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Snow adolescent literact

Snow adolescent literact



Ms. Snow is a reknown expert on literacy strategies and speaks around the US. This is extremely helpful info for anyone interesting in teaching reading.

Ms. Snow is a reknown expert on literacy strategies and speaks around the US. This is extremely helpful info for anyone interesting in teaching reading.



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    Snow adolescent literact Snow adolescent literact Presentation Transcript

    • Adolescent Literacy: The Crisis and the Solutions Catherine E. Snow Harvard Graduate School of Education Ohio Summit on Literacy in Secondary Schools 26 March 2007
    • The state of reading, writ large
      • Its importance heavily emphasized in policy
      • Considerable attention from the federal government to the details of practice
      • Lots of funding, relatively speaking
      • Focus on assessments/accountability
      • But the scores that count are not improving
      • While demands for improved literacy outputs are rising
    • What’s the crisis?
      • Academic achievement depends on better literacy skills
      • But the data are alarming
        • International comparisons of 15 year olds’ literacy: PISA (A. Schleicher)
        • NAEP scores
        • Dropout rates
        • Postsecondary remediation
    • Average performance of 15-year-olds in reading literacy High reading performance Low reading performance
    • NAEP 12 th grade Reading Assessment results
        • 37% at Basic level & 23% at Below Basic level
        • Fewer than half of twelfth graders perform at or above the level expected by NAEP standards
      Source: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, NAEP 1998 Report Cards, 1999
    • Drop-out Rates
      • Almost half of African-American and Latino students fail to graduate from high school in 5 years (Greene & Forster, 2003; Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004)
      • High school drop-out rates among 16 to 24 year-olds in 2000:
      • 10.9% overall
      • 13.1% among African-Americans
      • 27.8% among Hispanics
        • 44.2% among immigrants born outside the U.S.
        • 15.9% among second (or greater) generation immigrants
      Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, October 2000
    • Post-secondary Remediation
      • Only 30% of high school students graduate as proficient readers who are college-ready (Greene & Forster, 2003)
      • 35 - 40% of high school graduates do not have the sophisticated reading and writing skills that employers seek (Achieve, Inc., 2005; Kaestle et al., 2001; National Commission on Writing, 2004)
      • Half of all high school graduates or GED recipients exhibit the lowest levels of literacy (Kaestle et al., 2001)
    • Two adolescent literacy challenges
      • Dealing with the struggling readers
        • Wide array of skills present in the post-primary classroom
        • Some students need intensive re-teaching
        • Some need serious remediation
        • All strugglers need help to make up for missed learning opportunities
      • Teaching the normally developing readers new skills
        • New vocabulary and academic language
        • Content-specific literacy skills
        • New purposes for reading
    • The price of success: Reading Excellence and Reading First
      • Inoculation has become the default model —focusing efforts exclusively on the early grades
      • “ Research-based practice” can mean we are like the drunk looking under the streetlamp for his keys
        • E.g., we interpret adolescent literacy problems as primary reading problems postponed
        • E.g., we implement PA interventions rather than struggling to teach comprehension
    • What can we learn from reading excellence?
    • PRD Starting Points
      • Prevention, not instruction
        • primary, secondary, and tertiary
        • structural as much as instructional
        • implies assessment to guide decisions
      • Emergent literacy, not readiness
      • Research consensus about
      • skilled reading
    • PRD Recommendations: Instruction to promote…
      • Language and metalinguistic skills
      • Understanding the functions of written language
      • Both grasping and mastering the alphabetic system
      • Motivation and positive affect around literacy
    • The accomplishments of Reading Excellence: Agreement that…
      • Excellent early reading instruction is part of a solid foundation for on-going achievement
      • Investing time in effective teaching and not wasting time on ineffective teaching are key
      • We need to coordinate literacy instruction across the preprimary, primary, and later grades
      • We can identify and correct weaknesses in early literacy programs
    • Reading First
      • Focus on instruction, not prevention
      • Mandated use of assessments for accountability
      • Presumption regarding central role of teacher/school expectations in influencing student achievement
      • Perverse incentives regarding high standards
      • Important but tricky disaggregation strategy
      • Attention to AYP rather than growth
    • National Reading Panel Report Recommendations about Instruction
      • Phonological awareness (15-18 hrs)
      • Systematic phonics instruction
      • Fluency
      • Vocabulary
      • Comprehension strategies
    • What’s missing?
      • For primary grades
      • Attention to variety of genres
      • Sustained silent reading
      • Comprehension instruction
      • Motivation and interest
      • Establishing a purpose for reading
      • For post primary grades
      • Other kinds of comprehension instruction
      • Content-area-specific literacy skills
      • Writing
      • Motivation and interest
      • Establishing a purpose for reading
    • Reading comprehension
      • The goals of primary reading instruction are really high school academic achievement
      • There is too little focus on comprehension during primary reading instruction
      • And too little reading instruction of any kind after grade 3
    • RAND Reading Group Study (RRSG) Goals
      • Create agenda for R&D programs focused on reading comprehension
      • Promote constructive debate about the agenda
      • Increase communications among members of reading research and practice communities
      • Submit agenda to U.S. Dept. of Education to support appropriations proposals
    • RRSG’s definition of reading comprehension
      • The process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language.
    • A Heuristic for Thinking about Reading Comprehension   Sociocultural Context ACTIVITY READER TEXT
    • RRSG-based conclusions
      • Comprehension can be taught starting in preschool.
      • And needs to be taught across all grades.
      • Building oral language skills is a key component of reading comprehension instruction across the grades.
      • Too much focus on print skills may decrease attention to comprehension precursors.
    • Is a focus on comprehension by itself adequate to solve the problem?
      • Not really, because….
    • Adolescent readers have to master…
      • Word reading accuracy
      • Word reading fluency
      • Making inferences from the text
      • Integrating new text-based knowledge with pre-existing knowledge
      • Understanding the language of the texts
      • Having the background knowledge presupposed by the texts
      • Motivation and interest in the text
      • Establishing a purpose for reading
    • Successful practitioners with adolescent readers have to…
      • Integrate reading instruction with content learning goals
      • Manage the distributed structures of middle/high schools
      • Find a place to focus on reading
        • English teachers focus on literature, not reading
        • Other content area teachers rarely prepared, sometimes unwilling, to teach reading
      • Design practice based on a relatively scanty research base
    • Reading Next Challenges
      • New reading tasks even for children prepared very well at pre-K – Grade 3.
      • Aspects of pre-K – Grade 3 instruction key for comprehension still not being adequately implemented
      • Thus too many current 4 th – 12 th graders are struggling
    • The problem of comprehension in the content areas among grade 4-12 students
      • Widespread
      • Inevitable if there is a mismatch between reader and text, reader and activity, text and activity
      • A problem that should become a focus of instruction
    • And what do we know from work on early literacy?
      • Solid research provides a basis for making progress
      • Assessment is a key step in organizing instruction
      • Consensus serves the field better than dissensus
      • Models of excellent instruction should be studied
      • Wisdom of practice has been undervalued
    • Steps to helping all students read better
      • Identify student literacy needs, at group and individual levels
      • Teach all students systematically
      • Teach all students reading for learning in every class
      • Give struggling students extra help
      • designed to address their needs
    • http://www.all4ed.org/publications/ReadingNext/ReadingNext.pdf READING NEXT A VISION FOR ACTION AND RESEARCH IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL LITERACY A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York
    • A collaborative effort
      • Donald Deshler
      • David Francis
      • John Guthrie
      • Michael Kamil
      • James McPartland
      • Gina Biancarosa and Catherine Snow (eds.)
      • Alliance for Excellent Education
    • Fifteen key elements: nine instructional improvements
      • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
      • Effective instruction embedded in content
      • Motivation and self-directed learning
      • Text-based collaborative learning
      • Strategic tutoring
      • Diverse texts
      • Intensive writing
      • A technology component
      • Ongoing formative assessment of students
    • Fifteen key elements: six infrastructure improvements
      • Extended time for literacy
      • Professional development
      • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs
      • Teacher teams
      • Leadership
      • Comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
    • 15 – 3 = 0
      • Indispensable elements are:
      • Professional development
      • Ongoing formative assessment of students
      • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs
    • Getting from here to there
      • We need research
      • But we can’t wait for the research
      • We also need to use the knowledge available from effective practitioners
      • And effective leaders
    • Research: Small scale efforts
      • Basic experimental research
      • Demonstration pilots
      • Con: Affects P ro: Adds to
      • few students the knowledge base
    • Research: Large scale efforts
      • Program-specific evaluations
      • Large-scale implementations
      • Con: Adds little Pro: Affects
      • to knowledge base numerous students
    • Research: A middle ground
      • Planned variation of program elements
      • Evaluation of common outcomes across programs
      • Pro: Adds to the Pro: Affects
      • knowledge base many students
    • Research: Planned variation of key program elements Key program elements Programs 1 2 3 4 5 6 Direct, explicit comprehension instruction ● ● ● ● ● ● Effective instructional principles embedded in content ● ● ● ● Motivation and self-direction ● ● ● ● ● Text-based collaborative learning ● ● Strategic tutoring ● ● ● ● Diverse texts ● ● ● ● ● Writing intensive ● Technology component ● Extended time for literacy ● ● ● Professional development ● ● ● ● ● ● Summative and formative assessments ● ● ● ● ● ● Teacher teams ● ● ● ● Leadership ● ● ● ● Comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
    • Getting from here to there
      • We need research: collaborations among schools/districts and universities to
        • Examine new initiatives systematically
        • Use the data now available in the districts
        • Upgrade the data available in the districts
      • But we can’t wait for the research
      • So we also need to start by using the knowledge available from effective practitioners and leaders
        • To define the problems of greatest urgency
        • To critique current practices
        • To suggest effective practices
    • The Strategic Education Research Partnership SERP - BPS Middle School Literacy Project
      • A Research Collaborative coordinated by Boston Higher Education Partnership
      • Participants: researchers from Boston College, Boston University, Harvard, Lesley, MIT, Wheelock, and practitioners including BPS administrators and teachers, Boston Plan for Excellence, and seven Boston middle schools
      • Cross-university doctoral course
      • Ongoing research
    • The BPS Middle School Literacy Project: SERP Principles
      • Accumulating usable knowledge
      • Embedding research in the challenges of practice
      • Systematizing the wisdom of practice
      • Operating simultaneously at three levels: student, teacher, school
      • Contributing to collaborative tool-building
      • Planning ahead so improvements can ‘travel’
    • The SERP-BPS Middle School Literacy Project: Accomplishments
      • Establishment of a mechanism for working together
      • Solid understanding of the teachers’ and the students’ literacy challenges
      • Development of a suite of tools
        • Surveys focused on literacy and internal accountability
        • SERP Reading Inventory and Scholastic Evaluation
        • Word Generation, an academic language intervention
      • Converting academic researchers
      • Training doctoral researchers
    • In conclusion, we need…
      • To learn from research and practice
      • To launch cross-site, systematic efforts
      • To work towards consensus in guiding policy
    • More information
      • www.serpinstitute.org
      • www.carnegie.org/literacy
      • www.rand.org/achievementforall
      • www.gse.harvard.edu/~snow