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How green standards are changing data center design and operations

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An effort is underway to harmonize certain energy-efficiency standards. Could global standardization ultimately diminish the technical effectiveness of such standards? Which will emerge as the de …

An effort is underway to harmonize certain energy-efficiency standards. Could global standardization ultimately diminish the technical effectiveness of such standards? Which will emerge as the de facto standards? This session will explore these questions, as well in data center efficiency and sustainability guidelines.

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  • Since 2005, the data center market has matured significantly with respect to an overall understanding of the drivers of energy efficiency. Several private organizations in the United States and Canada (ASHRAE, Green Grid, Green Globes) and worldwide (CIBSE, Japan CASBEE, Australia Green Star) have developed robust standards and criteria aimed at making buildings and data centers more energy and water efficient. These standards and criteria work well in developing a decision-making framework in both new data center design and retrofit projects. The release of the standards and metrics is timely as we begin to see a proliferation of local, state, and federal energy-efficiency guidelines and programs. June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • So many standards that apply to data centers that IT must keep up with. Good news is that they are gaining traction. Going from left to right, top row: EPA Energy Star Rating and certification has METRICS in Server performance rating & Energy star label Data enter performance benchmarking Leed Certification for data centers looks at Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation in Design Federal Energy Management program showcases Best practices at Federal data centers Pilot adoption of Best-in-class guidelines at Federal data centers Adoption of to-be-developed industry standard for Best-in-class at newly constructed Federal data centers Industry Consortium Tools Metrics Training Best practice information Best-in-class guidelines IT work productivity standard As an example, Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, signed by President Obama Oct. 5, 2009, outlines a mandate for reducing energy consumption, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. federal facilities. While it also presents requirements for reductions for items other than buildings (vehicles, electricity generation, etc.), the majority of the order is geared toward the built environment. Related to data centers specifically, and the impact that technology use has on the environment, there is a dedicated section on electronics and data processing facilities. An excerpt from this section states, “ [Agencies should] promote electronics stewardship, in particular by implementing best management practices for energy-efficient management of servers and federal data centers.” June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • Since 2005, the data center market has matured significantly with respect to an overall understanding of the drivers of energy efficiency. Several private organizations in the United States and Canada (ASHRAE, Green Grid, Green Globes) and worldwide (CIBSE, Japan CASBEE, Australia Green Star) have developed robust standards and criteria aimed at making buildings and data centers more energy and water efficient. These standards and criteria work well in developing a decision-making framework in both new data center design and retrofit projects. The release of the standards and metrics is timely as we begin to see a proliferation of local, state, and federal energy-efficiency guidelines and programs. So many standards that apply to data centers that IT must keep up with. Good news is that they are gaining traction. Going from left to right, top row: Over 3,000 organizations in some 60 countries around the world now measure and disclose their greenhouse gas emissions, water management and climate change strategies through CDP, in order that they can set reduction targets and make performance improvements. This data is made available for use by a wide audience including institutional investors, corporations, policymakers and their advisors, public sector organizations, government bodies, academics and the public. June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • Although the Executive Order is written specifically for U.S. federal agencies, the broader data center industry also is entering the next era of energy and resource efficiency: strongly encouraged or compulsory reductions in resource use and greenhouse gas emissions. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Energy Star Data Center Energy Efficiency Initiative is an example of a program that will quickly gain momentum in the private sector by showing business value similar to the other Energy Star programs. This program is designed to raise the energy-efficiency bar as the portfolio of data centers is updated; only facilities in the top 25% can achieve an Energy Star rating. So as more facilities earn higher energy ratings, the top 25% will be reserved for only the best of the best. Background: Originally started as an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America. It was first created as a United States government program during the early 1990s, but Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan and the European Union have also adopted the program. In 2006 the Energy Star standard was expanded to include an Energy Star performance Rating for buildings such as new homes, commercial and industrial buildings. In June, 2010 the Energy Star Performance for industrial buildings was expanded to include data centers as well. Covers stand-alone data centers, as well as data centers housed within office or other buildings Objectives and criteria Based on actual as-billed energy data. Serves as a whole building indicator Assesses performance at the building level to explain how a building performs, not why it performs a certain way. Captures the interactions of building systems not individual equipment efficiency. Tracks energy use accounting for weather and operational changes over time. Peer group comparison Compares a building’s energy performance to its national peer group Allows owners with multiple facilities to compare performance across a portfolio of buildings. Mix of fuels: Site Energy : Energy consumption expressed on utility bills. Includes combination of primary and secondary energy, which are not directly comparable. Some heat and electricity comes from fuels burned on-site (e.g. natural gas), while some comes from fuels burned off-site (e.g. district chilled water) Source Energy: Traces on-site consumption back to energy content of primary fuels. Accounts for the losses in conversion from primary to secondary energy (which can occur either on-site or at a utility) June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • The DC Pro software tool suite, which includes: A web-based profiling tool Separate Excel-based assessment tools for Air Management, HVAC, electrical syatems, and IT-equipment These tools are not a substitute for a detailed “investment grade” audit. They provide estimates of savings for various measures, but actual savings may vary based on site-specific conditions that are not addressed in the tools. June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
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  • Another highly anticipated program that will help the data center design and construction industry achieve energy and water efficiency is coming from the U.S. Green Building Council. LEED Data Centers is available for second public comment through July 2011. It is based on the current LEED standards, Green Building Design and Construction and Green Building Operations and Maintenance, but has credit modifications that customize it solely for use in data center facilities. The credits in the new standard have a strong focus on energy efficiency, reducing cooling tower water use, measurement and verification of power and cooling systems, and commissioning. Once this program is released for public use, achieving LEED certification will only be possible after following a rigorous and thorough process. June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
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  • ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 9.9 is working on an update to standard 90.1 - minimum efficiency standards for buildings. The update states that new data centres will require water-side economisers “free cooling” (unless cooling towers are prohibited by local code). The standard may be expanded to include requirements for air-side economisers “free cooling” after 2014. By that time humidity and contamination research should provide more insight into their impact and to understand the Electro Static Discharge (ESD) issue at the minimum humidity limit. Similarly, contamination impact on IT equipment due to free cooling will also be further understood and will likely drive the extent to which free cooling using outside air can be used. http://tc99.ashraetcs.org/documents/Standard%2090_1_2010%20Applicability%20to%20Datacom.pdf See summary on page 4
  • Design for the highest internal air temperature allowable that will not cause the computers’ internal fans to run at excessive speeds or create electrical leakage in the computers. The ASHRAE supplement to the Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments (ASHRAE 2004), called 2008 ASHRAE Environmental Guidelines for Datacom Equipment - Expanding the Recommended Environmental Envelope recommends an upper dry-bulb limit of 80 F for the air used to cool the computers. If this temperature is used (and even higher temperatures in the near future), the hours for economization will be increased; when vapor compression (mechanical) cooling is used, the elevated temperatures will result in lower compressor power. However, the onboard fans in the servers will typically begin to increase speed and draw in more air to maintain the temperature of the server’s internal components at an acceptable level. Also, depending on the internal heat sink specification, electrical leakage will begin to occur at elevated temperatures, eroding away some of the energy savings. Unless the internal thermal management algorithms are modified, there will be diminishing energy returns as more power is required for the fans in the servers when the data center supply air temperature exceeds 80 F. The exception to this is if an economizer is used on the cooling system, providing cooling air beyond 80 F without any compressor power June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • ISO 50001 is a newly developed international standard for an energy management system (EnMS). ISO 50001:2011 (the first and current version) provides a framework for establishing energy management best practice to help organisations to improve their energy efficiency in a logical, controlled and systematic way. ISO 50001 has been structured to align with other popular industry management system standards such as those for quality, health & safety and environmental management. Organisations can thus, if appropriate, integrate an energy management system (EnMS) with their existing management system(s). June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • Standards/Metrics will include whole building performance, including water use and source energy reporting “ Carbon Dioxide Equivalent” reduction strategies will reinforce dematerialization of data center facilities Demand for high temperature server operation will continue, changing the way data centers are designed Advances in using outdoor air for cooling will dramatically reduce energy use Based on industry design criteria and best practices, Climate and geography leveraged to minimize GHG emissions Facility responds to site constraints and advantages Designed using rigorous whole-building energy modeling Optimization of energy and water use Life cycle approach used in decision making Thorough and transparent reporting of energy use June 20, 2013 HP Confidential
  • Transcript

    • 1. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.Green Standards&data center designand operationsJohn PetersonPE, PMP, CEM, LEED AP BD+CHP Critical Facilities Services
    • 2. Agenda• Data Center Green Standards• Government Efforts– Energy Star, Dept of Energy• Building Rating Systems– LEED• Industry– ASHRAE, ISO• Hallmarks of a “Green” data center2
    • 3. Data Center Green StandardsEPA ENERGY STARRatings/CertificationsLEED for DataCentersRating/CertificationFederal EnergyManagementProgramEO 13514-2009Industry Consortium Industrial technologiesProgram e.g.,Energy Base-liningDCEP programEU Code of Conductfor Data Centres15+ codes, programsand directives390.1-2010-Appendix G2011 Environmental classes90.4 EstablishedSingapore Standardfor green data centres-energyand environmental monitoringsystems© 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • 4. Key attributes of EO 13514Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance4Builds upon past policy & regulatory framework:Energy Independence & Security Act, EO 13423, andEnergy Policy Act 2005Defined Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions (e):•Scope 1 – direct GHG-e from sources owned orcontrolled by a Federal agency.•Scope 2 – direct GHG-e resulting from generation ofelectricity, heat, or steam purchased by a Federalagency.•Scope 3 – GHG-e from sources not owned or directlycontrolled by a Federal agency but related to agencyactivities such as vendor supply chains, deliveryservices, employee travel and commuting.
    • 5. Enterprise Greenhouse Gas ProgramsCarbon Disclosure Project(CDP)The Climate Registry(TCR)Climate Action Reserve(CAR)Global reporting Initiative(GRI)EPA Climate LeadersVOLUNTARYRegional GreenhouseGas Initiative (RGGI)Reduce GHG by 10% frompower sector by 2018EPA Mandatory ReportingGHG Rule (2010)Facilities > 25000 MT GHGsubmit annual reportREGULATORY2010 California AB-32Reduce GHG by 2020to 1990 levelsEU Emission TradingScheme (EU ETS)UK Carbon reductionCommitment (UK CRC)Reduce GHG by 80% in 2050Vs 1990National Greenhouse andEnergy ReportingStreamlining protocolInternational Regulatory & Policy Gaining Momentum
    • 6. • Based on actual as-billed energy data• Serves as a whole building indicator• Peer group comparison of data center’s energyperformance• Mix of fuels• ENERGY STAR label to data centers with arating of 75 or higher (scale of 0-100)• 39 data centers certified to date (June 2013)ENERGY STAR certification for datacenters6
    • 7. ENERGY STAR - Portfolio Manager7• New versioncoming outJuly 10,2013
    • 8. 8 HP ConfidentialENERGY STAR rating/certificationData Submissionfor Potential certificationStep-4Initiation4 weeksStep-1Rating Initiation:• Send proposal to client• Decision to apply for EnergyStar rating.• Define Energy Star ratingobjectives• Define Energy Star rating scope• Determine key clientinformation: name, site, location• Determine key technicalinformation: building area, datacenter area, other spaces area• Client approval• Select certification team• Notify the team to perform thefacility survey and datacollectionRating Preparation:• Verify eligibility• Read service data sheet andservice delivery guide• Define Survey date andduration.• Request facility Electrical &Mechanical documents• Utility bills –current/past 12months or next 12 months• Conduct preliminary dataanalysis• Understand preliminary elect. &mechanical subsystems• Understand meteringrequirementsExecution:• Site Visit and kick-offmeeting/presentation• Educate the client about theprocess & interview• Conduct initial walk-through &ensure as-built condition• Define building total energy• Define data center total ITloads/UPS output• Determine mechanical loadspower panels or if any is on UPS• Determine/Verify energymetering for total building anddata center• Install energy meters indesignated locations ifnecessaryData submission:• Create an account in portfoliomanager• Submit all required monthlyenergy data for the building andthe data center• If rating is >75%; apply forEnergy Star• Generate energy use statement• Populate all data in the reporttemplate• Certify, Stamp and Finalize andsubmit to Energy Star• Handover portfolio manageraccount after training to client forfuture management• If rating is <75%; implementECMs and re-apply.PreparationStep-2ExecutionStep-36 WEEKS-1 year +
    • 9. DoE On-line Profiling Tool: Data Center Pro9INPUTS• Description• Utility bill data• System information• IT• Cooling• Power• On-site genOUTPUTS•Overall picture ofenergy use andefficiency•End-use breakout•Potential areas forenergy efficiencyimprovement•Overall energy usereduction potential
    • 10. DC Profiler ToolTo download the DC Profiler tool:http://ecenter.ee.doe.gov/EM/tools/Documents/DCPro_Downloadable_InstallInstructions.pdf10
    • 11. DoE- Air Management Energy Assessment Tool• Air management recommendations (actions)• Potential for reducing the supply airflow rate• Potential for increasing the supply airtemperature• Estimates of the % energy reduction forsupply fans and chillersThe AM-Tool is a free Excel toolfor assessing the data center air-management status andproviding actions and energysavings.11
    • 12. To download tool and documentationhttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/saveenergynow/dc_pro.htmlUnit Program StepAHU Airflow cfm Step 1 AHUAHU Supply Air Temperature °F Step 1 AHUAHU Return Air Temperature °F Step 1 AHUEquipment Temperature Rise °F Step 2 EquipEquipment Airflow cfm Step 2 EquipNumber of Equipment Units - Step 2 EquipEquipment Power W Step 2 EquipIT-Equipment Intake Temperature °F Step 3 RCITypical Max IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature°F Step 4 Main InputTypical Min IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature°F Step 4 Main InputRecommended IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature Range°F Step 4 Main InputAllowable IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature Range°F Step 4 Main InputOUTPUTS• Provide air-managementrecommendations• Estimate thepotential for reducingsupply airflow rateand increasingsupply airtemperature• Estimate thepercentage of energyreduction for fansand chillersDoE AM Tool-Required Inputs12INPUTS• Air-handler unit data forcalculating ReturnTemperature Index(RTI) (energy metric)• IT-equipment data forcalculating the RTImetric• IT-equipment intaketemperatures forcalculating Rack CoolingIndex (RCI) (equipmentcooling metric)• Main input withquestions fordetermining energysavings andrecommendations
    • 13. DoE Electrical Assessment ToolTo download the tool and user manualhttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/datacenters/docs/dcpro_eat.xlsDesigned to help assess the potential savings from efficiency actions in theelectrical power chain of a data centerINPUTS• Basic configuration andefficiency information onelectrical systemcomponents such astransformers, generators,uninterruptible power supply(UPS), power distributionunit (PDU) devices, andlighting• Energy use of electricalsystemsOUTPUTS• Estimate potentialsavingsfor various electricalsystem efficiency actions.• UPS efficiencycomparison /benchmarking• Energy efficiency metrics13
    • 14. DoE Assessment Process14Process Step Current Tools/Resources1. Use DC Pro Profiling tool for preliminary assessment. Complete on-line survey of profilingtool.Profiling Tool2. Hold kickoff conference call to review goals and scope; Identify needed information anddocumentsUse report from Profiling toolas a discussion prompter3. Compile existing information from drawings, trend logs, etc. Enter available information intotools/worksheetsAssessment Tools orWorksheets4. On-site meeting with all stakeholders: Site tour (if needed) / Overview presentation (ifneeded) / Review, confirm and document efficiency actions to be studied, metrics to beanalyzed, and measurement plan (assign roles and responsibilities)Assessment Tools orWorksheets5. Conduct on-site measurements as needed to complete inputs for assessment tools.Assessment Tools orWorksheets6. Estimate savings for actions in each assessment area: Electrical power chain / ITequipment and software / Air Management / HVAC / On-site generation (Can be done off-site)Assessment Tools7. Estimate costs for each action in conjunction with site personnel (can be done off-site)8. Compile assessment report and present to site Report Template9. Provide report to DOE (sanitized if necessary, and if site approves) and provide feedbackon overall assessment process1wk2wk1wk3wk14
    • 15. DoE Master List of ActionsTo download the master list of actions “energy conservation measures”http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/datacenters/pdfs/data_center_actions_list.pdf15
    • 16. Building Rating SystemsSusta ina ble Building Ra ting System s Development Ba sisBREEAM (Building Research Establishment’s EnvironmentalAssessmentMethod)OriginalBREEAM Canada BREEAMBREEAM Green Leaf BREEAM, Green Leaf™Calabasas LEED LEED®CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for BuildingEnvironmentalEfficiency)OriginalCEPAS (Comprehensive Environmental Performance AssessmentScheme)LEED®, BREEAM, HK-BEAM, IBIEarth Advantage Commercial Buildings (Oregon) UndisclosedEkoProfile (Norway) UndisclosedESCALE UndisclosedGBTool OriginalEPC for Data Centers (developed by California EnergyCommission and LBNL)*GEM (Global Environmental Method) For Existing Buildings(Green Globes) –LEED®UK Green Globes CanadaGOBAS (Green Olympic Building Assessment System) CASBEE, LEED®Green Building Rating System – Korea BREEAM, LEED®, BEPACGreen Globes Canada BREEAM Green LeafGreen Globes™ US Green Globes CanadaGreen Leaf Eco-Rating Program OriginalGreen Star Australia BREEAM, LEED®HK BEAM (Hong Kong Building Environmental AssessmentMethod)BREEAMHQE (High Environmental Quality) UndisclosediDP(Integrated Design Process) OriginalLabs21 OriginalLEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) OriginalLEED Canada LEED®LEED India LEED®LEED Mexico LEED®MSBG (The State of Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines)98, and BREEAMLEED®, Green Building ChallengeNABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) UndisclosedPromisE UndisclosedProtocol ITACA GBToolSBAT (Sustainable Buildings Assessment Tool) OriginalScottsdales Green Building Program UndisclosedSPiRiT (Sustainable Project Rating Tool) LEED®TERI Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment OriginalTQ Building Assessment System (Total Quality BuildingAssessmentSystem)Original* The only rating system specifically developed for data center projectsMost common rating systemsare LEED, BREEAM andGreen Globes16
    • 17. U.S. GBC LEED Introduction17• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) - recognizedas the most prominent third-party green building certification system inthe US and derivations are widely used abroad.• LEED basics:• concise framework for measurable green building performance, including:energy savings, water efficiency, construction methods, buildingmaterials, and more.• can be applied to any building type, from residential homes to officebuildings to hospitals to data centers.• 4 levels of certification: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.• The latest release, Version 3, was released on April 27, 2009.• Future versions are consensus based, transparent, ongoing developmentcycle.• LEED certification leads to:• Lower operating costs Increased asset value Reduce landfill waste• Conserve energy and water Healthier and safer environments for occupants• Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions• Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities.• Demonstrates a commitment by the owner toward a more efficient, environmentally-friendly future.
    • 18. LEED Adaptations for Data CentersNew Construction Energy and Atmosphere•EA prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems (NC)•EA prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance (NC)•EA credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (NC)•EA credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning (NC)•EA credit 5: Measurement and Verification (NC)Existing Buildings Energy and Atmosphere•EA prerequisite 1: Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices – Planning, Documentation and Opportunity Assessment (EB)•EA credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning – Investigation and Analysis (EB)•EA credit 3.1: Performance Measurement – Building Automation System (EB) New Construction Water Efficiency (NEW CREDIT)•EA credit #: Cooling Tower Water Management (NC)18Final Modified / Added CreditsCertified: 40 – 49 ptsSilver: 50 – 59 ptsGold: 60 – 79 ptsPlatinum: 80+ ptsTotal Possible Points=110
    • 19. LEED Changes – 201323 credits havesubstantivechanges upcoming19Version 4
    • 20. LEED Changes – 2013Energy performance:Determine PUE5% improvement in design; 2% ofthe 5% is to be from infrastructureASHRAE 90.1-201020Version 4
    • 21. PUE Usage and public reporting guidelinesGuidance on topics:•Data Collection and Metrics Calculations•Reporting Result Timescale and Data Collection Details•Reporting Results to The Green Grid•Common Issues with Reporting or Interpreting PUE• Infrastructure vs. IT• Power vs. Energy• “Better-than-Perfect” PUE Measurements• Comparing Results Calculated over Different Timeframes at Different Granularity Levels• Comparing PUE Results Between Data Centers21
    • 22. 22Plus CUE, WUE, ERE, ERF….and Data Center Maturity Model “DCMM”PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness)EmergencygeneratorUtilitytransformerPUE Total data center energy from all fuels (kWh)Total IT energy (kWh)Total datacenter energyHouseenergy=DatacenterMainservicePP-GenserviceLightingpanelGeneratorblockHeaters &lightingLighting,Exitlights,BMS,EPMS &securityHousepanelsUPSSTSPDUsRPPsMech. SwgearData centerCRAC units,AHUs,Chillers & DrycoolersFuelMisc. support Mech. supportPowerToITIT-criticalloadDistrictchilled waterDistrict steamNatural gasCO2NOxTotal Direct WaterConsumptionFuelERFERETotal datacenterenergyTotal datacenterenergyCUEWUE
    • 23. 23ENERGY STAR Rating Vs. PUE≤ 1.5Monitoring/MeasurementRequirements• 1–49: Low cost operational changes + improving ITefficiency + lowering the heat load +reductions to thecooling load• 50–74: Simple, low-cost changes + equipment upgrades• 75–100: ENERGY STAR certification
    • 24. • 100,000 square foot, tier 4data center• 10 MW IT load• LEED Silver• Detailed energy modeling• Base case and proposedenergy end uses (demand andannual)LEED Example: Global Bank – New Data Center
    • 25. 25LEED Example: Global Bank continuedPage 6Performance Rat ing TableBaseline Building Energy Summary by End UseEnergy Peak Energy Peak EnergyKWHx000,000 kW x000 106Btu 106Btuh 106Btu 106Btuh %Interior Lighting Electricity 0.78 1.38 2662.14 4.71 2% 4163.86 8.16 2% 36.07%Interior Lighting (Process) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Exterior Lighting Electricity 0.08 0.04 273.04 0.14 0% 477.82 0.00 0% 42.86%Space Heating (fuel 1) Natural Gas 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Space Heating (fuel 2) Electricity 2.13 1.55 7269.69 5.29 2% 6757.74 5.87 2% -7.58%Space Cooling Electricity 10.26 13.73 35017.38 46.85 20% 102253.48 203.01 60% 65.75%Pumps Electricity 8.36 37.67 28532.68 128.53 55% 443.69 0.00 0% -6330.77%Heat Rejection Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Fans - Interior Electricity 7.82 10.96 26689.66 37.40 16% 79147.47 108.50 32% 66.28%Fans - Parking Garage Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Service Water Heating (fuel 1) Natural Gas 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Service Water Heating (fuel 2) Electricity 2.37 3.25 8088.81 11.09 5% 8088.81 11.06 3% 0.00%Receptacle Equipment Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Refrigeration (food, etc.) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Cooking (commercial, fuel 1) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Cooking (commercial, fuel 2) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Elevators and Escalators Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%31.8 68.58 108533.4 233.99496 100% 201332.87 336.59006 100% 46.09%Note: Energy Consumption is listed in units ofsite energy106Btu = kWh x 3.413 x 1000 103Btu = therms / 100Performance Rat ing Met hod Compliance ReportTotal Building ConsumptionBaseline BuildingProposed BuildingEnergy TypeProcessEnd Use• 46% reduction in annual energy use for infrastructure systems (as comparedto ashrae energy standard 90.1)• 41% annual water savings (as compared to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 )• Improved ventilation rates by 32% (compared to ASHRAE Std. 62.1)
    • 26. ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Compliance optionsEnergy code complianceoptions• Prescriptive option• Trade-off option• Energy cost budgetMost compliant options are Trade-off optionSelect approved addenda• Demand control ventilation requirements• Fan power limitations• Alternative compliance path for water-cooled chillerswith VFD/efficient part load performance28 addenda identified as energy-relatedMandatory Provisions• Minimum HVAC equipment efficiency• Load calculations• Controls• Construction & insulationOverall impact: higher efficiencies, thermalperformance, and documentation30% Energy progress• 6 prototypes in 17 climate zones, based on 2004• More prototypes to be examined• Envelope R-values increaseResults are preliminary26 HP Confidential
    • 27. ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Appendix G ImpactsClarifying existing items• Ventilation cfm of proposed = baseline• Exception – EQc2 increased ventilation doesn’tchange baseline• Purchased CHW now coveredSummary: Eliminating confusion for calcsData Center economizer exceptions• 3 MMBtuh with or without central plant• 0.6 MMBtuh or less being added to existing building• 0.6 MMBtuh or less with central plant• Local authority prohibits cooling towersSummary: Only small data centers meetexemption criteriaWater-side items• VFD required on pump motors >10 HP• Maximum flows per pipe sizes• Heat exchanger test procedure• Pump head calcs requiredSummary: More stringent requirements toincrease efficiencyAir-side items• Exhaust air energy recover exception: flammable• Two new baseline systems 10 & 11• Supply resets• Demand control ventilationSummary: Greater efficiency on most airsystems27
    • 28. 28 HP ConfidentialTC 9.09 recommendations at computer equipment air intakesASHRAE: Indoor Temperature and Moisture LevelsMAXIMUM80°F dry-bulb67°F wet-bulb60°F dew pointMAXIMUM80°F dry-bulb67°F wet-bulb60°F dew pointMINIMUM65°F dry-bulb53°F wet-bulb43°F dew pointMINIMUM65°F dry-bulb53°F wet-bulb43°F dew pointAlternate Description Dry Bulb (°F)RelativeHumidity (%)W et Bulb (°F) Dew Point (°F)Chilled W aterSupply TempCondenserW aterSupply Temp(for W SE)MaximumOutdoor W etBulb Temp (forW SE)70F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 70.0 37.6 54.9 43.070F SA Conditions - High Humidity 70.0 58.9 60.6 55.072F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 72.0 35.1 55.7 43.072F SA Conditions - High Humidity 72.0 61.4 63.0 58.075F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 75.0 31.8 56.9 43.075F SA Conditions - High Humidity 75.0 59.6 65.1 60.080F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 80.0 26.9 58.8 43.080F SA Conditions - High Humidity 80.0 50.5 66.7 60.0#1#2#3#458.060.063.068.056.058.061.066.042.044.047.052.0
    • 29. 50001 – Energy Management System• Designed to be used independently, yet can be aligned or integratedwith other management systems (e.g., ISO 9001) and environmental(ISO 14001). Applicable to all organizations.• Requires an organization to establish, implement, maintain, andimprove an energy management system, enabling systematicachievement of continual improvement in energy performance, energyefficiency, and energy conservation.• Imposes requirements on energy supply and consumption:− Measurement− Documentation and reporting− Design and procurement practices forenergy-using equipment and systems− Processes and personnel• Applies to all factors that can be monitored and influenced by theorganization to affect energy use.• Does not prescribe specific performance criteria with respect to energy.International Organization for Standardization ISO29 HP Confidential
    • 30. Hallmarks of a “Green” data center• Standards/Metrics for whole building performance• Demand for high temperature server operation will continue, changing the waydata centers are designed• Advances in using outdoor air for cooling will dramatically reduce energy use• Based on industry design criteria and best practices, Climate and geographyleveraged to minimize GHG emissions• Facility responds to site constraints and advantages• Designed using rigorous whole-building energy modeling• Optimization of energy and water use• Life cycle approach used in decision making• Thorough and transparent reporting of energy use – Energy &Sustainability Management (ESM)30