprobable modification.
RESEARCHThe transport ofknowledge frombook to write-up. The generationof newknowledge.The compilationof knowledgefrom severalbooks into writeup.
What is Research?
ResearchSystematic, objective andcomprehensive investigation ofcertain phenomenon whichinvolves accurate gathering,recording, and critical analyzingand interpreting of all facts aboutthe phenomenon.
This means that theother types ofobtaining knowledgehave no place in theresearch process.
Still rememberthe types ofresearch?
Types of ResearchAccording to goalAccording to the levels ofinvestigationAccording to type of infosought
Types according to goalBasic / PureApplied / Practical
Types according to goalBasic / Pure conducted for the sake of knowing done for the development oftheories or principles
Examples: Extraction of an anti-cancerprotein/enzyme from saliva Proving the use of virgin coconut oilfor radioprotection Designing a coastal electricalgenerator that harnesses waveenergy
Types according to goalApplied / Practical done to obtain knowledge for usefulends application of results of pureresearch
Examples The use of an all-organic nutrientsolution for hydroponics The use of mango peelings as sourceof bioethanol The use of blue green algae forbioremediation of nitrate in deep wellwater
Types according to levels of investigationDescriptiveExperimentalTechnical
Types according to levels of investigationDescriptive Collects data from one or moregroups, and then analyzes it in orderto describe present conditions.
Examples: A taxonomic study on two species ofNostoc A study of the population distributionof Rafflesia speciosa on Panay Island A study of the membrane dynamics inrenal brushborder membranes
Types according to levels of investigationExperimental carefully controlled procedures tomanipulate one (independent) variable,such as and measure its effect on other(dependent) variables.
Examples:The use of titanium dioxidenanoparticle-based solutionas an algal growth inhibitorThe use of crushed musselshells to improve the qualityof biodegradable plastics
Types according to levels of investigationTechnical results in the development of a technique orprocedure uses established theoretical concepts ortechnologies as a basis for coming up with themethodology
Examples:Development of abackward trajectory-basedsoftware to assess airqualityDevelopment of a methodfor synthesizing celluloseacetate from coconut husk
Types according to informationsoughtQuantitativeQualitative
Types according to infosoughtQuantitative makes use of quantitative methods todescribe, analyze and interpretphenomena and their relationships employs of statistical analysis todescribe the results of the study
Types according to infosoughtQualitative presents data in the form of words,rather than numbers uses systematic procedures toexplain non-quantifiablerelationships between variables
Functions of Research Corrects perceptions Gathers information onsubjects we lack or have littleknowledge of Develops and evaluatesconcepts, practices, andtheories
Functions of Research Obtains knowledge for practicalpurposes Provides hard facts which serveas bases for planning anddecision-making
Exercise!1. Development of a Sound-Emitting Devicefor Detecting Structural Defects inBuildings2. Formulation of a Cheap and EffectiveCockroach Repellent usingPandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Leaves3. Quantitative Analysis of Organism GrowthUsing Fractal Dimension Statistics4. Development of a Remote Cellphone-Signaling Alert System
Exercise!5. Makahiya (Mimosa pudica) Leavesas an effective Pain Reliever6. Evolution Education across the LifeSciences: Making Biology EducationMake Sense7. Using Popular Media, Inquiry-basedLaboratories, and a Community ofScientific Practice to MotivateStudents to Learn Molecular Biology