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Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
Cisco CCNA module 9
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Cisco CCNA module 9

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  • 1. 1© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 9 TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing
  • 2. 222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Objectives
  • 3. 333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The TCP/IP Model The Department of Defense (DoD) developed the TCP/IP reference model to provide a communication network that could continue to function in wartime.
  • 4. 444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id TCP/IP Applications
  • 5. 555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols • The functions of TCP and UDP Segment upper-layer application data
  • 6. 666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols TCP is responsible for: • end-to-end communication • flow control • reliability of data delivery TCP supports a logical connection between the sending and receiving hosts
  • 7. 777© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols
  • 8. 888© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Layer ProtocolsThe IP Protocol is responsible for: • defining packet format and addressing scheme • routing packets to remote hosts • transferring data between the internet layer and the network access layer
  • 9. 999© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Layer Protocols • IP - connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of packets. • ICMP - control and messaging capabilities. • ARP - determines the data link layer address for known IP addresses. • RARP - determines the IP address for a known MAC address.
  • 10. 101010© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Path Determination
  • 11. 111111© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Question • Why is IP sometimes referred as an unreliable protocol? • Is it really unreliable?
  • 12. 121212© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Answer • IP is sometimes referred to as an unreliable protocol. • This does not mean that IP will not accurately deliver data across a network. • Calling IP an unreliable protocol simply means that IP does not perform error checking and correction. • That function is handled by upper layer protocols from the transport or application layers.
  • 13. 131313© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Access Protocols The Network Access Layer is the host-to- network layer of the TCP/IP model. • Encapsulation of IP packets into frames • Interface to the physical medium
  • 14. 141414© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id
  • 15. 151515© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Comparing TCP/IP with the OSI Model
  • 16. 161616© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Router Connects Two Networks • A network of networks is called an internet, indicated with the lowercase “i”. • When referring to the networks that developed from the DoD on which the Worldwide Web (www) runs, the uppercase “I” is used and is called the Internet.
  • 17. 171717© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Routers Connect Local and Remote Networks
  • 18. 181818© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Users See TCP/IP Cloud
  • 19. 191919© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Physical Details Hidden from Users
  • 20. 202020© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id “Scale-Free Networks” Scientific American May 2003 The internet somewhere in the N.E. US
  • 21. 212121© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Forwarding Packets—IP address • A router forwards packets from the originating network to the destination network using the IP protocol. • The packets must include an identifier for both the source and destination networks. • Accordingly, every IP address has two parts – One part identifies the network where the system is connected – A second part identifies that particular system on the network
  • 22. 222222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Host Address 192.168.1.0 1. 192.168.1.1 2. 192.168.1.2 3. 192.168.1.3 4. 192.168.1.4 192.168.2.0 1. 192.168.2.1 2. 192.168.2.2 3. 192.168.2.3 4. 192.168.2.4
  • 23. 232323© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Addressing Format
  • 24. 242424© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Consecutive Decimal and Binary Values
  • 25. 252525© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  • 26. 262626© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  • 27. 272727© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id One Byte (Eight Bit Number)
  • 28. 282828© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Decimal to Binary Conversion
  • 29. 292929© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  • 30. 303030© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Binary to Decimal Conversion
  • 31. 313131© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Layer Communication Path • Routers use IP to make decisions about how to reach a particular destination
  • 32. 323232© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network and Host Addressing
  • 33. 333333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Addresses • IP address space is hierarchical • Uses the concept of classes • Compare this with the flat MAC address space
  • 34. 343434© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Identifying Address Classes • The pattern of High Order Bits defines the class of the network address
  • 35. 353535© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address Classes
  • 36. 363636© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Address Class Prefixes
  • 37. 373737© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network and Host Division
  • 38. 383838© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class A Address
  • 39. 393939© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class B Address
  • 40. 404040© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class C Address
  • 41. 414141© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class D Address Architecture
  • 42. 424242© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class E Address Architecture
  • 43. 434343© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address Range
  • 44. 444444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Address • Host portion all zeros
  • 45. 454545© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Address • Host portion all ones
  • 46. 464646© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Address
  • 47. 474747© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Unicast Transmission (to ONE Host only) • Addressed to a specific host i.e. 176.10.16.1 • Only that host looks at the contents of the packet
  • 48. 484848© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Address (to ALL Hosts)
  • 49. 494949© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Transmission • All hosts listen for broadcast messages • Only the host with the appropriate service responds
  • 50. 505050© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Required Unique Address • A packet can only be sent out onto the Internet if it has a unique address
  • 51. 515151© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Private IP Addresses • You can use these addresses on any private LAN. • You CANNOT use them on the internet. • Internet routers will block them.
  • 52. 525252© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Using Private Addresses in the WAN •Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses •This translation process is referred to as Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • 53. 535353© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 Address Allocation
  • 54. 545454© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Subnet Addresses
  • 55. 555555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 and IPv6
  • 56. 565656© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses
  • 57. 575757© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Assigning IP Addresses
  • 58. 585858© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id TCPIP/IP Configuration for Windows 98
  • 59. 595959© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address
  • 60. 606060© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP/RARP Message Structure
  • 61. 616161© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id BOOTP Message Structure
  • 62. 626262© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id DHCP Message Structure
  • 63. 636363© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Table Entry
  • 64. 646464© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Table Funtions
  • 65. 656565© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The ARP Process
  • 66. 666666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Request
  • 67. 676767© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Proxy ARP Request
  • 68. 686868© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Which host has this IP address? • ARP
  • 69. 696969© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Default Gateway
  • 70. 707070© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Summary
  • 71. 717171© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Quick Reference Subnetting Chart

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