Innovations in Transportation In this presentation I will address the following questions:What are the major types of transportation?What are the major types of fuel, what are thealternatives?How much fuel are we using?What are the negatives?What are some innovated ideas to improveenergy efficiency in transportation?
Importance of TransportationTransportation is such an important component to our modernlifestyle; relating to manufacturing, food supply, and leisure.
Types of FuelsGasoline - Ethanol (alternative fuel)Diesel - Biodiesel (alternative fuel)Jet FuelElectricityHydrogenNatural Gas
About Oil Crude oil was formed over millions of years from the remains of plants and animals covered by layers of sand and silt. The process was helped along by the heat and pressure in the layers. Crude oil is pumped from the ground and then sent to a refinery where it is separated into gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, etc.** Fuel created from oil is Not Renewable, when it is used up it is gone. **
How Much Fuel are We Using?The Oil Used in United States Each Day is Around 20 Million BarrelsIf the barrels were lined up edge to edge, this could extend from Minnesota toFlorida.
Oil Consumption in the World is Around 1000 Barrels a Second
For Every 1000 People Number of Car Owners World Average is 111 US 760 Car Owners China 10 Car OwnersOne reason oilconsumption will goup. India 12 Car Owners Emerging countries such as China and India with large populations but low percentage of car ownership will add significantly to oil demand as they purchase automobiles at an increasing rate.
Negative Aspects of Fuels - PollutionThe exhaust from a gasoline engine contains nitrogenoxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbondioxide. If run in a contained area the exhaust is lethal.
Pollution from DieselDiesel exhaust contains some of the same pollutants as gasolinebut adds particulate matter and other pollutants.
Pollution in the Refining ProcessOil refineries give off a variety of pollutants and use a huge amount ofwater. Many petroleum refineries use hydrofluoric acid in their processing,which poses a great public safety risk both because of its extreme toxicityand its propensity to form a toxic aerosol cloud when released.
Drilling for oil offshore presents additional risks forpollution.
Negative - ScarcityOften oil must be transported long distances because not enough isfound where it is needed. This requires more fuel for the transportation,adding to pollution and cost.
Major Types of Transportation ConsideredAutomobile Truck Plane Rail Ship
Automobiles Automobiles are the most common method of transportation for moving people from place to place. Most commonly powered by an internal combustion engine using gasoline for fuel. In European countries diesel engine automobiles are popular.Smaller cars are normally more fuel efficient. Automobiles have used gasoline engines for over a hundred years. Gasoline is increasingly expensive and it is polluting. Modern cars that are well tuned are much less polluting than the cars of just 20 years ago. Gas mileage improved some after oil crisis of 1970’s but has not improved significantly since.Large luxury cars from years ago could get less than 10 mpg.
Ethanol The major alternative fuel to power gasoline engines has been ethanol. Ethanol is commonly created from corn or sugar cane in warmer climates. There has been much controversy if the net energy is much greater than the energy required to create ethanol and many people do not like the idea of using what could be food for fuel. Ethanol is less polluting than gasoline but requires modification to the engine to run 100% ethanol. More commonly it is mixed 85% to 15% gasoline to create E85 or most gasoline contains 10% ethanol.E85 fuel is often sold for less, reason most often given is because ofsubsidies
Electric Powered Automobiles Powering automobiles with electricity is not a new technology, some of the first automobiles were electric but the gasoline engine quickly won out as the preferred power source. Recently there has been new technology and increased concerns for the environment that have made powering a vehicle by electricity a more popular option.Nissan Leaf has been advertised as the firstaffordable 100% electric car available for Advances in electric motors,mass-market. electronics, and batteries are making a multi-use vehicle more practical. The electric hybrid vehicle has been a very popular option to pure electric powered vehicles.
ZAP all-electric truck. “ZAP stands for Zero Air Pollution” Company headquarters is in Santa Rosa CaliforniaAlthough no direct pollution from electrical vehicles, if electricityfor charging vehicle is produced by fossil fuels, there will bepollution at the power plant.
Neighborhood electric vehicles have lower speed limit than othercars which restricts their use to short in-town driving and nohighway driving.
In the past, electric vehicleshave been more forexperimenters. Using lead acidbatteries resulted in limitedrange and heavy weight.
Electric Hybrid AutomobileHybrid vehicles combine fuel powered engines and electric motors poweredby batteries to increase fuel efficiency. Batteries are recharged by generatorpowered by the engine or from energy recovered from braking.
Toyota Prius has been the most popular hybrid car, worldwidecumulative sales reached over 2 million cars in September 2010.
Plug-in Electric Hybrid Automobile This Toyota Prius was converted to be a plug-in hybrid vehicle. Electricity for charging this car can come from garbage incinerator.
Compressed Natural Gas Photo’s courtesy of www.hondamotorwerks.com 2007 Honda Civic GX that runs on compressed natural gas.Internal combustion engines can bemade to run on compressed naturalgas. Natural gas is more plentiful in theUS and gives off about 25% lessemissions than gasoline.
Hydrogen Fuel Hybrid car developed by Toyota.Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TOYOTA_FCHV_01.jpgWikimedia Commons author (GNU Free Documentation License)(Public Domain)
About Hydrogen• Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe.• Hydrogen is an energy carrier and must be separated from othersubstances.• Hydrogen can be separated from water, biomass, or natural gas.Hydrogen can be burned in an internal combustion engine but it is morecommonly converted to electricity in a “fuel cell”. The fuel cell is efficient andthere is no pollution but it takes energy to create the hydrogen or there issome pollution if it is created from fossil fuel such as natural gas.
Model Fuel Cell Car Kit – solar cell produces electricity for electrolysisto split water into hydrogen and oxygen which combine in fuel creatingelectricity again which powers electric motor.
TrucksLarge trucks deliver nearly 70% of all goods in the United States,typical fuel mileage is around 5 mpg so even small increases inefficiency reduces consumption a significant amount. Diesel fuelused in large trucks is more expensive than gasoline.
About Diesel EnginesDiesel engines ignite the fuel withoutthe spark plugs used in gasolineengines by compressing the air incylinders further which causes it toheat up before injecting fuel mixture.Diesel engines are built heavier towithstand the greater forces buttypically are more fuel-efficient. Interms of thermal efficiency dieselengine are normally at least 30%efficient and can be as high as 50%efficient compared to 25% efficiencyin gasoline engines.Applications for diesel engines arenormally larger trucks, farmmachinery, trains, ships, and some Small diesel engine that can run on wasteautomobiles. vegetable oil.
Biodiesel Alternative to Diesel• Most commonly made from soybeans.• Can be made from recycled cooking oil.• Highest energy content of any alternative fuel.• Can run in diesel engine with few modifications.• Less polluting than petroleum diesel.Disadvantages:• Tends to clean dirt out of engine which can lead to clogs in system.• More expensive than petroleum diesel.
“When a large truck is travelling at 55 mph, roughly half of thetruck’s horsepower is needed to overcome aerodynamic drag.”Without the fairing over the cab there is more wind resistancefrom the hitting the front of the trailer.
Fairing over this truck cab reduces the drag hitting the front of the trailer.There is still a significant gapbetween the cab and the trailer, “airtabs” on the cab might improve theflow further.
Underneath the trailer and the rear of the trailer aresignificant areas of drag also. Sideskirts on the bottom ofthe trailer and air tabs on the rear of the trailer may reducesome of the drag.
Rolling Resistance“Rolling resistance” in trucks is a major portion ofthe drag the truck must overcome until the speedreaches almost 50 mph, then the drag of pushingthrough air is greater. The rubber tire deformation isa major factor in trucks and not in trains with steelwheels. Physics students learn about rollingresistance when building mousetrap powered cars.
Hydraulic HybridFor trucks that start and stop often such a delivery or garbage trucks,hydraulic hybrid technology can save significant fuel by compressinga gas pushed by hydraulic fluid pumped during braking .
This “hydraulic hybrid” car was designed and constructed by Eden PrairieHigh School students and entered in a super mileage competition,average mileage was 150 m.p.g.
Jets and AirplanesThe newest jet engines are twice as efficient as jet engines built in the1960’s. Fuel costs have risen faster and are a major expense for an airline.
On average, a passenger jet burns about 910 lbs. of fuel, or 136gallons, during its takeoff and climb. It will burn a similar amountduring its descent and landing. As much as 50% of carbon emissionsfrom planes come from the combination of the takeoff and landing.
Different fuel blends are needed to operate jet aircraft in colderweather.
Small planes use internal combustion engines using a high-octane gasoline called av-gas.
Biofuel or Synthetic Fuel for Jet AircraftCreating fuel for jet engines is a challenge because of the coldtemperatures encountered at high altitudes and safety concerns.Experimental jet fuels have been tested however. Experimental Jet Fuels: • Blending 20% babassu nuts, coconut and 80% conventional jet fuel. • Blending synthetic fuel derived from algae with existing jet fuel • Blending natural gas derived synthetic fuel with existing jet fuel.
ShipsThere are 70,000 ships engaged in international trade carrying 90% ofthe world’s goods.Modern cargo ships can carry up to 11,000 metal shipping containers.Over 1600 gallons of heavy oil fuel are burned in an enormous engine thatdevelops over 100,000 horsepower that is 50 percent efficient.
Modern Ships are Much Faster Than Ships of the PastReplica of one of the three ships Christopher Columbus used tocross the Atlantic Ocean which took over 2 months. Modern cargoships can cross the Atlantic in as little as 7 days.
Barges Move Freight on RiversBarges are said to be more efficient than rail for moving large amountsof freight on rivers, some people will dispute this.
Air travel has mostly replaced ships for passenger travel except forcruise ships.
How Do You Make a Ship More Efficient• Reduce the drag on the hull of the ship including anything thatprotrudes from the hull.• Improve the efficiency of the propulsion of the ship which includesthe engines and propellers.• Harness the wind to move the ship.
Electric Pod Drive That SwivelsElectric motor in pod that swivels toturn ship does not have the drag ofrudder behind the propeller and canbe controlled more efficiently. Forsome situations can improveefficiency up to 15%.
Modern Use of Wind PowerA large kite launched from a ship cancut fuel consumption up to 35% in somesituations. More information tobe found on company website:http://www.skysails.info/ (c) SkySails GmbH & Co. KG
Progress in Rail TransportationThere has been muchprogress in improving theefficiency of an alwaysefficient means of travel,trains. From the days ofcoal powered steam trainsto the modern dieselelectric trains, the basicdesign is the same. Thesmall area in front and thelow rolling resistance ofsteel wheels on steel rail isvery efficient in moving alarge load.
Steel wheels running on steel rail have very low “rolling resistance” comparedto rubber tires on pavement.
Fuel efficiency of railroads has increased 72 percent from 1980. Before1980 one gallon of fuel moved a ton of freight an average of 235 milesbut by 2001 this had increased to 406 miles. Further savings have beenrealized since 2001.
General Electric Hybrid Locomotive picture courtesy of General ElectricThere are now electric hybrid locomotives too which can provide up to 15%saving on fuel and emissions. The energy produced by braking a 207 tonlocomotive in one year is enough to power 160 households for a year. A fullcharge of the batteries can power the train for up to 100 miles.
Special Thanks to: Michael Walsh and Ken Andrade for Nissan Leaf ImagesCheck Out the ScienceGuy Website: http://www.scienceguy.org