Differentiation Presentation


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This presentation is used in our online Florida Reading Competency 4 course.

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Differentiation Presentation

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction What do I need to Know to Differentiate Instruction in My Classroom?
  2. 2. The Basics • Instruction is differentiated based on three major areas: – Content – Process – Product • Each of these methods of differentiations provide a different approach for students to gain knowledge
  3. 3. Differentiation by Content ―Content is the input of teaching and learning…What we teach or what we want students to learn‖ - Tomlinson, page 72
  4. 4. How to Differentiate Content? • Modify instruction based on Student Need • Teach only the Critical Concepts for the students need to learn • Utilize Curriculum Compacting • Vary Resources and Materials • Implement Learning Contracts • Minilessons • Use a Variety of Support Systems
  5. 5. Based on Student Need • Content can be differentiated based on the needs of individual students in the class • We can change how we provide access to the content • We can also match our content to student needs • There are three levels of Differentiation based on student need: – Readiness - matching the material or information students are asked to learn to a student’s capacity to read and understand it – Interest - including the curriculum ideas and materials that build on current student interests or extend student interests – Learning Profile - ensuring that students has a way of coming at materials and ideas that match his preferred way of learning
  6. 6. By focusing instruction on the critical concepts needed, it will help students better understand an area of study by emphasizing key concepts and principles.
  7. 7. Concept Based Teaching • Concepts are building blocks for meaning – Provide the critical concepts students need in order to be successful – Help student learn how to determine and predict patterns and use those patterns to think about various forms of life helps them • (1) understand rather than memorize, • (2) retain ideas and facts longer because they are more meaningful, • (3) make connections between subjects and facets of a single subject, • (4) relate ideas to their own lives, and • (5) build networks of meaning for effectively dealing with future knowledge
  8. 8. Curriculum Compacting Joe Renzulli University of Connecticut
  9. 9. Curriculum Compacting • This process should be implemented in Three Stages • Stage 1 – – Assesses what students know and don’t know about a particular topic or chapter – Initial assessment occurs – Teachers notes skills and understandings each student has mastered – Exempts students from whole- class instruction and activities in content areas they have already mastered • Stage 2 – – Teacher notes skills and understandings covered in the study in which the student did not demonstrate mastery • Stage 3 – – Teacher and student design investigation or study for the student to engage in while others are working the general lessons – Agree on projects parameters, goals, time lines, procedures for completing the tasks, criteria for evaluation, other necessary elements
  10. 10. • Keeping records when using compacting has three benefits: – Teachers demonstrate accountability for student learning – Parents understand why it is advantageous for their children to work with an alternate task – Students develop awareness of their specific learning profiles Curriculum Compacting
  11. 11. Differentiated by Process ―Process means sense-making or the opportunity for learners to process the content or ideas and skills to which they have been introduced‖ - Tomlinson, page 72
  12. 12. Student Need You can differentiate process based student need. Anytime we think of differentiation – we must first consider what our students need… According to Tomlinson, ―An effective activity is essentially a sense-making process, designed to help a student progress from a current point of understanding to a more complex level of understanding.‖
  13. 13. Student Need Differentiate Process based on: Readiness By matching the complexity of a task to a student’s current level of understanding and skill Interest By giving student choices about facets of a topic in which to specialize or helping them link a personal interest to a goal Learning Profile By encouraging students to make sense of an idea preferred way of learning You can differentiate Process by Readiness, Interest, and Learning Profile. With process, however, you focus on the specific tasks or activities students will complete.
  14. 14. Strategies and Ideas to Differentiate Process Weblinks, Video examples, and Definitions
  15. 15. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Multiple Intelligences – present materials based on the learning styles of the students. To read more on multiple intelligences, please review this website. • http://www.thomasarmstron g.com/multiple_intelligences. htm • Interest groups – utilizing informal information collecting processes, you can identify the varying interests of the students in your class, group students based on those interests, and allow them to explore their area of interest—and, meet the academic goals set for the course.
  16. 16. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Varied graphic organizers – graphic organizers are an excellent tool to help students understand or follow difficult content, that other students may comprehend with little aide or assistance. It is important for students to understand how and when to use graphic organizers in their independent work.
  17. 17. • Complex instruction – Assign open-ended group work and activities that foster higher-order thinking skills. Students work cooperatively and are assigned specific roles and tasks. • Vermont University - Video http://www.uvm.edu/complexinstruction/ • Center for Multi-Cultural Education http://depts.washington.edu/centerme/complex.htm Differentiated Instruction Strategies
  18. 18. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Concept Attainment – students will compare and contrast traits of groups or categories that are related to the concept students are to learn. In groups, students find specific examples of attributes that distinguish the difference. For specific steps: Saskatoon Public Schools http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/inst r/strats/cattain/ • Independent Study – allow students to select relevant topics and begin a course of study. To help guide the students towards the content you would like for them to uncover, provide probing or guiding questions.
  19. 19. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Learning logs – students write and reflect on their learning. Often through this process, students make discoveries about learning they may not have been able to articulate or demonstrate by completing assignments or tasks. For specific steps: Saskatoon Public Schools http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/logs/
  20. 20. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Journals – through writing in journals, students can connect their current knowledge to previous learning. Also, students will be able to explore ideas in writing. Saskatoon Public Schools http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/journal/i ndex.html
  21. 21. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Cubing – students will explore a particular topic or issue from six different viewpoints: describing, comparing, associating, analyzing, applying, and arguing This website provides additional information The Cache http://www.humboldt.edu/~tdd2/Cubing.htm
  22. 22. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Learning centers/ Interest centers – develop content, interest, skill based centers in the classroom that students can rotate through, be assigned to, or select areas of interest. • Learning contracts – provide options for students regarding pacing, learning goals, and needs via learning contracts. Saskatoon Public Schools http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/P D/instr/strats/learningco ntracts/index.html
  23. 23. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Literature circles – assign students who are sharing the same text in to groups who have shared goals, and possibly different roles or responsibilities to the group regarding the text. Saskatoon Public Schools • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/literaturecircles/index.html All America Reads • http://www.allamericareads.org/lessonplan/strategies/during/litcirc1. htm Annenberg Video Example (Select ―Sharing the Text‖, ―Book Buddies‖, and ―Discussion Strategies‖ • http://www.learner.org/resources/series182.html#
  24. 24. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Role playing – allow students to act out characters, fictional and real, to demonstrate an understanding of the text, character, plot, or critical ideas. Saskatoon Public Schools • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr /strats/roleplaying/index.html • Cooperative controversy (debate) – provide students with a problem and allow them to develop an argument for or against it. Students will have the opportunity to present their side of a particular argument with a debate. Saskatoon Public Schools • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr /strats/structuredcon/index.html • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr /strats/debates/index.html
  25. 25. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Choice boards - (a visual display of options or possibilities the student can choose from) allow students to select from the visual depiction of options – instead of verbal or written options traditionally posed to students. This method is especially helpful for students who may have particular learning disorders. • PMI – have students list pluses and minuses when interpreting points about a topic
  26. 26. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Mind-Mapping – allow students to generate mental maps of critical concepts or ideas Saskatoon Public Schools • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/mind map/index.html JCU Study Skills Online • http://www.jcu.edu.au/tldinfo/learningskills/m indmap/howto.html
  27. 27. Differentiated Instruction Strategies • Jigsaw or Think-pair – share – use the these techniques to facilitate cooperative learning and dynamic grouping of students. Jigsaw Classroom • http://www.jigsaw.org/ Saskatoon Public Schools • http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/jigsaw/index.html Reading Quest • http://www.readingquest.org.uk/ Saskatoon Public Schools http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/think/index.html
  28. 28. Keep in mind when differentiating process… Each strategy should engage students in a different thinking or processing response
  29. 29. Differentiation by Product ―Help students individually or in groups rethink, use, extend what they have learned over a long period of time—a unit, semester, or year‖ - Tomlinson
  30. 30. We’ve discussed how to approach differentiated instruction based on content. We’ve also explored how to differentiate the process of instruction. As we begin to look at ways to modify final products based on student needs, interests, and learning profiles.
  31. 31. Points to Consider • Some students can show what they know better in a product than a written test. • By differentiating what students are expected to produce at the end of the learning, students to think about, apply, or expand on all key understandings and skills of the learning using varied methods.
  32. 32. Differentiate Products • Determine core expectations for the quality students are to pursue in regard to: – the content in their products – how they should work on their products, and – the nature of the final product itself • Identify knowledge, understandings, skills the product must incorporate decide on what format the product will take
  33. 33. Differentiating Products for Struggling Students • Give assignments in smaller increments (complete one— then introduce the other) • Put directions on audio or video tapes • Assist students with creating timelines for work • Conduct skill and organizational instruction in small groups • Help students find resources • Provide templates or organizers • Provide models of products to be produced • Ensure students have access to materials in their first language
  34. 34. We’ve explored the basic approaches to differentiating instruction. As we continue to work through this course, we will learn various techniques to teach reading – and you will be asked to expound on ideas to differentiate instruction based on student need.
  35. 35. References Tomlinson, Carol A., James H. Stronge, and Caroline C. Eidson. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms. Danvers: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001. 72-93.
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