Enabling technologies forindustrial scale in vitro meat production Vladimir Mironov MD, PhD Visiting Professor Technical University of Vienna
Cell and Engineering Developmental Biology Biofabrication Biomaterials Mironov et. al., 2009. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.Third Biomedical Revolution (MIT) or New Biology (NAS)
FIVE GLOBAL PROBLEMS: According National Academy of Sscience report on New Biology• Climate & Environment: livestock contribute about 9 % of total carbon dioxide emissions, 37 % of methane and 65 % of nitrous oxide. Livestock waste contributes 68 % of total emissions of ammonia. In terms of CO2 equivalents the gaseous emissions from livestock production amounts to about 18 % of the global warming effects.• Energy: 17% of the total energy use in the United States goes into food production & distribution• Water: 1 000 tonnes of water are consumed to produce one tonne of grain. Half of global grain production will be at risk because of limited water by 2050 (according to International Food Policy Research Institute)• Food: global demand for meat will be doubled in 2050(according to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)• Health & Diseases: mad cow diseases, chicken flu…
HUMANS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:The constantly evolving capacities to secure food supply is one of main competitive advantages of humans as one of evolutionally most advanced species on Earth
WHY ALASKA AND CALIFORNIA ARE NOT RUSSIAN?Russian Empire lesson for NASA: future planetary settlements will be not sustainable without sufficient level of local food production
KILLING ANIMALS IS BARBARIC:• Corrida is finally prohibited• Shark fin soup is illegal• European Union prohibited to use animals for testing cosmetic products
PROBLEMS OF CLASSIC AGRICULTURE• Need a lot of land• Negative effect on climate and environment (global warming, deforestation)• 30% of crops used to feed animals• Not safe: mad cow diseases, chicken flu• Killing animals• Need a lot of water• Agricultural subsidies• Genetically modified plants and animals• Botanics or plant science based• Not suitable for space exploration• Low food safety in case of war
The idea ofin vitro meatproduction wasintroduced in 1932 Winston Churchill (UK) claimed in 1932,"Fifty years hence we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium.”
1. Scaffold-based cultured meat production: 1. Myoblasts in petri dish; 2. Porous collagenmicrospheres; 3. Myoblasts form myotubes on collagen microspheres; 4. Bioreactor; 5.Microwave; 6. Hamburger Tissue Eng. 2005 May-Jun;11(5-6):659-62. Commentary: In vitro-cultured meat production. Edelman PD, McFarland DC, Mironov VA, Matheny JG.
Haagsman et. al., 2009. Production of animalproteins by cell systems. Utrecht Desk Studyon Cultured Meat. pp. 1 – 58.An example of such a concept is to makeedible products from skeletal muscle cells,cultured from stem cells, outside the animalIn a bioreactor. Although this technology isstill at a very early stage, and requires manyfundamental problems and questions to besolved the technique holds great promise asa solution to reduce livestock’s impact onthe environment. A schematic overview ofhow this technology could look like can beseen in the figure left.
Nicola Jones, 2010. Nature, Vol. 468 pp. 452-453
Langelaan et. al., 2010. Meet the new meat: tissueengineered skeletal muscle. Trends in Food Science &Technology. (21) pp. 59-66Fig. 4. Recipe for in vitro meat using adult stem cells.The essential cues indicate the challenges that have tobe met in the distinctive processes.
November/December 2010. Science Illustrated. p. 60 [Part 1]
Jeffery Bartholet. June 2011. Scientific American. pp. 68-69
Five Key Technical ChallengesI. Establishing self-renewing conditions for tissues progenitors or stem cell lines.I. Formulation and economical production of inexpensive, serum- free culture media.III. Engineering an edible scaffold.III. Determination of the optimal differentiation and mechanical conditioning regimens for skeletal muscle tissue maturation.III. Bioreactor systems design and operation for commercial scale production of subunits. Regulatory Guidelines Public Perception
“There are no US laws written specifically toaddress in vitro meat cultivation. FDA and FSISwould regulate the food under the general provisionsof the statutes the agencies enforce.For many reasons a firm would be well advised toseek and have a consultative meeting with FDAbefore putting anything into commerce. GettingFDA’s acquiescence could be essential for marketingand to avoid potential regulatory problems. The firmshould be prepared to supply the same type ofinformation that FDA requests for biotech andnanotech products.”Neal J. Fortin, JDDirector and Assistant ProfessorInstitute for Food Laws and RegulationMichigan State University
Three FAQ:1. When it will be on the market?- Very soon2. How much it will cost?- Very expensive3. How it will taste?- Taste will be designed
LATEST NEWS…"In a hilarious and aptly timed demonstration, Gabor Forgacs from Organovo got on stage next to talk about printing meat with his tissue printers.He had talked previously about using them to regenerate tissue for human health, but it is equally possible to take muscle cells and print them for human consumption.He brought up a little frying pan, opened up a vial, and pulled out a strip of“printed” pork that he made using his technology, heated it, andate it right in front of us. (during lecture at TEDMED, October 2011)The whole spectacle was hilarious and the audience was loving every moment.He’s not sure what to call his new type of meat but is leaning toward “lab meat” or“in vitro meat.”Lunch was up next and thankfully they didn’t have Gabor plan the menu."http://medgadget.com/2011/10/tedmed-day-3-mushroom-loving-insects-and-fda-blues.html 1st September 2011 Telegraph.co.uk First artificial burger to cost £250,000 Artificial meat created in a lab could be ready to eat within six months, scientists claim – but the first burger will cost more than £200,00
Are these products “natural”?Or they are just artificialbiotechnological products?1. Bread2. Wine3. Beer4. Yogurt5. Cheese6. Tofu7. Hydroponic tomatoes8. Artificial sweeteners (Sugar substitutes)
The Next Agricultural Revolution:ction Methods for Meat Alternatives http://www.aaas.org/meetings/2012/pr New Harvest is sponsoring a symposium on meat alternatives to be held at the 2012 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Sunday, February 19 in Vancouver, British Columbia. An internationally renowned panel of experts will discuss issues ranging from the impacts of animal agriculture as well as compensatory policy reforms, plant-based meat analogs and cultured meat as sustainable alternatives to conventional meat.
”In vitro meat is an inescapable future of humanity” Vladimir Mironov “A fundamental rule in technology saysthat whatever can be done will be done. Andrew Grove Not all problems have a technological answer, but when they do, that is the more lasting solution. Andrew Grove