Cisco CCNA module 9

1,866 views
1,737 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,866
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
261
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cisco CCNA module 9

  1. 1. 1© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 9 TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing
  2. 2. 222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Objectives
  3. 3. 333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The TCP/IP Model The Department of Defense (DoD) developed the TCP/IP reference model to provide a communication network that could continue to function in wartime.
  4. 4. 444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id TCP/IP Applications
  5. 5. 555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols • The functions of TCP and UDP Segment upper-layer application data
  6. 6. 666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols TCP is responsible for: • end-to-end communication • flow control • reliability of data delivery TCP supports a logical connection between the sending and receiving hosts
  7. 7. 777© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transport Layer Protocols
  8. 8. 888© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Layer ProtocolsThe IP Protocol is responsible for: • defining packet format and addressing scheme • routing packets to remote hosts • transferring data between the internet layer and the network access layer
  9. 9. 999© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Layer Protocols • IP - connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of packets. • ICMP - control and messaging capabilities. • ARP - determines the data link layer address for known IP addresses. • RARP - determines the IP address for a known MAC address.
  10. 10. 101010© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Path Determination
  11. 11. 111111© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Question • Why is IP sometimes referred as an unreliable protocol? • Is it really unreliable?
  12. 12. 121212© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Answer • IP is sometimes referred to as an unreliable protocol. • This does not mean that IP will not accurately deliver data across a network. • Calling IP an unreliable protocol simply means that IP does not perform error checking and correction. • That function is handled by upper layer protocols from the transport or application layers.
  13. 13. 131313© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Access Protocols The Network Access Layer is the host-to- network layer of the TCP/IP model. • Encapsulation of IP packets into frames • Interface to the physical medium
  14. 14. 141414© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id
  15. 15. 151515© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Comparing TCP/IP with the OSI Model
  16. 16. 161616© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Router Connects Two Networks • A network of networks is called an internet, indicated with the lowercase “i”. • When referring to the networks that developed from the DoD on which the Worldwide Web (www) runs, the uppercase “I” is used and is called the Internet.
  17. 17. 171717© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Routers Connect Local and Remote Networks
  18. 18. 181818© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Users See TCP/IP Cloud
  19. 19. 191919© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Physical Details Hidden from Users
  20. 20. 202020© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id “Scale-Free Networks” Scientific American May 2003 The internet somewhere in the N.E. US
  21. 21. 212121© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Forwarding Packets—IP address • A router forwards packets from the originating network to the destination network using the IP protocol. • The packets must include an identifier for both the source and destination networks. • Accordingly, every IP address has two parts – One part identifies the network where the system is connected – A second part identifies that particular system on the network
  22. 22. 222222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Host Address 192.168.1.0 1. 192.168.1.1 2. 192.168.1.2 3. 192.168.1.3 4. 192.168.1.4 192.168.2.0 1. 192.168.2.1 2. 192.168.2.2 3. 192.168.2.3 4. 192.168.2.4
  23. 23. 232323© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Addressing Format
  24. 24. 242424© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Consecutive Decimal and Binary Values
  25. 25. 252525© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  26. 26. 262626© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  27. 27. 272727© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id One Byte (Eight Bit Number)
  28. 28. 282828© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Decimal to Binary Conversion
  29. 29. 292929© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Two Byte (Sixteen Bit Number)
  30. 30. 303030© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Binary to Decimal Conversion
  31. 31. 313131© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Layer Communication Path • Routers use IP to make decisions about how to reach a particular destination
  32. 32. 323232© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network and Host Addressing
  33. 33. 333333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Internet Addresses • IP address space is hierarchical • Uses the concept of classes • Compare this with the flat MAC address space
  34. 34. 343434© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Identifying Address Classes • The pattern of High Order Bits defines the class of the network address
  35. 35. 353535© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address Classes
  36. 36. 363636© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Address Class Prefixes
  37. 37. 373737© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network and Host Division
  38. 38. 383838© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class A Address
  39. 39. 393939© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class B Address
  40. 40. 404040© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class C Address
  41. 41. 414141© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class D Address Architecture
  42. 42. 424242© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Class E Address Architecture
  43. 43. 434343© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address Range
  44. 44. 444444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Address • Host portion all zeros
  45. 45. 454545© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Address • Host portion all ones
  46. 46. 464646© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Network Address
  47. 47. 474747© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Unicast Transmission (to ONE Host only) • Addressed to a specific host i.e. 176.10.16.1 • Only that host looks at the contents of the packet
  48. 48. 484848© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Address (to ALL Hosts)
  49. 49. 494949© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Broadcast Transmission • All hosts listen for broadcast messages • Only the host with the appropriate service responds
  50. 50. 505050© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Required Unique Address • A packet can only be sent out onto the Internet if it has a unique address
  51. 51. 515151© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Private IP Addresses • You can use these addresses on any private LAN. • You CANNOT use them on the internet. • Internet routers will block them.
  52. 52. 525252© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Using Private Addresses in the WAN •Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses •This translation process is referred to as Network Address Translation (NAT)
  53. 53. 535353© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 Address Allocation
  54. 54. 545454© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Subnet Addresses
  55. 55. 555555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 and IPv6
  56. 56. 565656© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses
  57. 57. 575757© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Assigning IP Addresses
  58. 58. 585858© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id TCPIP/IP Configuration for Windows 98
  59. 59. 595959© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IP Address
  60. 60. 606060© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP/RARP Message Structure
  61. 61. 616161© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id BOOTP Message Structure
  62. 62. 626262© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id DHCP Message Structure
  63. 63. 636363© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Table Entry
  64. 64. 646464© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Table Funtions
  65. 65. 656565© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The ARP Process
  66. 66. 666666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id ARP Request
  67. 67. 676767© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Proxy ARP Request
  68. 68. 686868© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Which host has this IP address? • ARP
  69. 69. 696969© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Default Gateway
  70. 70. 707070© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Summary
  71. 71. 717171© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Quick Reference Subnetting Chart

×