MAIN-IM Militarism & military planning Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism Intellectual Context Mass Politics
Family Feud! Most of the Monarchs of Europe were related by blood somehow. Queen Victoria was Tsar Nicholas’s Aunt, Kaiser Wilhelm’s grandmother, and many others were related. This led to complications with loyalties and alliances in strained diplomatic times.
1. Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the GreatPowers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%
2. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps!Allied Powers: Central Powers: Face-off
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Schlieffen Plan-August 1914 The German War Plan To defeat France militarily through Belgium in less than a month, and then turn attentions to Russia Germans sent 78 infantry divisions into France. Met by 72 French divisions Germans won initially./Then Russians came in and distracted and separated the troops. British troops also came in against the Germans. The Battle of The Marne followed in September.
Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!Its a long way to Tipperary, Its a long way to go; Its a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Its a long, long way to Tipperary, But my hearts right there!
The Battle of the Marne Sept. 1914 The Schleiffen Plan destroyed! The idea of defeating France in 6 weeks was crushed when the Germans were forced to retreat. At the River Marne in France, trenches were dug along on both sides 300 miles and eventually caused a stalemate with years of trench warfare following.
The Taxi Brigade Paris taxis transport 6,000 French troops to the front for the Battle of the Marne. Communications and transport not all up and running enough to transport soldiers to front line trenches.