Youth Organization “Human World”Ukraine. The state policy. Current problems of Social Protectionof the disabled people in Ukraine
Actual problems of social protection of people with disability in UkraineActual problems of social protection of disabled people in Ukraine are analysed and their reasons arespecified. Subjects of realisation of a policy in this sphere are defined. Ways of the decision ofproblems at level of different subjects are offered.Key words: social protection of invalids, actual problems, ways of the decision of problems.Formulation of the problem. People with disabilities are among all population groups in anysociety. These are people with disabilities, as lesions of the musculoskeletal system and the centraland peripheral nervous system, mental illness and mental retardation, organ damage hearing andvision, lesions of internal organs.Number of persons with disabilities is growing, although the causes and consequences of disabilitycan be different: as caused by unequal socio-economic conditions and different degrees of welfarestate of its citizens. Now we can talk about global disability issues - all over the world certain optionsare limited at about one in ten people (650 million people), of which nearly 470 million people ofworking age.For Ukraine the problem of social protection of the disabled is particularly significant due to thesteady upward trend in the share of persons with disabilities in the overall structure population.While in the early 90s of last century, the total number of disabled people in Ukraine amounted toabout 3% of the total population, or 1.5 million people, in 2008 their number amounted to 2,650,000persons, including 122.6 thousand . disabled children, ie the share of this category in the totalpopulation is 5.3% of the population, according to their number increased by almost 1.6 times.Increase the number of people with disabilities caused by conflicting social and economicdevelopment of Ukrainian society, which reduced the standard of living of most people,unsatisfactory state of health care, lack of safety and labor protection, low environmental culture,the presence of a variety of disasters - natural, environmental, military including the effects of theSecond World War, the wars in Afghanistan and other areas of the Chernobyl disaster.The level of public social protection of persons with disabilities is a reflection of the level of society asa whole. In recent decades, the world saw a major change in the attitude towards the disabled. Thebasis for these changes is the recognition of equality of persons with disabilities to full life in societyand the creation by the real conditions for rehabilitation and social integration of people withdisabilities. Previously, they were mainly based motifs mercy to handicapped, now - the observanceof their rights. The duty of the state and society is to ensure proper social protection and support,social integration, equal opportunities for self-fulfillment, full of life, education and employmentuploads disabled for spiritual, cultural and sporting life.It should be noted that the Soviet era in Ukrainian society remained bad inheritance: the publicbelieved that the state cares for the disabled, but the state was unable to provide an appropriatelevel of social protection. Disability policy was largely passive - financial support, state pension, towork at specialized enterprises organizations of disabled people. People with disabilities weredeprived of access to many social benefits along with healthy people. People with disabilities still face
with contempt, prejudice and fears that throughout history hindered social development of thiscategory of members of society and isolate them from it.The transition to a market economy and construction of a social state in Ukraine determined newapproaches to social protection of disabled people who are in the creation of an integrated systemon modern principles. Accession to international law, ratification of ILO conventions Ukrainereorienting policy towards handicapped in socially accepted standards, which follow highly developedcivilized country provides harmonization of domestic legislation with international standards, createsspecialized rehabilitation facilities and barrier-free environment and so on. A market economy isexpanding approaches to the provision of social services and maintenance care centers fordisabilities. Our society is gradually realizes what he needs to adapt to the needs of disabled people,and not vice versa.Significant contribution to the study of this problem and make the experts of the Institute of SocialWork and National Pedagogical University. M.Dragomanov, State Institution Research Institute ofindustrial relations, the Ukrainian Center for Professional Rehabilitation and the National Assembly ofDisabled of Ukraine, the Social Protection of Disabled People and the Department for DisabledPersons, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine.Level of study problems of people with disabilities can not be considered sufficient and the problemrequires further research in identifying ways of of modernization the existing system of socialprotection of the disabled and solving urgent problems at different subjects.The aim of the article - to analyze the current problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine,identify their causes and suggest ways to overcome them.The basic material. In Ukraine every 18 citizen - disabled, ie a person who needs help andsupport from the state, not only in monetary terms but also special housing planning, constructionentrances, public transport, provision of technical and other means of rehabilitation, medical suppliesand assistance in obtaining education, professional skills, employment, health and cultural services.A wide range of problems of people with disabilities in Ukraine demonstrates the need for enhancedand comprehensive account of the state and society. Modern life creates the appropriaterequirements for social protection of the population. Practice shows that much of the provisions ofsocioeconomic disability policy is outdated and does not meet the needs of the present, and is notconsistent with generally recognized high humane international norms and standards. The legalframework but also contains a lot of positive steps towards solving the many problems of thedisabled, but is mostly declarative, no material resources and mechanisms for managementimplementation.Experience highly developed countries showed the ineffectiveness of passive policy on socialprotection of people with disabilities, which is based compensation costs - pensions, financial aid,benefits, compensation and more. Social support people with disabilities in the leading countries inEurope for the past 30 years is characterized by assignation of significant resources on creatingaccessible environment to exist for persons with disabilities, training, special arrangement andavailable jobs.In our view, the current system of social protection of disabled persons includes not only governmentsocial assistance and pensions, benefits and compensation system and social domestic services, butalso includes protection of labor, education and employment of persons with disabilities, as well associal and professional rehabilitation and social integration into society. That social protection ofpersons with disabilities including not only material question, but the whole range of problems andneeds of human life. This issue is caused by the fact that in todays society, any person requiresextended social protection, which is not only financial and material support, but also in creating
diverse conditions for the normal functioning and development of the individual, the maximum of itsneeds and interests. Thus, the policy of social protection of the disabled should include newconceptual approaches, encompassing socio-economic, political, legal, organizational, managerial,scientific and methodological, ethical and informational aspects.Today Ukraine is trying to move from medical to social model of disability. The latter is therelationship between a person with disabilities and society, rather than fixation deviations in herhealth and development, as is typical of the medical model and was characteristic of the Sovietsystem of government.Current national policy Social Protection of Disabled includes a number of measures, including thecreation of conditions for the integration of disabled persons in active social life, increasedgovernment guarantees to achieve higher social standards in material well-disabled, creating auncrossed environment for persons with disabilities, ensuring active cooperation of governmentagencies and NGOs disabled in solving problems of the disabled and others.The main subject of social protection of disabled remains the state. Activities of the State is todevelop measures creating, appropriate institutions, the use of mechanisms, designed to provideliving and social needs of persons with disabilities, to implement civil rights and freedoms, to createequal opportunities for their integration into society, favorable conditions for social, medical, laborrehabilitation of disabled.The state and local governments are required to create a legal basis under international law andappropriate institutions to promote the development of NGOs in this area, to ensure the properamount of material and financial aspects of social protection of persons with disabilities, to expandand improve the list social services, actively promote the professional rehabilitation of persons.State includes a network of ministries, departments and relevant institutions. Today in themanagement of various departments operate 557 rehabilitation facilities: the Ministry of Labour -289, the system of Ministry of Education has 100 such institutions in the health care sector - 61, theMinistry of Family - 45 centers for social and psychological rehabilitation of children and youngpeople with functional restrictions in public organizations engaged, in rehabilitation of disabledpersons with disabilities 62 institutions.Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine is subject:- 289 rehabilitation centers and offices: Ukrainian Centre of Professional Rehabilitation, 15rehabilitation facilities vocational rehabilitation of disabled persons, 6 regional centers (since 2003) -Crimea, Vinnytsia, Luhansk, Lviv, Donetsk, Zhytomyr region, 7 regional and urban centers(Dnipropetrovsk, Transcarpathian, Zaporozhye, Odessa, Rivne, Cherkasy region);- Department of Labor and Social Protection;- State Employment Service;- Fund for Social Protection of Disabled Persons.Active partner states are other subjects of social Protection of Disabled Persons, such as non-governmental organizations, charitable and religious organizations and foundations, political parties,legal entities, entrepreneurs, caring people are exerting a regulating effect on the social protection ofthe disabled, especially in rehabilitation and provision of social services.Also, increased participation of the handicapped and their social organizations. Ukraine has about120 active nationwide public organizations that represent the interests of different categories ofdisabled persons, deliberately and slowly changing their lives for the better. With the help of NGOswith disabilities have access to certain social and rehabilitation services, and information about theirrights, benefits, social guarantees. Public associations are created disabled for their of socialprotection, cultural and sports activities, vocational, employment, medical, psychological andeducational rehabilitation, providing the conditions for normal life and so on. Functions of NGOs to
some extent coincide with the functions of authorized state organs for social protection, so the stateand public organizations of disabled persons are social partners in addressing the problems of peoplewith disabilities.Although one of the main areas of social policy in relation to handicapped Ukrainian state specifiedset of measures aimed at improving their livelihoods, restoration of social status, to achieve financialindependence and full integration into society, programs for Social Protection of Disabled highpriority government programs and spending on their implementation mainly attributed to theprotected articles of the State budget of Ukraine, but in reality people with disabilities today areamong the most vulnerable population groups, the observance of the rights evidenced by a lack ofparticipation of disabled people in economic and social life.As is known, much of the disabled people poor material provided. The small size of social assistancefrom the state and the special needs of such people can not maintain a socially acceptable standardof living. For disabled people families who have been living in poverty, characterized by unhealthyeating habits, lack of modern medical care, psychological stress, early death, forced abandonment ofbirth of children, inability to give them a normal education, lack of opportunities proper rest and soon.Despite efforts by government and local authorities in the Ukrainian society has changed littlestereotypes in relation to disabled people - the idea of equal rights and equal opportunities for thedisabled is not yet generally accepted, as little change in attitude to the problems of disabled peopleprofessionals - lack of modern approaches to social Protection of Disabled Persons.The National report "On the situation of disabled people in Ukraine" outlined these issues in SocialProtection of Disabled: providing pension and social benefits disabled in size, which would guaranteethem sufficient standard of living, a decent education in the integrated learning, enabling a seamlessrehabilitation services at the place of residence of the disabled, the ability to work withoutdiscrimination in recruitment and follow-up work, reform of stationary institutions for disabledpersons and the transfer of funding for the creation of support services that enable people withdisabilities to live without separation from society, creating accessible environment for disabledpersons and free movement unimpeded communication. Should be noted that these problems notsolved and continue to be actual for the Ukrainian society.Continuous positive growth dynamics of pension and social benefits for disabled persons is lack ofsocial protection as persons with disabilities continue to be the poorest groups of the population inUkraine. This situation demonstrates the need not only to increase social benefits for disabledpersons, but also to change the technology of calculation and provision of benefits. For example,should replace the social benefits on the compensation for unused benefits.In our view, particularly important is measures to educational opportunities for persons withdisabilities. Education is one of the most effective ways out people with disabilities from the state ofisolation from society, and that new educational programs, including distance learning, should besubject to comprehensive state-managerial influence.
Providing education for disabled children is rather low, the existing institutions do not allowfulfillment and have many drawbacks. It is necessary to equip educational institutions in line withinternational standards, that is, free from barriers to entry to the premises, to arrange bathrooms,provide access to the upper floors of the school, access to public transportation.Noteworthy is the experience of many countries that have introduced in secondary schoolsintegrated learning, which involves gaining knowledge of disabled people together with healthychildren. This option enables disabled people largely to integrate into the environment peers, andhealthy children learn to care and charity, is a change of public attitudes on this category of persons.Development of educational services through the Internet allows you to get in distance educationformat for everyone who wants to learn, this is a real opportunity to education for the disabled. Infact, for them it is "Education without borders" in a broad sense. Distance learning is almostminimizes barriers that make it impossible to education in school the traditional way. The mainachievement of distance education for persons with disabilities is a change of own and socialconsciousness - it becomes apparent suitability for their life and work, to enjoy the achievements ofcivilization, on a par with others, to bring social benefits, performing different services at home usingcomputer. This means aligning education and life chances of overcoming the psychological and socialbarriers to people with disabilities who otherwise can not rely on educational success in conventionaleducational system.In Western Europe, Australia and the United States is implemented many educational projects for thepeople with disabilities. For Ukraine, this direction is not enough developed, so it is reasonable tostudy and borrowing experience of countries, which successful working in that direction.It is necessary to highlight the problem of employment of disabled people. Practice shows that theinvolvement of citizens with disabilities to the labor essential both for themselves and for the countryas rising living standards of disabled people, increasing their ability to pay, and the ability to self-realization. Government policy is to enhance the potential maximum intensification of people withdisabilities in the context of professional, vocational rehabilitation and employment.Many countries have established such conditions that disabled workers are on average half thepeople of the total number of people with disabilities. For example, in USA are 29% of the peoplewho have health problems in the UK - 40% Italy - 55%, Sweden - 60%, China - 80%. In Ukraine,disabled workers are about 20%, despite the fact that the number of disabled people of working ageis 1.5 million persons among which almost 443 thousand working.In Soviet times, a disability was treated as a disability that did not enable a person to be a fullparticipant in the labor market. The amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Social Protection ofDisabled People" (Article 2) show that disability is established as the norm losing health. Accordingly,be provided the opportunity for all citizens employed. It is important that employers create safe andnot harmful to health conditions, taken measures to prevent further disability, to restore theirdisability.People with disabilities usually has additional needs, the problem of creating appropriate conditionsfor its employment and training also becomes relevant content and certain specific features. The
establishment, the requirements for such jobs and the actual employment of disabled personsdetermined appropriate resolution by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. This procedure providesfor the certification of workplaces specially created commission company with representatives ofmedical and social expert commissions, State oversight safety, public organizations of disabledpeople and their adaptation according to medical recommendations to a specific person withdisabilities.In Ukraine, as in most European countries, has the concept of state quotas certain percentageworkplaces in the factory. According to Art. 19 Law of Ukraine "On Principles of Social Protection ofthe Disabled in Ukraine", all enterprises, institutions and organizations with a workforce from 8 andmore people is established standards to creat 4% workplaces for people with disabilities. Forcomparison, in Italy and Spain - 2%, Germany - 5%, France - 6%. Such a quota of Ukraine shallperform all entities regardless of ownership, but only 55% of companies follow the established rate,for them is cheaper to pay fines than to provide workplaces for the disabled. However, only a smallportion of proceeds from penalties aim at creating jobs for people with disabilities. Consequently,there is an urgent need to ensure public oversight of compliance by employers of quotas.In our view, for the empowerment of guarantees employment for this category of workers shouldborrow foreign experience about performance in distance mode, which greatly helps to regulate theemployment of people with disabilities. About efficiency and utility of this form of employment isevidenced by the fact that in Europe there are about 20 million people who work remotely.Speaking of the unsolved problems of disabled people can not avoid the following.Of primary importance after the reform of financial assistance and social services for the disabled hassuitable accommodation. They are given priority on improving living conditions in the mannerprovided by law. Residential areas should be equipped with special tools and adaptations, accordingto the individual rehabilitation program, and also, should be telecommunications. In the absence ofthese norms can be performed replacement housing. Is known that the waiting list for housingextends over a decade, and now the state , practically, is not providing social housing. But whenhousing is obtained, this right is not fully used, the discrepancy of certain provisions does not addressproper attention - Disabled do not know how to defend their rights. The situation is similar withgarages for cars with manually operated for disabled with diseases of the musculoskeletal system -the construction of garages should build only near their place of residence directly. However, theyare not build and not provide in proper quantity and in accordance with applicable regulations.The problem of disabled by motor transport as housing came from the former Soviet Union.Currently, 156 thousand disabled people standing in line at the car that the opportunities of provideextends over almost 30 years. In this connection it is necessary to spread across Ukraine municipalprograms to provide free transport services for disabled persons, who may require a special vehicleto visit a clinic or other structure. This practice is well established in some regions of the country.It should be noted that five years after the defined requirements for social infrastructure to createunhampered access to Disabled in the Law of Ukraine "On the Rehabilitation of the Disabled inUkraine" dated October 6, 2005 № 2961-IV are not adapted to the smooth disabled access housing,building of central executive bodies, social infrastructure - health care, social security and social
services, education, office buildings and public transport. There is a problem inconvenient ramps,install ramps except as required enforcement of regulations and standards in creating a barrier-freeenvironment.Pressing issue is the improvement of urban and suburban transportation for the disabled and for theallocation of places in their car parking. Local authorities should take appropriate measures to equipbus, trolleybuses and tram routes at least one vehicle to transport people with disabilities. It is alsonecessary to make the purchase of railroad passenger cars, maximum adapted for handicapped.Service support of disabled people in airports and train stations needs to be changed and should beensured uninterrupted operation of elevators and other hardware designed for disabled people inwheelchairs and other small mobile groups.Loss of public morality and lawlessness leads to abuses of government officials who have to providesocial protection to disabled. Thus, checkup of the rights of persons with intellectual and physicalabilities, which was performed by employees of the General Prosecution, found a number ofviolations. People with disabilities are not only limited of physical abilities, but also often in theirrights. Among them - the loss of incapacitated citizens ownership of housing, not fully provided bythe health care authorities and the right of disabled children to free quality medical care andpreferential provision of medicines, medical advisory committees in determining disability are notmade individual rehabilitation program, which has conducted physical, psychological, pedagogicaladaptation and integration of these children into society, residential care workers fail to takemeasures to establish the legal status of children and protection of their property and housing rights -Pensions issued late, the children do not get alimony and passports to achieve 16 years anddocuments about disability, employment status is inappropriate for disabled children, especiallygraduates of special, vocational and university.Conclusions. Analysis of actual problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine shows thatat this stage not implemented measures to ensure the normal life of people with disabilities , nomodernization of the existing Social protection of Disabled people.Important was ratification by the Parliament of Ukraine UN Convention on the Rights of DisabledPersons, adopted December 13, 2006 the UN General Assembly, as well as a system exploringdisabilities of their rights in all spheres of life.In addition to aforementioned the ways of solving the problems of disabled people offer a number ofmeasures.Necessary to accelerate the development of mechanisms for optimizing the construction of socialhousing and control obligations of real estate developers to allocate an appropriate share of flats forthese people.Implement reforms of inpatient institutions for the disabled and the transfer of funding for thecreation of support services that will enable people with disabilities to live without separation fromsociety. Ensure unhindered receiving rehabilitation services at home for disabled people, including toexpand the range of social services to the private sector.
Enhance state control over compliance by employers quota for employment of disabled people andensuring proper working conditions. Adopt new State program of development of rehabilitation andemployment of persons with disabilities, mental illness and mental retardation until 2015.It is important to introduce of an inclusive and integrated education in secondary schools. Because ofpermanent lack of funds needed to involve non-state structures to provide books for children withvisual impairments , visual-didactic materials and special aids for children who require correction ofphysical and (or) mental development, as well as other amenities.Needs to solve the issue of access to the global information network Internet on preferential terms.The urgent need is to increase the number of informational, educational, artistic, creative and childdevelopment programs.Should increase funding for the production and distribution of television programs using signlanguage and subtitling. Information programs on television should go on air with the use of subtitlesand sign language. It is also necessary introduce special training programs for translators of signlanguage.Is important to ensure funding for participants of Paralympic Games (international sport games forpeople with disabilities) and Deaflympics (sports for deaf people) and the creation of appropriateconditions for training.Needs to improve cooperation between state and public organizations of disabled people, inparticular, it should be reflected in the Law on State Budget, in other fundamental laws, decisions ofthe government, ministries and local authorities. It is also important to promote NGOs that work withpeople with disabilities in monitoring of state policy on implementation the rights of people withdisabilities.In our view, deserves attention study the experience of Sweden concerning the establishment andfunctioning of the institute of the problems of people with disabilities and Institute of elaboratingassistive devices for people with disabilities.Prospects for further research. Great value in this situation shall training of qualifiedpersonnel. is need to define nomenclative list of specialists in the field of social assistance todisabled people in accordance with international standards, to identify the need for them to ensureorganizational and methodological basis for their training and subsequent employment.Is necessary to create the conditions for changing negative stereotypes and attitudes towardsdisabled people in Ukrainian society on the basis of achieving social solidarity and social justice and topromote the general principle: "Look at me as an equal".