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  • 1. What faculty need to know about Open Access & increasing their publishing Impact A. Ben Wagner, Sciences Librarian University at Buffalo
  • 2. The Message
    • Used to be Publish or Perish .
    • Now it’s increasingly Get Cited or Perish .
    • Open Access: more readers, more citations, more impact
    • It’s your work; retain a few rights, at least posting manuscript to repository.
    • Sure you publish for prestige, but you also publish to be read!
  • 3. The Classic: Journal Impact Factors
    • The number everyone knows when they see it, but can’t really define it.
    • Reported in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database < http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/jcr.html >
    • Reports the number of times the average article is cited in a given journal by subsequent articles in the body of scholarly journal literature.
  • 4. 2005-2006 Child Abuse & Neglect (journal) 158 articles 2007 All scholarly articles in journals covered by SSCI 238 Cites 2007 Impact = 238 2007 cites = 1.506 Factor 158 2005-06 articles
  • 5. Journal Impact Factor (JIF) Definition
    • The journal impact factor is the average number of times articles from a given journal published in the past two years have been cited in the JCR year.
    • Calculated by dividing the number of citations from the entire body of scholarly articles in the JCR [current] year by the total number of articles published in a given journal in the two previous years.
  • 6. So what?
    • JIF is a measure of extreme currency – 2 year window.
    • JIF is a GROSS average. Ave. article in Child Abuse & Neglect cited 1.506 times, but the citations RANGE from 0-25 times.
    • Never ever intended to measure quality of an individual article or author.
    • http://forums.thomsonscientific.com/t5/Citation-Impact-Center/Preserving-the-Integrity-of-The-Journal-Impact-Factor-Guidelines/ba-p/1218#M14
  • 7. Dirty little secrets
    • Impact factors can be manipulated by journal editors by:
      • Publishing more review articles
      • Encouraging citations to one’s own journal
    • Only journal article-to-journal article citations are counted. Book, report, conference paper citations ignored.
    • The data is dirtier and less complete than generally believed.
  • 8. Two Questions
    • Citation patterns and nature of research differ across disciplines. How can we compare JIF from different disciplines?
    • Is there a better citation metric than JIF that can be used as a component in evaluating a scholar’s work?
  • 9. Comparing Journal Impact Factors
    • Normalize them within discipline (top journal=100%, bottom journal=0%)
    • Every discipline has top journal and a bottom journal.
    • Social Work – top journal – JIF 2.352
    • Psychiatry – top journal – JIF 15.97
    • Details in my article: http://www.istl.org/09-spring/refereed1.html
  • 10. Top 5 Social Work Journals by NIF Abbreviated Title JIF NIF Child Maltreatment 2.352 100% Trauma Violence Abus 1.806 96% Child Abuse Neglect 1.506 92% Soc Work Res 1.200 88% J Soc Policy 1.117 85%
  • 11. Same journal in multiple JCR subject categories Child Abuse Neglect JIF NIF Social Work Category 1.506 92% Sociology Category 1.506 88% Psychology Category 1.506 65%
  • 12. A Better Citation Metric
    • H-Index (Hirsch Index)
    • An H-Index of 11 means a person (or dept.) has 11 articles cited at least 11 times.
    • Easily calculated from Web of Science http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/webofscience.html
  • 13. Critique of H-Index
    • Rewards longevity, but not least-publishable-unit or sheer quantity.
    • Recent and old work rewarded equally
    • Does not reward highly cited papers
    • Many variants (g-index, m-index, etc. proposed to weight age, recent work, & highly cited papers) – see bibliography
    • Relatively insensitive to manipulation.
  • 14. Other alternatives to JIF
    • Eigenfactors - http://www.eigenfactor.org/
      • New, open access direct competitor to JIF
      • Reports to “rank journals much as Google ranks websites” by analyzing the vast network of citations in scholarly web documents.
    • Other JCR metrics including 3 new ones as of this year. http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/jcr.html
  • 15. Citation Indexes – Many more players -1
    • SciFinder
    • NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
    • Amazon (Search inside this book)
    • Google Scholar/Harzing’s POP
    • Scitation/Spin Web/PROLA
    • Citation Bridge (US Patents)
    • USPTO
    • Optics InfoBase
  • 16. Citation Indexes – Many more players -2
    • CiteSeer (primarily computer & info sci)
    • ScienceDirect
    • PsycInfo
    • IEEE Xplore
    • Spires (High Energy Physics
    • IOP Journals
    • CrossRef
  • 17. My Take
    • For an individual or department:
      • H-Index plus
      • Total cites to all published articles plus
      • Citation Report graphs from appropriate the citation databases (SCI, SSCI, AHCI,+?)
    • Give a pretty good take on the impact of one’s journal articles within the limits of available citation data.
    • Demonstrably superior to JIF
  • 18. A Free, New Citation Tool
    • Harzing’s Publish or Perish
    • Install from: http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm
    • Automatically analyzes citations from Google Scholar for any author.
    • Interesting to compare Web of Science citation report with Harzing’s report.
    • Warning: Dirty data, don’t take at face value.
  • 19. Harzing’s POP Statistics
    • Total number of papers & citations
    • Ave. number of citations per paper & per author
    • Ave. number of papers per author & per year
    • Hirsch's h-index and related parameters
    • Egghe's g-index
    • Other variations on the h-index
    • Age-weighted citation rate
    • Number of authors per paper
  • 20. Primer on Open Access (OA)
    • OA simply means free-to-read.
    • OA is fully compatible with rigorous peer review.
    • OA does not necessarily mean author-pay (there are many models being tested).
    • OA journals can be low or high quality, just like subscription journals.
  • 21. Can OA have Prestige?
    • PLOS Biology
      • JIF=13.5 (7 th out of 263 biochem journals)
      • Started in October 2003
    • Future of Children (Princeton Univ.)
      • JIF=4.76 (Top Family Studies Journal)
    • PLOS One (in 2010 will be the largest science journal in the world) – est. 8,000 articles
  • 22. OA – a flash in the pan?
    • More than 4,000 fully OA, peer reviewed journals
    • 2 new titles per day
    • 1,500 OA repositories, new repository every day.
    • Scientific Commons – 30 million OA items. http://www.scientificcommons.org/
    • 20% medical lit avail. Free within 2 years
    • Over 100 OA publication mandates
  • 23. SO WHAT!
    • We publish for prestige, but we also publish to be read & cited.
    • What if I point you to actual research that shows OA articles are cited 25-250% more than toll access (TA) articles?
      • http://www.buffalo.edu/~abwagner/OACiteImpactBibliography.doc
  • 24. Some OA Cite Advantage Studies (OA-CA)
    • 88% OA-CA in Sociology
      • (Norris & Rowland, 2008) The citation advantage of open-access articles. JASIST, 59 (12), 1963-1972.
    • OA-CA: Math (91%), PolSci (86%); Philosophy (45%)
      • ( Antelman 2004) Do open-access articles have a greater research impact? College & Research Libraries. 65 (5): p. 372-382.
  • 25. And what you’ve been waiting for
    • OA Citation Advantage for Social Work
      • 64% OA vs. non-OA
      • Hajjem, C., et al. Open access to research increases citation impact . 2005. Available from: http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11687/
  • 26. What you should know about OA
    • Know what your OA options are.
      • www.doaj.org
    • OA journal not the whole story
      • Institutional and discipline repositories (IR/DR)
      • UB institutional repository – any day now
    • Most non-OA journals allow authors to deposit their articles in an IR/DR.
    • See http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/
  • 27. More on Institutional Repositories
    • You have rights! Retain right to mount your hard work to an IR/DR.
    • Done right it will be visible to Google Scholar, OAIster, & other OAI harvestors.
    • www.oaister.org
    • Wide variety of formats & document types
  • 28. The OA Advantage
    • As scholar, enlarge your audience/impact.
    • As reader, enjoy free online access to the literature.
    • As teacher, your students have free, liability-free access (fair use, course pack).
    • Moving away from an unsustainable journal publishing system.
  • 29. 6 Things Researchers Need to Know about OA – P. Suber
    • http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/02-02-06.htm
    • What OA journals exist in your field?
    • OA more than journals. Also OA archives/repositories.
    • OA archiving only takes a few minutes.
    • Most non-OA journals allow authors to deposit their postprints in an OA repository.
    • Journals w/Ingelfinger Rule - shrinking minority. (7%)
    • OA enlarges your audience and citation impact.
  • 30. Check out:
    • Open the channels of communication in your field.
    • http://www.arl.org/sparc/bm~doc/OpenAccess.pdf
    • Create Change (SPARC) http://www.createchange.org/
    • Making Change Work for You
      • Practical steps as faculty, researcher, reviewer, editor, society member, teacher.
      • http://www.createchange.org/change/index.shtml
  • 31. From Opportunity Assessment Instrument
    • ACRL Scholarly Communication Toolkit: http://www.acrl.ala.org/scholcomm/
    • “ 10 Things You Should Know About Scholarly Communication” http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/scholcomm/docs/SC%20101%2010%20Things%20You.pdf .
    • “ Open Access Overview” (Peter Suber): http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm
    • Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook: Practical Steps for Implementing Open Access: http://www.openoasis.org/
    • “ Transforming Scholarly Communication and Publishing” (UB Libraries – for faculty and students): http://library.buffalo.edu/scholarly/index.php .
    • ScholCom Staff Wiki (UB Libraries – internal): http://libweb1.lib.buffalo.edu/aslstaff/sc/
  • 32. Personal Story
    • Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling Article