Biomolecules   proteins and n. acids ss copy
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Biomolecules proteins and n. acids ss copy

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Biomolecules   proteins and n. acids ss copy Biomolecules proteins and n. acids ss copy Presentation Transcript

  • Proteins
  • Proteins They perform many functions within living organisms.
  • Proteins Made up of amino acid monomers joined by a peptide bond View slide
  • Amino Acid Side Group Amino Group Carboxyl Group View slide
  • aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds Polypeptide Chain
  • Polypeptide Chain (Primary Structure)
  • Sheet and Helix (Secondary Structure)
  • Tertiary Structure
  • Quaternary Structure
  • Proteins Functions copy DNA form structures catalyze reactions respond to stimuli transport molecules
  • Proteins Proteins help in copying DNA
  • Proteins Proteins make up structures of organisms. Keratin
  • Proteins Proteins make up structures of organisms. Collagen
  • Proteins Proteins make up structures of organisms. Actin & Myosin
  • Proteins Proteins speed up chemical reactions.
  • Proteins Proteins speed up chemical reactions.
  • Proteins Proteins participate in cell signaling. Antibody
  • Proteins Proteins serve as transport channels.
  • 24
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic Acids They store and transmit hereditary information and they help in making proteins.
  • Nucleic Acids They are made up of nucleotide monomers.
  • Nucleotide
  • Nucleic Acids DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Ribonucleic acid
  • Nucleotide FIVE TYPES RIBOSEDEOXYRIBOSE
  • Nucleotide ADENINEGUANINETHYMINECYTOSINEURACIL RIBOSE OR DEOXYRIBOSE
  • A G T U C PURINES PYRIMIDINES
  • DNA
  • DNA It is a double- stranded nucleic acid that composes chromosomes and carries genetic information.
  • DNA Heritable Replicable Transcribable Mutable
  • DNA Heritable Replicable Transcribable Mutable
  • DNA (a nucleic acid) is located in the nucleus. Nucleus Chromosome DNA
  • DNA can also be found in the chloroplasts and mitochondria.
  • DNA DNA contains 4 bases  A, T, G, & C
  • Erwin Chargaff’s Base Pair Rules • Adenine always bonds with thymine. A = T • Guanine always bonds with Cytosine. G  C A CG T
  • Chargaff discovered that DNA contains the same amount of adenine as thymine and the same amount of cytosine as guanine. A A A A A A A T T T T T T T C C C G G G
  • C G A A T G Nucleotide P S N-b Pairing DNA Nucleotides Rule A to C to T G What is the base pairing rule?What would be the complementary nucleotide pairing?
  • 3’End 3’End 5’End 5’End DNADOUBLEHELIX ladder shaped molecule
  • DNA DNA codes for proteins (structural, enzymes, and hormones)
  • RNA
  • RNA • Single strand of nucleotides instead of double stranded • Has uracil instead of thymine • Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
  • A B C RNA Nucleotides • A - Sugar (ribose) • B - Phosphate • C - Nitrogen base sugar phosphate nitrogen base Name the parts of the nucleotide.
  • Rules for Base Pairing • Cytosine pairs with Guanine • Adenine pairs with Uracil Notice that RNA has Uracil (not thymine) A = U C = G
  • Rules for Base Pairing • C = G • A = U 3’ DNA strand 5’ DNA strandRNA strand C A T G G U C A
  • RNA • Carries DNA’s message code • Helps make protein
  • Phosphate Group Nitrogen Base Sugar (ribose) RNA
  • Overall process of protein synthesis transcription translation DNA RNA Protein
  • copyright cmassengale 69 Transcription Translation
  • • What does the chain of amino acids represent? Threonine Arginine Glycine Glycine Proline Asparagine Proline Alanine Polypeptide Chain – A Protein
  • Codons • One codon codes for one amino acid. • A sequence of amino acids is a protein. EX: ACG = amino acid (threonine) CGC = amino acid (arginine) GGA = amino acid (glycine) ACG GGA GGC CCA AAC CCG GCCCGC Threonine Arginine Glycine Glycine Proline Asparagine Proline Alanine Amino Acid protein
  • Pathway to Making a Protein DNA mRNA tRNA (ribosomes) Protein copyright cmassengale 73