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Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011
 

Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011

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Brief discussion of the implication of two articles concerning pesticide use in vegetable production in Cambodia and effects on pesticide resiues in market vegetables.

Brief discussion of the implication of two articles concerning pesticide use in vegetable production in Cambodia and effects on pesticide resiues in market vegetables.

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    Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011 Two research articles on pesticides in cambodia 2011 02 28 vs 07 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • 2 Research Articles on Pesticide Related Issues in CambodiaYearend 2010/2011
      Winfried Scheewe/COrAA - PRN Meeting 28/02/2011
    • Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodiaby Hanne K. Jensen et al.
      Prevalence and Persistence of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides in Cambodian Market Vegetables byD.S.G. Neufeld et al.
    • Pesticide Use among Aquatic Farmers
      Phnom Penh Post, 11 January 2011
    • Some Findings
      Frequent use of the most toxic insecticides based on the WHO classification
      Ia + Ib which are, respectively, extremely and highly hazardous and
      Class II which are moderately hazardous
      Both classes are banned or have restricted use in Cambodia
    • Insecticides used by 93 households in Boeung Cheung Ek Lake
    • Personal protective measures adapted by 89 farmers in
      relation to spraying pesticides in Boeung Cheung EK Lake
      Some Findings (2)
    • Pesticides Residues in Vegetables
      Research Article:
      Prevalence and Persistence of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides in Cambodian Market Vegetables
      D.S.G. Neufeld*, H. Savoeun1, C. Phoeurk1, A. Glick2 and C. Hernandez3
      Department of Biology, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA
      1Department of Chemistry, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia
      2Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA
      3Department of Chemistry, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, New York, USA
      Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 89-98.
      Probably the first research article on Pesticide residues in Cambodian Market Vegetables
    • Carbamate insecticides
      kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
      They are relatively unstable compounds that break down in the environment within weeks or months.
    • Organophosphates
      Examples
      Insecticides including malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion
      Herbicides including tribufos [DEF]
      One of the products of the reaction of Fc2P2S4 with dimethylcyanamide
    • Concerns of the Study
      Widespread use of pesticides on vegetable crops
      Likely that vegetables sold in Cambodian markets could contain pesticide residues …
      … but very little information available on actual levels of pesticides
    • Pesticide measurements generally require special skills and equipment
      Cambodia has lacked the capacity to conduct regular monitoring
      critical information on the prevalence of pesticide residues is lacking
      Concerns of the Study
    • Second round:screening test indi-catedpresence of pesticide residue
      in 88% of curly-leafed kale,
      95% of white-stemmed kale
      and 93% of Chinese broccoli samples
      Results of the study
      Long bean shows the fewest responses for pesticides residue, with no samples showing unsafe levels
    • Two rounds of screening
      indicate that
      Consumers are regularly exposed to pesticide residues in local vegetables
      Significant variation in levels of pesticide residues
      Results of the study
    • Farm Trials for OP/C Sprayed on Water Spinach
       confirm a clear trend in methyl parathion disappearance
      Results of the study
    • Pesticide residues are widespread in market vegetables
      Consumers are likely exposed to these pesticide residues, although the
      Screening tests used in this study do not indicate the level of health risk associated with the residues in market vegetables
      Conclusion (1)
    • Need to consider both toxicity and persistence in assessing the impacts associated with residues on vegetables
      Conclusion (2)
    • Contexts: lower resources and capacity
      Screening of vegetable samples with simpler test methods (such as the cholinesterase inhibition assay) coupled with targeted analysis of samples of concern can …
      … provide information about prevalence and magnitude of residues, at a lower investment of resources and time
      Conclusion (3)
      Appropriate pesticide monitoring strategy
    • Effects
      Recent Findings on Effects
      Exposure to organophosphates chronic fatigue symptoms
      A 2010 study: Organophosphate exposure is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease
      Organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, (used on fruits and vegetables)
       delays in learning rates, reduced physical coordination, and behavioral problems in children
    • Effects
      Recent Findings on Effects
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
      A 2010 study:organophosphate exposure is associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children.organophosphate residues in the urine of children aged 8 to 15 years old:
      those with the highest levels of dialkyl phosphates – a breakdown product of organo-phosphate pesticides - also had the highest incidence of ADHD
    • Recent Findings on Effects
      Scientists from University of London’s Centre for Toxicology found:
      30 out of 37 pesticides blocked or mimicked male hormones,
      including 16 that had no known hormonal activity until now.