Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011

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Brief discussion of the implication of two articles concerning pesticide use in vegetable production in Cambodia and effects on pesticide resiues in market vegetables.

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Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011

  1. 1. 2 Research Articles on Pesticide Related Issues in CambodiaYearend 2010/2011<br />Winfried Scheewe/COrAA - PRN Meeting 28/02/2011<br />
  2. 2. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodiaby Hanne K. Jensen et al.<br />Prevalence and Persistence of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides in Cambodian Market Vegetables byD.S.G. Neufeld et al.<br />
  3. 3. Pesticide Use among Aquatic Farmers<br />Phnom Penh Post, 11 January 2011<br />
  4. 4. Some Findings<br />Frequent use of the most toxic insecticides based on the WHO classification <br />Ia + Ib which are, respectively, extremely and highly hazardous and<br />Class II which are moderately hazardous<br />Both classes are banned or have restricted use in Cambodia<br />
  5. 5. Insecticides used by 93 households in Boeung Cheung Ek Lake <br />
  6. 6. Personal protective measures adapted by 89 farmers in<br /> relation to spraying pesticides in Boeung Cheung EK Lake<br />Some Findings (2)<br />
  7. 7. Pesticides Residues in Vegetables<br />Research Article:<br />Prevalence and Persistence of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides in Cambodian Market Vegetables<br />D.S.G. Neufeld*, H. Savoeun1, C. Phoeurk1, A. Glick2 and C. Hernandez3<br />Department of Biology, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA<br />1Department of Chemistry, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia<br />2Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA<br />3Department of Chemistry, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, New York, USA<br />Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 89-98.<br /> Probably the first research article on Pesticide residues in Cambodian Market Vegetables<br />
  8. 8. Carbamate insecticides<br />kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. <br />They are relatively unstable compounds that break down in the environment within weeks or months. <br />
  9. 9. Organophosphates<br />Examples<br />Insecticides including malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion<br />Herbicides including tribufos [DEF] <br />One of the products of the reaction of Fc2P2S4 with dimethylcyanamide<br />
  10. 10. Concerns of the Study<br />Widespread use of pesticides on vegetable crops <br />Likely that vegetables sold in Cambodian markets could contain pesticide residues …<br /> … but very little information available on actual levels of pesticides<br />
  11. 11. Pesticide measurements generally require special skills and equipment<br />Cambodia has lacked the capacity to conduct regular monitoring<br />critical information on the prevalence of pesticide residues is lacking <br />Concerns of the Study<br />
  12. 12. Second round:screening test indi-catedpresence of pesticide residue<br />in 88% of curly-leafed kale, <br />95% of white-stemmed kale<br />and 93% of Chinese broccoli samples<br />Results of the study<br />Long bean shows the fewest responses for pesticides residue, with no samples showing unsafe levels<br />
  13. 13. Two rounds of screening <br /> indicate that <br />Consumers are regularly exposed to pesticide residues in local vegetables<br />Significant variation in levels of pesticide residues<br />Results of the study<br />
  14. 14. Farm Trials for OP/C Sprayed on Water Spinach<br /> confirm a clear trend in methyl parathion disappearance<br />Results of the study<br />
  15. 15. Pesticide residues are widespread in market vegetables<br />Consumers are likely exposed to these pesticide residues, although the<br />Screening tests used in this study do not indicate the level of health risk associated with the residues in market vegetables<br />Conclusion (1)<br />
  16. 16. Need to consider both toxicity and persistence in assessing the impacts associated with residues on vegetables<br />Conclusion (2)<br />
  17. 17. Contexts: lower resources and capacity <br />Screening of vegetable samples with simpler test methods (such as the cholinesterase inhibition assay) coupled with targeted analysis of samples of concern can …<br />… provide information about prevalence and magnitude of residues, at a lower investment of resources and time<br />Conclusion (3)<br />Appropriate pesticide monitoring strategy<br />
  18. 18. Effects<br />Recent Findings on Effects<br />Exposure to organophosphates chronic fatigue symptoms<br />A 2010 study: Organophosphate exposure is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease<br />Organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, (used on fruits and vegetables)<br />  delays in learning rates, reduced physical coordination, and behavioral problems in children<br />
  19. 19. Effects<br />Recent Findings on Effects<br />Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)<br />A 2010 study:organophosphate exposure is associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children.organophosphate residues in the urine of children aged 8 to 15 years old:<br /> those with the highest levels of dialkyl phosphates – a breakdown product of organo-phosphate pesticides - also had the highest incidence of ADHD<br />
  20. 20. Recent Findings on Effects<br /> Scientists from University of London’s Centre for Toxicology found:<br />30 out of 37 pesticides blocked or mimicked male hormones, <br />including 16 that had no known hormonal activity until now.<br />

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