1© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 6
Ethernet Fundamentals
222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Objectives
333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet
• Ethernet is a bus network in which
multiple c...
444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Introduction to Ethernet
• Most of the traffic on the In...
555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
The Success of Ethernet
The success of Ethernet is due t...
666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Inventor of Ethernet – Out of the Ether
777© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Introduction to Ethernet
Ethernet was originally develop...
888© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Defining Standard
• "The nice thing about standards is
t...
999© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
OSI Model
101010© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
The Physical layer
Layer 1 involves interfacing with:...
111111© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Data Link Layer
• Data link layer provides reliable t...
121212© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Data link layer– Two Parts (sub-layers)
Logical link ...
131313© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet and the OSI Model
• Ethernet operates in two...
141414© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet and the OSI Model
151515© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
IEEE Ethernet Standards
IEEE 802 Committee Standards:...
161616© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet and the OSI Model
171717© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet and the OSI Model
181818© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Naming – The MAC or Hardware Address
• A 48-bit addre...
191919© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Naming – MAC Address Format
The MAC address consists ...
202020© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Framing
• Framing is the Layer 2 encapsulation proces...
212121© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Layer 2 Framing
222222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Layer 2 Framing
232323© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Frame Structures
242424© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Frame Structure
252525© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
IEEE 802.3 Frame Structure
262626© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
IEEE 802.3 Preamble (Start Frame Field)
272727© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet - IEEE802.3 Frame Field Comparison
282828© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Layer 2 Technologies
• Token Ring - logical ring topo...
292929© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Media Access Control (MAC)
• MAC refers to Protocols ...
303030© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet
•Ethernet performs three functions:
• Transm...
313131© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
MAC Rules and Collision Detection/Backoff
323232© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
MAC Rules and Collision Detection/Backoff
333333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
CSMA/CD
Non-Deterministic
1. Listen then transmit
1 2...
343434© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Timing
353535© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Interframe Spacing and Backoff
363636© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Timing
• Slot time – the longest time taken ...
373737© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Error Handling
383838© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Types of Collisions
• What is a Runt frame ?
393939© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Answer
• Any frame which is received and which is les...
404040© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Types of Collisions
414141© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Errors
424242© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Errors
434343© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
FCS Errors
444444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Transmission Errors
Collision or runt – Simultaneous ...
454545© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Auto-Negotiation
• NLP – Network Link Pulses...
464646© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Auto-Negotiation
474747© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Ethernet Auto-Negotiation
484848© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Transmission Priority Rank
494949© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
IEEE Ethernet Naming Rules
505050© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
www.pnj.ac.id
Why was Ethernet Successful
• Ethernet has been the m...
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Cisco CCNA module 6

  1. 1. 1© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 6 Ethernet Fundamentals
  2. 2. 222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Objectives
  3. 3. 333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet • Ethernet is a bus network in which multiple computers share a single transmission medium. While one computer transmits a frame to another. All other computers must wait. • Ethernet is the dominant LAN technology in the world. • Ethernet is not one technology but a family of LAN technologies.( E- FE-GE)
  4. 4. 444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Introduction to Ethernet • Most of the traffic on the Internet originates and ends with Ethernet connections. • Competing and fighting to access the media -------Original idea for Ethernet was developed in early 1970s at the University of Hawaii . • 1970’s Alohanet was the basis Ethernet access method known as CSMA/CD. • DIX-1980 Robert Metcalfe+ The first LAN in the world. That is the original version of Ethernet. • 1985—IEEE---The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers published standards for LANs. These standards start with the number 802. The standard for Ethernet is 802.3. (IEEE –must be compatible to OSI model). The standard for Ethernet is 802.3. • Essentially, Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 are the same standards ( some small modification ) • In 1995, IEEE announced a standard for a 100-Mbps Ethernet (called Fast Ethernet). • In 1998 and 1999 standards for gigabit per second (Gbps, 1 billion bits per second) • The bandwidth of the network could be increased many times without changing the underlying Ethernet technology
  5. 5. 555© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The Success of Ethernet The success of Ethernet is due to the following factors: • Simplicity and ease of maintenance • Ability to incorporate new technologies • Reliability • Low cost of installation and upgrade Together, Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 currently maintain the greatest market share of any LAN protocol
  6. 6. 666© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Inventor of Ethernet – Out of the Ether
  7. 7. 777© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Introduction to Ethernet Ethernet was originally developed to operate over radio in the Hawaiian islands
  8. 8. 888© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Defining Standard • "The nice thing about standards is that there's so many to choose from."
  9. 9. 999© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id OSI Model
  10. 10. 101010© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id The Physical layer Layer 1 involves interfacing with: • media, signals, bit streams that travel on the media • components that put signals on media, and various topologies.
  11. 11. 111111© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Data Link Layer • Data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link by using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. • Data link layer is concerned with physical (as opposed to network, or logical) addressing.
  12. 12. 121212© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Data link layer– Two Parts (sub-layers) Logical link Control (LLC) : (IEEE 802.2) • The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer remains relatively independent of the physical equipment • Provides an interface between the MAC layer and the Network layer which is independent of the hardware Media Access Control (MAC): (part of IEEE 802.3) • The MAC sub-layer is concerned with the physical components that will be used to communicate the information.. • WHO can access the network when multiple computers are trying to access it simultaneously. • physical addressing (MAC addresses) and access control methods.
  13. 13. 131313© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet and the OSI Model • Ethernet operates in two areas of the OSI model, the lower half of the data link layer, known as the MAC sub layer and the physical layer • Trick question
  14. 14. 141414© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet and the OSI Model
  15. 15. 151515© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IEEE Ethernet Standards IEEE 802 Committee Standards: • 802.1 - Standards introduction • 802.2 - Logical Link Control (LLC) to prevent senders from overwhelming receivers (ACK) • 802.3 – Ethernet CSMA/CD, multiple media access methods, and packet (frame) format. • 802.4 - Token Bus - 75 ohm CATV coax or Fibre • 802.5 - Token Ring - physical standard and media access sublayer • 802.6 - MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) - similar to FDDI • 802.7 - Broadband • 802.8 - Fiber Optics • 802.9 - Integrated Voice and Data • 802.10 - LAN Security • 802.11 - Wireless • 802.12 -100 VG AnyLAN
  16. 16. 161616© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet and the OSI Model
  17. 17. 171717© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet and the OSI Model
  18. 18. 181818© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Naming – The MAC or Hardware Address • A 48-bit address burned onto the NIC. • It is a unique way of identifying each computer on a network. • Flat Address All devices that are connected to the Ethernet LAN have MAC addressed interfaces including workstations, printers, routers, and switches.
  19. 19. 191919© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Naming – MAC Address Format The MAC address consists of 12 hex digits (48 bits) The first six digits (assigned by the IEEE) represent the Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) which identifies the manufacturer The last six are assigned by the manufacturer and represent a unique hardware ID number for the NIC
  20. 20. 202020© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Framing • Framing is the Layer 2 encapsulation process. • Bit streams (data) 010101 alone can not be sent between devices. • We must divide the data up and add: a bit pattern to flag the start of each frame relevant MAC addresses a block of data some bits for error detection a bit pattern to flag the end of the frame • A frame is the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU).
  21. 21. 212121© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Layer 2 Framing
  22. 22. 222222© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Layer 2 Framing
  23. 23. 232323© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Frame Structures
  24. 24. 242424© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Frame Structure
  25. 25. 252525© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IEEE 802.3 Frame Structure
  26. 26. 262626© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IEEE 802.3 Preamble (Start Frame Field)
  27. 27. 272727© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet - IEEE802.3 Frame Field Comparison
  28. 28. 282828© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Layer 2 Technologies • Token Ring - logical ring topology (in other words, information flow is controlled in a ring) and a physical star topology (in other words, it is wired as a star) • FDDI - logical ring topology (information flow is controlled in a ring) and physical dual ring topology (wired as a dual ring) • Ethernet - logical bus topology (information flow is on a linear bus) and physical star or extended star (wired as a star)
  29. 29. 292929© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Media Access Control (MAC) • MAC refers to Protocols that determine which computer on a shared-medium environment, or collision domain, is allowed to transmit the data. • MAC, with LLC, comprises the IEEE version of the OSI Layer 2. • There are two broad categories of Media Access Control 1. Deterministic taking turns 2. Non-deterministic first come, first served).
  30. 30. 303030© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet •Ethernet performs three functions: • Transmitting and receiving data packets • Decoding data packets and checking them for valid MAC addresses before passing them to the upper layers of the OSI model • detecting errors within data packets or on the network In the CSMA/CD access method, networking devices with data to transmit over the networking media work in a listen-before- transmit mode.
  31. 31. 313131© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id MAC Rules and Collision Detection/Backoff
  32. 32. 323232© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id MAC Rules and Collision Detection/Backoff
  33. 33. 333333© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id CSMA/CD Non-Deterministic 1. Listen then transmit 1 2 3 4 2. Collision occurs 3. Broadcast jam signal 4. Devices back off appropriate amount of time, goes back to listen then transmit and then retransmit Ethernet is a broadcast transmission medium. This means that all devices on a network can see all data that passes along the networking media. When a device has verified the destination MAC address carried by the data, it then checks the data packet for transmission errors. If the device detects errors, the data packet is discarded. The destination device will not notify the source device, regardless of whether the packet arrived successfully. Ethernet is a connectionless network architecture and is referred to as a best-effort delivery system.
  34. 34. 343434© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Timing
  35. 35. 353535© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Interframe Spacing and Backoff
  36. 36. 363636© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Timing • Slot time – the longest time taken to do a round trip of the largest legal network – 512 Bits = 64 Bytes • Interframe spacing – 96 bit times for 10, 100, 1000 Mbps networks
  37. 37. 373737© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Error Handling
  38. 38. 383838© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Types of Collisions • What is a Runt frame ?
  39. 39. 393939© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Answer • Any frame which is received and which is less than 64 bytes is illegal, and is called a "runt". (14 bytes + 46+ 4) • A receiver must discard all runt frames
  40. 40. 404040© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Types of Collisions
  41. 41. 414141© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Errors
  42. 42. 424242© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Errors
  43. 43. 434343© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id FCS Errors
  44. 44. 444444© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transmission Errors Collision or runt – Simultaneous transmission occurring before slot time has elapsed Late collision – Simultaneous transmission occurring after slot time (512 bits = 64 Bytes)has elapsed Jabber, long frame and range errors – Excessively or illegally long transmission (jabber 20000-50000 octets) Short frame, collision fragment or runt – Illegally short transmission FCS error – Corrupted transmission
  45. 45. 454545© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Auto-Negotiation • NLP – Network Link Pulses (10 Mbps) Pulses sent by NIC every 16 ms Convey information about the capabilities of the card or device • FLP (100Mbps-1000Mbps) Mandatory Made up of NLPs so 10 Mbps cards can exist with 100 and 1000 Mbps
  46. 46. 464646© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Auto-Negotiation
  47. 47. 474747© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Ethernet Auto-Negotiation
  48. 48. 484848© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Transmission Priority Rank
  49. 49. 494949© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id IEEE Ethernet Naming Rules
  50. 50. 505050© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.pnj.ac.id Why was Ethernet Successful • Ethernet has been the most successful LAN technology largely because of its simplicity of implementation compared to other technologies. • Ethernet has also been successful because it has been a flexible technology that has evolved to meet changing needs and media capabilities
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