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All about Passive agglutination

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  • 1. PASSIVE AGGLUTINATIONGROUP-K
  • 2. • What is passive agglutination?• What are various types of passive agglutination tests?AREAS OF INTERESTS…
  • 3. LET’S GET STARTED…What is agglutination?Particulate antigen + itsspecific antibodyElectrolytes at an optimaltemperature and pHVisible clumping of particles
  • 4. LET’S GET STARTED…What is precipitationreaction?Soluble antigen + its specificantibodyElectrolytes at an optimaltemperature and pHInsoluble precipitate
  • 5. LET’S GET STARTED…And what is PassiveAgglutination??Precipitation reactionAgglutination testsBy attaching soluble antigens tothe surface of carrier particlessuch as latex particles, bentonite,RBCs, etc.
  • 6. ADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE AGGLUTINATIONAdvantage of Passive agglutination overprecipitation tests are:• More convenient• More sensitive for detection ofantibodies• More sensitive for detection of antigens(Reverse passive)
  • 7. REVERSE IS POSSIBLE…When instead of antigen, the antibody isadsorbed on the carrier particles forestimation of antigens, it is known asReverse passive agglutination
  • 8. LATEX(0.8-1µ)ANTIBODYLATEX LATEXLATEX LATEXANTIGEN (in patient serum)LATTICEFORMATIONREVERSE PASSIVE AGGLUTINATION…
  • 9. Simplifying the course of study...PassiveagglutinationCoagglutinationtestLatexagglutination testHemagglutinationtestOn basis of carrierparticle used
  • 10. COAGGLUTINATION TESTStaphylococcus aureus (Cowan 1 strain) used
  • 11. COAGGLUTINATION TESTS.Aureus(Cowan 1)FcFabFabANTIBODY (IgG)ANTIGEN (in patient sreum)PROTEIN AY
  • 12. COAGGLUTINATION TESTS.Aureus(Cowan 1)ANTIBODY (IgG)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)ANTIGEN (in patient sreum)LATTICEFORMATIONS.Aureus(Cowan 1)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)PROTEIN AHow it works?
  • 13. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST...The carrier particle is Latex or polystyrene latexBrains behind this: C M Plotz and J M SingerAccidently discovered IgG adsorbed naturallyto polystyrene latex particles (1953)
  • 14. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST...How it works?LATEX(0.8-1µ)Antigen LATEXLATEXLATEXLATEXLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODYANTIGEN
  • 15. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST- USES• Carrier + Antibody- detection of antigens-CRP,RA factor, HCG, Hepatitis B• Carrier + Antigen- antibodies to meningococci,H.influenzae type b
  • 16.  Large number of antigens can adsorbed on carrier Better visualization of Ag-Ab reaction due to largerparticle size of Latex beads preventing previouscumbersome process involved in precipitationreactions (no sophisticated equipments required) Latex particles do not cross-react with otherantibodies Less time consumingLATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST- ADVANTAGES
  • 17. HEMAGGLUTINATION TESTThe carrier particle is Red Blood Cell/Tannedblood cell (Goose RBCs preferred)Brain behind this: George Hirst (1942)
  • 18. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST...How it works?RBCAntigen RBCLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODYANTIGENRBCRBC RBC
  • 19. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST- Examplifiedby Rose Waaler Test (Carrier-RBC )RBCAmboceptor(subagglutinating dose)RBCLATTICEFORMATIONRA FACTOR (in patient serum)AMBOCEPTOR (Rabbit anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody)RBCRBC RBC
  • 20. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST- Examplified byTPHA (Carrier-Tanned RBC )TannedRBCAntigen(T.pallidum extract)TannedRBCLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODIES against T.pallidum(in patient serum)ANTIGEN (T.pallidum extract)TannedRBCTannedRBCTannedRBC
  • 21. VIRAL HEMAGGLUTINATION ANDHEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION TESTWhat isViral Hemagglutination?RBCVirus RBCLATTICEFORMATIONVIRUSRBCRBC RBC
  • 22. VIRAL HEMAGGLUTINATION ANDHEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION TESTWhat is Hemagglutinationinhibition ?VirusNO LATTICEFORMATIONVIRUSRBCAb againstVIRUSRBCRBC
  • 23. AGGLUTINATION TESTS IN OUR LAB IN ABIRD’S EYE VIEWASO titreRA factor detectionCRPKIT- SyphicheckInfectious mononucleosis (Immutex)
  • 24. LET’S END BY LOOKING AT RECENT ADVANCES• Determination of anti-streptolysin O antibody titer by anew passive agglutination method using sensitizedtoraysphere particles.
  • 25. THANKYOU References from:Anantnarayan andPaniker’s Textbook ofmicrobiologyC.P. Baweja’s Textbookof MicrobiologySubhash ChandraParija’s Textbook ofmicrobiology andImmunologyAmerican Society formicrobiolgy-Journal of ClinicalMicrobiology