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Veterinaryhelminthology 100210000624-phpapp01 2

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  • 1. VETERINARYVETERINARYHELMINTHOLOGYHELMINTHOLOGY
  • 2. TAPEWORM/ CESTODESTAPEWORM/ CESTODESGeneral Characteristics:General Characteristics:1. ribbon-like and dorsoventrally flattened1. ribbon-like and dorsoventrally flattened2. most of the show indirect types of life cycle. The exceptional type of2. most of the show indirect types of life cycle. The exceptional type oflife cycle is found inlife cycle is found in Hymenolepis sppHymenolepis spp where direct and indirectwhere direct and indirecttypes are found.types are found.3. they are hermaphrodite3. they are hermaphrodite4. cysts or bladderworms are intermediate or larval stage of the4. cysts or bladderworms are intermediate or larval stage of theparasiteparasite5. the final host gets infection by ingestion of intermediate host or flesh5. the final host gets infection by ingestion of intermediate host or fleshof intermediate host containing the bladder wormsof intermediate host containing the bladder worms6. the body can be divided into three broad parts6. the body can be divided into three broad parts
  • 3. Head/ ScolexHead/ Scolex-very minute as compared to other parts-very minute as compared to other parts-shape varies which may be roughly triangular,ball shaped or round-shape varies which may be roughly triangular,ball shaped or round-there is presence of sucker (armed or unarmed ) which is not used-there is presence of sucker (armed or unarmed ) which is not usedfor taking food but used as apertures for attachmentfor taking food but used as apertures for attachment-anteriorly there is structure called rostellum-anteriorly there is structure called rostellumNeckNeck-immediately behind the head and without any segment-immediately behind the head and without any segment-segmentation starts here-segmentation starts hereBodyBody-area is completely segmented-area is completely segmented
  • 4. Three types of segments are present:Three types of segments are present:IMMATURE- the reproductive system and eggs are absentIMMATURE- the reproductive system and eggs are absentMATURE- completely developed reproductive systemMATURE- completely developed reproductive systemGRAVID- reproductive system is replaced by the eggsGRAVID- reproductive system is replaced by the eggs- either detached from the parasite or its disintegrated and- either detached from the parasite or its disintegrated andthe eggs are expelled outthe eggs are expelled outEggs:Eggs:-have basic structure comprising oncosphere or hexacanth embryo,-have basic structure comprising oncosphere or hexacanth embryo,a striated shell or embryophore and a delicate membranea striated shell or embryophore and a delicate membrane-the following are the events which occur during biological-the following are the events which occur during biologicaldevelopment:development:a. Eggs are expelled out from the gravid segmenta. Eggs are expelled out from the gravid segmentb. the eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts and hatchingb. the eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts and hatchingoccurs in the intermediate host or hatch in the environmentoccurs in the intermediate host or hatch in the environment( Cotyloda)( Cotyloda)
  • 5. -metacestodes / bladderworms / cyst / larval stages are formed in the-metacestodes / bladderworms / cyst / larval stages are formed in theintermediate hostintermediate host-final host gets the infection by ingestion of the intermediate host or the-final host gets the infection by ingestion of the intermediate host or themuscles and flesh containing the cysts or bladderwormsmuscles and flesh containing the cysts or bladderworms
  • 6. Poultry TapewormPoultry TapewormGenus RaillietinaGenus Raillietina--small to medium-sized tapeworm that inhabit the small intestinesmall to medium-sized tapeworm that inhabit the small intestine-cosmopolitan in distribution-cosmopolitan in distributionSpecies:Species:R. cesticillus R. demerariensisR. cesticillus R. demerariensisR. echidnobothridaR. echidnobothridaR. tetragonaR. tetragonaR. asiaticaR. asiaticaR. celebensisR. celebensis
  • 7. R. cesticillusR. cesticillusMorphology:Morphology:1. smaller (4-15 cm) than R. tetragona, R. echidnobothrida1. smaller (4-15 cm) than R. tetragona, R. echidnobothrida2. broad rostellum which is armed with 400-500 hooks2. broad rostellum which is armed with 400-500 hooks3. circular sucker is unarmed3. circular sucker is unarmed4. egg capsule contains single egg4. egg capsule contains single eggR. echidnobothridaR. echidnobothridaMorphologyMorphology1. size is 8.5-22 cm1. size is 8.5-22 cm2. suckers are circular and surrounded by several rows of hooks2. suckers are circular and surrounded by several rows of hooks3. rostellum is very small3. rostellum is very small4. egg capsule contains multiple eggs4. egg capsule contains multiple eggs
  • 8. R. tetragonaR. tetragona1. 25 cm long and largest tapeworm in poultry1. 25 cm long and largest tapeworm in poultry2. rostellum is small and possesses one or two rows of hooks2. rostellum is small and possesses one or two rows of hooks3. egg capsule contains multiple eggs3. egg capsule contains multiple eggs4. sucker is oval and surrounded by several rows of hooks4. sucker is oval and surrounded by several rows of hooksLIFE CYLCE:LIFE CYLCE:eggeggoncosphereoncospherecysticercoid ( infective stage )cysticercoid ( infective stage )adultadultAnts and Musca domestica acts as IH of R. tetragona and R.Ants and Musca domestica acts as IH of R. tetragona and R.echidnobothrida. The beetle acts as IH for R. cesticillusechidnobothrida. The beetle acts as IH for R. cesticillus
  • 9. Pathogenesis:Pathogenesis:1. nodule formation in the intestine by R. echidnobothrida1. nodule formation in the intestine by R. echidnobothrida2. enteritis by R. tetragona and R. cesticillus2. enteritis by R. tetragona and R. cesticillusGenus DavaineaGenus DavaineaD. proglottinaD. proglottinaD. meleagridisD. meleagridisMorphologyMorphology1. very small only several mm that’s why it is advised to take1. very small only several mm that’s why it is advised to takemucosal scraping for its detectionmucosal scraping for its detection2. has prominent rostellum armed with hammer-shaped hooks2. has prominent rostellum armed with hammer-shaped hooks3. presence of single set of reproductive organ which alternates3. presence of single set of reproductive organ which alternatesregularlyregularly4. has 4-9 segments4. has 4-9 segments5. egg capsule contains single egg5. egg capsule contains single egg
  • 10. Life cycle:Life cycle:EggEggOncosphereOncosphereCysticercoid in IH ( infective stage on ants or slugs )Cysticercoid in IH ( infective stage on ants or slugs )AdultAdultThe gravid segments crawl out of the host. The gravidThe gravid segments crawl out of the host. The gravidsegments are actively motile and crawl onto the grass blade due tosegments are actively motile and crawl onto the grass blade due toits phototactic nature. The eggs are released during the act ofits phototactic nature. The eggs are released during the act ofcrawling. The eggs hatch after ingested by IH and cysticercoid iscrawling. The eggs hatch after ingested by IH and cysticercoid isformed within a month. The final host gets the infection when theformed within a month. The final host gets the infection when theinfected snails are ingested by the birds.infected snails are ingested by the birds.
  • 11. Family Dipyliidae:Family Dipyliidae:Dipylidium caninum- double pored tapeworm of dogsDipylidium caninum- double pored tapeworm of dogsMorphology:Morphology:1. head or scolex is pyriform in shaped having hooks characteristically1. head or scolex is pyriform in shaped having hooks characteristicallyrose-thorn shapedrose-thorn shaped2. presence of two sets of reproductive system like Moniezia spp2. presence of two sets of reproductive system like Moniezia spp3. mature segments are cucumber seed shape3. mature segments are cucumber seed shapeLIFE CYCLE:LIFE CYCLE:eggeggonchosphereonchospherecystercercoid in IH ( flea C. canis, C. felis, T. canis, Pulex spp )cystercercoid in IH ( flea C. canis, C. felis, T. canis, Pulex spp )adultadult
  • 12. Gravid segments get detached from the adult tapeworm and crawl.Gravid segments get detached from the adult tapeworm and crawl.During crawling the eggs are released from the gravid segment. TheDuring crawling the eggs are released from the gravid segment. TheIH ingest the eggs and hatched in the gut and oncospheres areIH ingest the eggs and hatched in the gut and oncospheres arereleased and these migrate in the body cavity. A cysticercoid withreleased and these migrate in the body cavity. A cysticercoid withtail appendage is formed within few weeks. Final host gets thetail appendage is formed within few weeks. Final host gets theinfection by ingestion of the infected IH.infection by ingestion of the infected IH.Pathogenesis:Pathogenesis:1. sloughing, denudation of mucosa1. sloughing, denudation of mucosa2. constant irritation of the anal sac resulting to anal pruritus2. constant irritation of the anal sac resulting to anal pruritus3. intoxication due to absorption of the metabolites released by the3. intoxication due to absorption of the metabolites released by theparasites which affects the nervous systemparasites which affects the nervous systemDiagnosis:Diagnosis:1. examination of fecal sample1. examination of fecal sample2. dragging anus over the ground or any hard objects2. dragging anus over the ground or any hard objects
  • 13. Family Anoplocephalidae: common cestodes of equineFamily Anoplocephalidae: common cestodes of equineMorphology:Morphology:1. rostellum and hooks are present1. rostellum and hooks are present2. segments are noticeably broad2. segments are noticeably broad3. presence of egg capsule or paruterine organ3. presence of egg capsule or paruterine organ4. eggs have 3 coverings; the outermost formed by the vitelline gland,4. eggs have 3 coverings; the outermost formed by the vitelline gland,middle albuminous and inner chitinousmiddle albuminous and inner chitinous5. eggs of many members bear a pear shaped structure called5. eggs of many members bear a pear shaped structure calledpyriform apparatuspyriform apparatusGenera:Genera:Anoplocephala MonieziaAnoplocephala MonieziaParanocephala CittotaeniaParanocephala CittotaeniaPseudanocephalaPseudanocephala
  • 14. Imporant species:Imporant species:AnoplocephalaAnoplocephalamagnamagnaAnoplocephalaAnoplocephalaperfoliataperfoliataPseudoanoplocephalPseudoanoplocephala mamillanaa mamillana1. Largest cestode1. Largest cestodefound in the horsefound in the horsefound in SI andfound in SI andstomachstomachSmall intestineSmall intestine Si and stomachSi and stomach2. 80 cm long2. 80 cm long 1-8 cm1-8 cm 0.6- 5 cm0.6- 5 cm3. Testes are3. Testes arearranged in rows.arranged in rows.The number of testesThe number of testesare 400-500are 400-500250250 1001004. Pyriform apparatus4. Pyriform apparatusis not strong andis not strong andlargelargeLarge and strongLarge and strong Large and srongLarge and srongLappets are absentLappets are absent presentpresent absentabsent
  • 15. LIFE CYCLE:LIFE CYCLE:EggEggOnchosphereOnchosphereCysticercoid in IH ( mite)Cysticercoid in IH ( mite)AdultAdultPathogenesis:Pathogenesis:A. perfoliata particularly affects the ileocecal orifices and theyA. perfoliata particularly affects the ileocecal orifices and theyproduce depressed ulcers which is dasrk in color and may causeproduce depressed ulcers which is dasrk in color and may causeperforation of SIperforation of SIA. magna causes hemorrhagic enteritis obstruction of the intestinalA. magna causes hemorrhagic enteritis obstruction of the intestinallumenlumenP. mamillana less significantP. mamillana less significant
  • 16. Family HymenolepididaeFamily HymenolepididaeH. cariocaH. carioca H. diminutaH. diminuta H. nanaH. nanadwarf tapewormdwarf tapeworm1. 3-8 cm1. 3-8 cm 2-6 cm2-6 cm 7-80 cm7-80 cm2. 500 segments2. 500 segments 500 segments500 segments Few segmentsFew segments3. testes lie across3. testes lie acrossthe segmentthe segmentTestes are ovoidTestes are ovoid Testes lie in line andTestes lie in line andseparated by theseparated by theovaryovary
  • 17. LIFE CYCLE:LIFE CYCLE:eggeggonchosphereonchospherecysticercoid in IHcysticercoid in IHadultadultFamily TaeniidaeFamily TaeniidaeMorphologyMorphology1. large tapeworm1. large tapeworm2. proglottids are rectangular2. proglottids are rectangular3. rostellum may or may not be present3. rostellum may or may not be present4. segments are longer and broader4. segments are longer and broader5. uterus has median stem and lateral branches5. uterus has median stem and lateral branches6. egg capsule is easily lost and the embryo pore is striated in appearnace6. egg capsule is easily lost and the embryo pore is striated in appearnace
  • 18. Intermediate StageIntermediate Stage Intermediate hostIntermediate hostTaenia soliumTaenia solium Cysticercus cellulosaeCysticercus cellulosae pigpigTaenia saginataTaenia saginata Cysticercus bovisCysticercus bovis cattlecattleTaenia hydatigenaTaenia hydatigena Cysticercus tenuicollisCysticercus tenuicollis Sheep, ruminantsSheep, ruminantsTaenia pisiformisTaenia pisiformis Cysticercus pisiformisCysticercus pisiformis rabbitsrabbitsTaenia taeniaformisTaenia taeniaformis Cysticercus fasciolarisCysticercus fasciolaris rodentsrodentsTaenia multicepsTaenia multiceps Coenurus cerebralisCoenurus cerebralis Sheep And goatSheep And goat
  • 19. Taenia saginataTaenia saginata Taenia soliumTaenia soliumHost is manHost is man manmanRostellum is absentRostellum is absent Present armed with hooksPresent armed with hooks1000-2000 segments1000-2000 segments 800- 1000 segments800- 1000 segmentsOvary is bilobedOvary is bilobed trilobedtrilobedOval eggOval egg SphericalSphericalUterus has 14-32 branchesUterus has 14-32 branches 16 branches16 branches
  • 20. Taenia soliumTaenia soliumLife cycle:Life cycle:egg ( hatch after being ingested)egg ( hatch after being ingested)Onchosphere ( migrates in different organs and tissues)Onchosphere ( migrates in different organs and tissues)Cysticercus ( infective stage in the pork )Cysticercus ( infective stage in the pork )Adult ( ingestion of infected ham and pork )Adult ( ingestion of infected ham and pork )Man gets infection by the ff: waysMan gets infection by the ff: ways1. ingestion of pork containing cysticercus1. ingestion of pork containing cysticercus2. ingestion of eggs through the food and cysticercus develops in man2. ingestion of eggs through the food and cysticercus develops in man3. by autoinfection due to retrosperistaltic movement. The eggs return to the stomach3. by autoinfection due to retrosperistaltic movement. The eggs return to the stomachand hatchand hatchPredisposing factors:Predisposing factors:1. eating habits of people1. eating habits of people2. large scale implementation of insewcticide2. large scale implementation of insewcticide
  • 21. Pathogenesis:Pathogenesis:ManMan1. utilize the nutrition of the host1. utilize the nutrition of the host2. causes enteritis2. causes enteritis3. neurocysticercosis3. neurocysticercosisPigPig1. measly pork- presence of cysticerci in different organs or tissue1. measly pork- presence of cysticerci in different organs or tissueClinical signs:Clinical signs:Man NeurocysticercosisMan Neurocysticercosis1. diarrhea 1. encephalitis and meningitis1. diarrhea 1. encephalitis and meningitis2. abdominal pain 2. epileptic fit and excitement2. abdominal pain 2. epileptic fit and excitement3. vomiting3. vomiting4. flatulence4. flatulence
  • 22. Taenia multicepsTaenia multicepsLife cycle:Life cycle:eggeggOnchosphereOnchosphereCoenurus ( infective stage in the brain of sheep and goat )Coenurus ( infective stage in the brain of sheep and goat )AdultAdultPathogenesis:Pathogenesis:1.1. Migratory onchospheres care dangerous in the sheep. This causesMigratory onchospheres care dangerous in the sheep. This causesmeningitis and encephalitismeningitis and encephalitis2.2. Gradually the cyst creates pressure in the brain as per theGradually the cyst creates pressure in the brain as per theadvancement of development of cyst. The brain muscles getadvancement of development of cyst. The brain muscles getatrophiedatrophied3.3. The skull gets atrophied and ultimately maybe soft and easily feltThe skull gets atrophied and ultimately maybe soft and easily feltwhen touchingwhen touching4.4. Aside from brain several nerves are also affected ( ocular,Aside from brain several nerves are also affected ( ocular,auditory )auditory )
  • 23. Clinical signs:Clinical signs:1. the animal looses the condition and fails to respond to the1. the animal looses the condition and fails to respond to theenvironmentenvironment2. circling movement ( gid ) is an important sign2. circling movement ( gid ) is an important sign3. sometimes the animals move in straight and keep its head on the3. sometimes the animals move in straight and keep its head on thehard surfacehard surfaceGenus EchinicoccusGenus EchinicoccusE. granulosusE. granulosusE.E. vogelivogeliE. multilocularisE. multilocularisE. oligarthusE. oligarthusMorphology:Morphology:1. very small only few segments are present1. very small only few segments are present2. terminal segment is the gravid segment2. terminal segment is the gravid segment3. scolex has the rostellum which is armed with hooks3. scolex has the rostellum which is armed with hooks4. ovary is kidney shaped4. ovary is kidney shaped
  • 24. Life cycle:Life cycle:eggeggonchosphereonchospherehydatid cyst in IHhydatid cyst in IHadultadultPathogenesis:Pathogenesis:1. enteritis1. enteritis2. pressure atrophy in the vital organs due to pressure of large-2. pressure atrophy in the vital organs due to pressure of large-sized cystsized cyst3. functional disturbance3. functional disturbanceDiagnosis:Diagnosis:1. examination of feces1. examination of feces2. detection of cysticercus in the tongue and other palpable areas2. detection of cysticercus in the tongue and other palpable areas3. Casonis Test- hydatid fluid is inoculated in the suspected3. Casonis Test- hydatid fluid is inoculated in the suspectedindividual and there would be hypersensitive reaction within 15 minsindividual and there would be hypersensitive reaction within 15 minsor less in positive casesor less in positive cases
  • 25. Family Mesocestoididae:Family Mesocestoididae:Genus MesocestoidesGenus MesocestoidesM. lineatus M. jonesiM. lineatus M. jonesiM. variabilisM. variabilisM. tenuisM. tenuisMorphology:Morphology:1. head or scolex is devoid of rostellum and hooks1. head or scolex is devoid of rostellum and hooks2. presence of single set of reproductive system2. presence of single set of reproductive system3. genital pore is dorsally situated3. genital pore is dorsally situated4. bilobed ovary and vitelline glands4. bilobed ovary and vitelline glands5. testes are situated on either side of the excretory canal5. testes are situated on either side of the excretory canalDH- dog, fox, catDH- dog, fox, catIH- 1IH- 1stst– mites– mites22ndnd- birds- birds
  • 26. Developmental stages:Developmental stages:eggeggonchosphereonchospherecysticercoid in IHcysticercoid in IHtetrathyridium in birds, lizards, snakestetrathyridium in birds, lizards, snakesadultadult*M. corti can asexually multiply in the IH and DH*M. corti can asexually multiply in the IH and DHPathogenesis:Pathogenesis:1. enteritis1. enteritis2. nervous disorder2. nervous disorder3. anal priritus3. anal priritus
  • 27. Genus DiphyllobothriumGenus DiphyllobothriumSpecies:Species:D. latumD. latumD. mansonoidesD. mansonoidesMorphology:Morphology:1. long and maybe reaching up to several meters1. long and maybe reaching up to several meters2. thousands of segments are presents2. thousands of segments are presents3. head is spatula shaped with a deep groove in the middle called3. head is spatula shaped with a deep groove in the middle calledbothriabothria4. no rostellum4. no rostellum5. genital organs are situated mid-ventrally5. genital organs are situated mid-ventrally6. eggs are oval and operculated and have fair resemblance to6. eggs are oval and operculated and have fair resemblance totrematodestrematodes7. ovary is bilobed and uterus is rosette-shaped7. ovary is bilobed and uterus is rosette-shaped
  • 28. Life cycle:Life cycle:EggEggCiliated coracidiumCiliated coracidiumProcercoid (cyclops)Procercoid (cyclops)Plerocercoid (fish)Plerocercoid (fish)AdultAdultPathogenesisPathogenesis1. enteritis1. enteritis2. anemia ( B12 def. or Pernicious anemia )2. anemia ( B12 def. or Pernicious anemia )3. anal pruritus3. anal pruritus4. epileptic fit4. epileptic fit

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