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International Standards: TheChallenges for an InteroperableSmart GridStandardization supports efficiency, security, innova...
SummaryExecutive Summary . ................................................................................... p	 1Introdu...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridExecutive summaryBuilding an electric energy Smart ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIntroductionThe power grids prevalent today represe...
International Standards:The Challenges for anInteroperable Smart Grid
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridThe Elements of a Smart GridThe International Elect...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid                                                   ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridInteroperability put to workUtilities are faced wit...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridStandards and certification key to smartgrid succes...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridGlobal standardization initiativesStandardization i...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC standards relating to interoperabilityand secur...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid• management processes to ensure system reliability...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC 61850, Substation equipment                    ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC 62443, Control systemsThis standard identifies ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridWork yet to doIn the U.S., the Energy Independence ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridGeneration and                                     ...
International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridConclusionThe complexity of the regulatory environm...
©2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved.Schneider Electric USA, Inc.   4701 Royal Vista Circle   Fort Collins, CO 80...
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International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid

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Building an electric energy Smart Grid involves proper interfacing between existing devices, applications and systems – all likely sourced from many different vendors. The resulting interoperability allows valuable advantages, such as the ability to use distribution system demand response (DSDR) to improve the efficiency of delivered power. Interoperability enables automated switching sequences, for system ‘self-healing’ and improved reliability, along with effective integration of distributed renewable and non-renewable resources that can enable peak shaving. Interoperability also is vital for assimilating emerging automation technologies that will enable the utility to realize these benefits in the future – and protect public and private sector technology investments.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) defines international standards, recognized globally, that characterize interoperability and security of electrical, electronic and related technologies. These standards are created to assure interoperability within all the major power system objects in an electrical utility enterprise and allow mission critical distribution functions to take advantage of real-time data in a secure manner. The IEC standards also enable reliable exchange of data among utilities and across power pools.
The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is incorporating IEC standards, and developing new or revised standards, to be applied in its development of a Smart Grid as a national energy goal. This standards framework aims to eliminate the implementation of technologies that might become obsolete prematurely or be implemented without necessary security measures – and help utilities make the infrastructure decisions that reduce cost and energy loss, improve network reliability and embrace technology innovation.

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Transcript of "International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid"

  1. 1. International Standards: TheChallenges for an InteroperableSmart GridStandardization supports efficiency, security, innovationMake the most of your energy SM
  2. 2. SummaryExecutive Summary . ................................................................................... p 1Introduction ................................................................................................. p 2The Elements of a Smart Grid . .................................................................... p 4Interoperability put to work .......................................................................... p 6Standards and certification key to smart grid success ................................. p 7Global standardization initiatives................................................................... p 8IEC standards relating to interoperability and security................................... p 9 .Work yet to do ............................................................................................. p 13Conclusion................................................................................................... p 15
  3. 3. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridExecutive summaryBuilding an electric energy Smart Grid involves proper interfacing between existingdevices, applications and systems – all likely sourced from many different vendors.The resulting interoperability allows valuable advantages, such as the ability touse distribution system demand response (DSDR) to improve the efficiency ofdelivered power. Interoperability enables automated switching sequences, forsystem ‘self-healing’ and improved reliability, along with effective integration ofdistributed renewable and non-renewable resources that can enable peak shaving.Interoperability also is vital for assimilating emerging automation technologies thatwill enable the utility to realize these benefits in the future – and protect public andprivate sector technology investments.The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) defines internationalstandards, recognized globally, that characterize interoperability and security ofelectrical, electronic and related technologies. These standards are created toassure interoperability within all the major power system objects in an electricalutility enterprise and allow mission critical distribution functions to take advantageof real-time data in a secure manner. The IEC standards also enable reliableexchange of data among utilities and across power pools.The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is incorporatingIEC standards, and developing new or revised standards, to be applied in itsdevelopment of a Smart Grid as a national energy goal. This standards frameworkaims to eliminate the implementation of technologies that might become obsoleteprematurely or be implemented without necessary security measures – andhelp utilities make the infrastructure decisions that reduce cost and energy loss,improve network reliability and embrace technology innovation. White paper | 01
  4. 4. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIntroductionThe power grids prevalent today represent the technology available when energyproduction and delivery costs and environmental impact were not a priority. Today,the world wants smart electric grids that can reduce outages and faults, improveresponsiveness, increase efficiency, and manage costs.However, the power grid can become smart only if the utility has the realisticmeans to harness the flood of data generated by its high technology network andmake that information available as real-time and accurate business intelligenceacross the entire enterprise. The Smart Grid links the various devices, applications,and systems across its processes to create such a single, unified informationnetwork.This paper discusses the concept of an integrated electric grid and the industrystandards, particularly the overarching IEC standards accepted worldwide, thatmake a unified, interoperable Smart Grid possible. White paper | 02
  5. 5. International Standards:The Challenges for anInteroperable Smart Grid
  6. 6. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridThe Elements of a Smart GridThe International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) • ssociations – are the logical connections between Aand the U.S. National Institute of Standards and actors that establish bilateral relationships. InTechnology (NIST) have adopted a similar concept Figure 1, electrical associations between domainsof the Smart Grid – one divided into several domains are shown as dashed lines, and communicationsas shown in Figure 1. Each domain is comprised of associations are shown as solid lines.actors that perform applications and are connectedwith each other by associations:• ctors – are the devices, computer systems, A or software programs, such as smart meters, solar generators, and control systems, and/or the organizations that own them. Actors make decisions and exchange information with other actors through interfaces.• pplications – are the tasks performed by the A actors within the domains; for example: home automation, solar energy generation and energy storage, and energy management. Some applications are performed by a single actor, others Figure 1. Smart Grid domains interface with each other through electrical and communications connections by several actors working together. (source: NIST).• omains – are the groups of actors with similar D • Interfaces – are the access points – either electrical objectives, characteristics, or requirements. or communications connections – at each end of Domains might contain other domains. Note: the communication associations where information domains are not organizations; for example, an ISO enters and exits a domain; interfaces are logical and or RTO might have actors in both the Markets and can be bi-directional. Operations domains. Similarly, a distribution utility is likely to contain actors not only in the Distribution domain but also in the Operations domain, such as a Distribution Management System actor, and in the Customer domain, such as meter actors. White paper | 04
  7. 7. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid TABLE 1 Domains of the Smart Grid Domain Description The end users of electricity; might also generate, store, and manage Customers the use of energy. Traditionally, three customer types are discussed, each with its own domain: home, commercial/building, and industrial. Markets The operators and participants in electricity markets. The organizations providing services to electrical customers and Service Providers utilities. Operations The managers of the movement of electricity. The generators of electricity in bulk quantities; might also store energy Bulk Generation for later distribution. The carriers of bulk electricity over long distances; might also store Transmission and generate electricity. The distributors of electricity to and from customers; might also Distribution store and generate electricity.Table 1 provides description of the seven present actors and applications, sourced by many differentand near-term logical domains of a Smart Grid vendors, becomes highly complex. Adherencesystem. In the future, some of the domains (such to universal standards allows integration andas transmission and distribution) might combine. interoperability between and among actors andOthers might diminish in importance; for example, applications: NIST identified 75 existing standardsbulk generation might Figure 2 provides a that are likely to be applicable to the development ofconceptual reference diagram of the Smart Grid. a complex Smart Grid.This conceptual model assumes that a SmartGrid includes a wide variety of use cases andapplications, data management, and applicationintegration. It also suggests how the interaction ofFigure 2. Conceptual reference diagram for the Smart Grid (source: NIST). White paper | 05
  8. 8. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridInteroperability put to workUtilities are faced with the need to increase energydelivery capabilities to meet rising demand, while stillcontrolling costs and satisfying regulatory direction.Here are examples of how a Smart Grid uses real-time information characterizing the operating state ofthe network to increase energy availability:More efficient network operations. A utility canreduce load by improving the efficiency of deliveredpower. For example, by improving volt/var control,including flattening the voltage profile along manyfeeders, some utilities have been able to usedistribution system demand response (DSDR) toanticipate peak demand reductions of 5 to 7 percent.Enhanced system reliability. Improved switchingand sectionalizing can significantly benefit someutilities, especially those faced with poor ordeteriorating performance and regulatory pressures.Interoperability enables automated switchingsequences that make it possible for portions of thedistribution system to ‘heal’ themselves.Integration of distributed renewable and non-renewable sources. These resources have thepotential to improve delivery efficiency and enablepeak shaving if reliable interconnection standardsmeet utility-grade operating requirements.Demand response/management throughcustomer choice. Demand response (DR) programsincluding time-of-use (TOU) or critical-peak-pricing(CPP) rate structures give customers the ability toreduce demand at certain times. These programs aremost successful when implemented through a meterdata management (MDM) system integrating meterinformation with business processes. White paper | 06
  9. 9. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridStandards and certification key to smartgrid successSimpler deployment. Those who choose solutions Standardization protectsbased on proprietary standards will find it difficult investmentsor even impossible to fully integrate with varioussystems found across the grid. The evidence of the essential role of standards is growing. A recent U.S. CongressionalSeamless communication. Interoperability enables Research Service report cited the need ofthe different components of a grid to exchange, widely accepted standards to successfully deploy smart meters. The U.S. investmentanalyze, and utilize information and to mutually in smart meters is predicted to be at leastunderstand the information exchanged. $40 billion to $50 billion over the next several years. Globally, 100 million new smart meters are predicted to be installed over the nextFuture-proofed investments. The ‘standardized’ five years. Sound interoperability standardssmart grid can consider nearly any of the millions of are needed to ensure that sizable public andsimilarly-standardized components expected to be private sector technology investments are not stranded.available for the future Smart Grid.Practical innovation. Standards enable innovationthat can be realistically developed and deployed.Simpler support. Standardized systems allowconsistency in systems management andmaintenance over the life cycles of components.To assure standards compliance, conformancetesting and certification are essential. NIST, inconsultation with industry, government, and otherstakeholders, has started work to develop an overallframework for conformance testing and certificationfor 2010 implementation. White paper | 07
  10. 10. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridGlobal standardization initiativesStandardization initiatives are taking place worldwide:Europe:• IEC, Strategic Group 3 on Smart Grid• CEN• CENELEC• ETSI Focus Group• European Commission Task Force on Smart Grids• UTC, ICT4SDG (European Utilities Telecom E Council, ICT for Smart Distributed Generation) Australia:• EESGEN-ICT (Supporting Energy Efficiency in S • SGA (Smart Grid Australia) Smart Generation grids through ICT) Global:North and South America: • IEC, Strategic Group 3 on Smart Grid• NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Project • IEEE Smart Grid Initiative• U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) • ISO/IEC JTC 1 SWG Smart Grid• GWAC (GridWise Architecture Council) • CA IUG OpenSG (UCA International Users Group, U• SIP Forum Smart Grid Special Interest Group Open Smart Grid)Asia: • IETF• KSGA (Korea Smart Grid Association) • ITU-T FG Smart (Focus Group Smart Grid)• KSGI (Korea Smart Grid Institute) • ITU-T Study Groups 5 and 15• Next Generation Energy Study Group, Japan • OASIS Blue Initiative• SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China) • ZigBee Alliance Smart Energy White paper | 08
  11. 11. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC standards relating to interoperabilityand securityThe IEC is the leading global organization that SG 3 interoperability andprepares and publishes international standards for security standardsall electrical, electronic, and related technologies.Its charter embraces electronics, magnetics and SG 3’s first task at an April, 2009, meetingelectromagnetics, electroacoustics, multimedia, was to finish laying down the road map fortelecommunication, and energy production and the development of the Framework 1 todistribution, as well as associated general disciplines achieve interoperability of Smart Grid systems.such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic Since then, it submitted a 160-page reportcompatibility, measurement and performance, that covers the 24 TCs that have publisheddependability, design and development, safety, and International Standards relating to the Smart Grid and agreed on a basic set of standardsthe environment. IEC Standards were significant in the covering the technical specifications thatdevelopment of the NIST roadmap, which includes appear here. The new Framework 2 beingapproximately 10 IEC standards at this time. developed by the SG 3 is a progressive release of Framework 1.The IEC Standardization Management Board (SMB) isresponsible for the management of the IEC’s standards work, including the creation, dissolution, and approvalof scopes of the IEC technical committees (TC), the timeliness of standards production, and liaisons with otherinternational organizations. It has established a Strategic Group, SG 3, which provides advice on fast-movingideas and technologies likely to form the basis for new International Standards or IEC TCs in the area of SmartGrid technologies. Following are some of the standards chosen by the IEC SG3 in the Framework 1, relating tointeroperability and security.IEC 61970, Common Information Model (CIM)This is an abstract model that represents all the major power system objects in an electric utility enterprise,focusing on power system connectivity. The IEC 61970 series targets integration of applications developed bydifferent suppliers in the control center environment – for the exchange of real-time information across legacyand new systems and to systems external to the control center environment.IEC 61968, CIM forbusiness-to-businessexchange of informationThe IEC 61968 series is intended to facilitateintegration of the various distributed softwareapplication systems that need to exchange data onan event driven basis through middleware services;see Figure 3. This series of standards definesinterfaces among the components of DistributionManagement Systems (DMS):• onitoring and control of equipment for power m Figure 3. IEC 61968 defines the interoperability of the Distribution Management System (DMS). delivery White paper | 09
  12. 12. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart Grid• management processes to ensure system reliability Interoperability a• voltage management Schneider Electric priority• demand-side management In 2010, the Schneider Electric Responder Smart Grid Outage Management System• outage management (OMS) passed the industry’s first smart grid interoperability testing to the IEC/CIM• work management 61968 standard, Part 9 profile for meter data interchange. The test, conducted by the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI),• automated mapping demonstrates the Schneider Electric solution integrates with other industry providers’ smart• facilities management grid technology – a key feature of successful Smart Grid technology components.IEC 61968 defines interfaces only, allows interoperability among differentcomputer systems, platforms, and languages. The methods and technologies Schneider Electric’s focus on interoperabilityused to implement a functionality conforming to these interfaces are outside of is also demonstrated in its PubSub real-timethe scope of the IEC 61968 series. middleware, developed to ensure high speed information exchange in real-time distribution network processes. Based on publisher/IEC 60870, Inter Control Center subscriber architecture, Microsoft® VisualProtocol (ICCP) Studio.net, active directory, and Kerberos authentication algorithms, it is designedThe six-part 60870 standard supports exchange of real-time and historical to meet the requirements proposed forpower system monitoring and control data – including measured values, an integration bus in many standards (IECscheduling data, energy accounting data, and operator messages – over Wide 61850, IEC 61970, IEC 61968, and others) and allows OMS, DMS, and mission criticalArea Networks (WANs) between a utility control centre’s Supervisory Control And distribution functions to take advantage ofData Acquisition/Energy Management System/Distribution Management System real-time SCADA information in a simple and(SCADA/EMS/DMS) host and: secure manner.• other control centres• other utilities• power pools• regional control centres• Non-Utility Generators White paper | 10
  13. 13. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC 61850, Substation equipment subCAT certificationmonitoring, operation, and controlIEC 61850 defines the various communication requirements for substation subCAT is a member of Schneider Electric’sand feeder equipment. This standard also defines conformance testing. family of Remote Terminal Units (RTU) for electric power automation. This family of RTUs has beenDiscussions are underway to look at defining 61850 for the Substation-to-Master certified by KEMA Consulting as complying withcommunication protocol currently in service in several installations. the IEC 61850 standard, both as client (Figure 4) and as server (Figure 5).• ses the strengths of the OSI 7 layer communication model U Certification of the subCAT to this standard• tandardized data models for electrical applications S assures interoperability between Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) from different• Defines Data Types and Communication Services manufacturers and supports Schneider Electric’s Smart Network Solution, part of its Smart Grid• odels devices, functions, processes and architectures M Solution Suite for distributing electricity more efficiently, economically, reliably and securely.• Describes Engineering and Configuration Process• rovides examples of typical applications in electrical substations PIEC 62351, Utility communicationssecurityWhile reliability and security of electric grid assets have always been important inthe design and operation of power systems, information security becomes criticalas operation of these assets increasingly relies on an information infrastructure.The IEC 62351 series provides standards to ensure:• uthenticated access to sensitive power system equipment a• authorized access to sensitive market data• eliable and timely information on equipment functioning and failures r Figure 4 (left) and 5 (right): KEMA Nederland• backup of critical systems B.V. has certified the Schneider Electric subCAT RTU (as client, Figure 4; as server,• udit capabilities that permit detection and reconstruction of crucial events a Figure 5) to IEC 61850-6, 7-1,7-2,7-3, 7-4, and 8-1 regulation for communication networks and systems in substations. White paper | 11
  14. 14. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridIEC 62443, Control systemsThis standard identifies specifications to support security of industrial automation and control systems (IACS).It targets the prevention of illegal or unwanted penetration, intentional or unintentional interference with theproper and intended operation, or inappropriate access to confidential information in the IACS. In particular,it focuses on the security of computers, networks, operating systems, applications, and other programmableconfigurable components of the system.IEC 62056, Electricity metering – data exchange formeter reading and tariff and load controlThe integrated commercial process that starts with the measurement of the delivered product (energy)and ends with the revenue collection requires meter interoperability. IEC 62056 defines data exchange forthe purposes of meter reading, tariff and load control, and consumer information, using various alternativecommunication media, with reference to ISO and ITU standards. White paper | 12
  15. 15. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridWork yet to doIn the U.S., the Energy Independence and SecurityAct of 2007 (EISA 2007) designated developmentof a Smart Grid as a national policy goal. It gave theDepartment of Energy (DOE) the overall lead of theSmart Grid program and assigned to NIST the job ofdeveloping a framework of standards and protocolsto ensure interoperability and security. EISA specifiesthat the interoperability framework should be flexible,uniform, and technology-neutral. The Federal EnergyRegulatory Commission (FERC), which has regulatoryauthority over the interstate energy industry, mustapprove the final standards.While the first release of the NIST frameworkidentified 75 existing standards that are likely to be • Electric transportationapplicable to the development of the Smart Grid,it also specified 15 high-priority gaps or areas for • Advanced metering infrastructurewhich new or revised standards are needed. Withoutstandards, the report explained, there is the potential • Distribution grid managementfor technologies becoming obsolete prematurely orimplemented without necessary security measures. • Cyber security“The Smart Grid will ultimately require hundreds of • Network communicationsstandards, specifications and requirements,” thedocument reported. “Some are needed more urgently The second phase of the process began inthan others.” The framework identified eight priorities November 2009 with the launch of a Smart Gridfor standards development: Interoperability Panel to help NIST develop needed standards. The panel now includes nearly 500• Demand response and consumer energy efficiency organizations and 1,350 individuals. The final step is to develop a program for testing and certification• Wide-area situational awareness to ensure that Smart Grid equipment and systems comply with standards.• Energy storage White paper | 13
  16. 16. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridGeneration and CustomerTransmission For the consumer, equipment standards are generally driven by product safety codes and regulations,Mature standards and regulations are in place for especially for electricity-consuming products. Mostequipment and communications involved in the consumer devices are tested and certified to acceptpower generation. Similarly, standards, specifications, any incoming interfering signals and continueand technologies are in place for transmission operations, and to not generate any interferingequipment and communications; see Table 2 for signals in a certain frequency band. Communicationsrepresentative standards categorized by transmission standards and specifications, in general, have notapplication domain. It is inevitable that new standards yet been developed due to the variety of productswill continue to be developed as technology evolves. involved.Distribution Cyber securityMature standards and regulations are defined “Ensuring cyber security of the Smart Grid is a criticalfor transmission operations with a typical central priority,” according to NIST’s framework report, “andgeneration supply and typical substation designs and achieving it requires incorporating security at thetheir legacy communications. However, distributed architectural level.” A Cyber Security Coordinationresources – both their generation and their storage Task Group led by NIST and consisting of almost– are expected to be connected to the distribution 300 participants from the private and public sectorsportion of the grid in increasing numbers, requiring is developing a cyber security strategy for the Smartfurther standards development for this domain. Grid. TABLE 2 Transmission Standards and Technologies Domain Standard/Specification/Technology • IEC 61970 Common Information Model (CIM) Control Centers • IEC 60870-6 Inter-Control Center Protocol (ICCP) • NRECA MultiSpeak • IEEE C37.1 SCADA and Automation Systems • IEEE C37.2 Device Function Numbers • IEC 61850 Protocols, Configuration, Information Models • IEEE 1646 Communications Performance Substations • Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) • Modbus • IEEE C37.111-1999 – COMTRADE • IEEE 1159.3 PQDIF • IEEE C37.118 Phasor Measurement Outside the • IEC 61850-90 (in development) Substation • IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol • Network Time Protocol • IEEE 1686 IED Security Security • IEC 62351 Utility Communications Security • NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Standards • IEEE 1613 Substation Hardening for Gateways Hardening/ • IEC 61000-4 Electromagnetic Compatibility Codes • IEC 60870-2 Telecontrol Operating Conditions • IEC 61850-3 General Requirements White paper | 14
  17. 17. International Standards: The Challenges for an Interoperable Smart GridConclusionThe complexity of the regulatory environment, existing network context, and emergingtechnologies make defining and implementing a Smart Grid a significant projectfor any utility. The utility planning to transform a disjointed power network into anautomated, integrated grid for the next generation must not only address businessdrivers and technology needs but also integration framework and architecture.The strategic frameworks created by the IEC and NIST that identify applicablestandards for network interoperability are key in helping utilities build a smart gridinfrastructure that will support the operations and business decisions that can:• reduce costs• cut energy loss along the grid• improve maintenance• enhance reliability• drive conservation through expanded rate offerings• support more green energy options.The interoperable Smart Grid also will adapt easily with currently availablestandardized technology, as needs change, and grow as innovation provides newstandardized technology. References [1] IEC (http://www.iec.ch/) [2] Activities in Smart Grid Standardization, ITU, Repository, Version 1.0, April 2010. [3] NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0, January 2010. [4] Smart Grid Standards Assessment and Recommendations for Adoption and Development, EnerNex Corporation, 2009. White paper | 15
  18. 18. ©2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved.Schneider Electric USA, Inc. 4701 Royal Vista Circle Fort Collins, CO 80528 Phone: -866-537-1091 1 + (34) 9-17-14-70-02 Fax: 1-970-223-5577 www.schneider-electric.com/us June 2012

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