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Telecommunication union by Sayef Amin +8801924122222 Telecommunication union by Sayef Amin +8801924122222 Document Transcript

  • SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Law Justice Course Title: Telecommunication Law Course Code: LLMF 3231 Assignment On: “International Telecommunication Union” Submitted To: Dr. Md. Jakerul Abedin Deputy Secretary Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh & Guest Faculty of Southeast University Submitted By: Date of Submission: 16/12/2013 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 1
  • To Dr. Md. Jakerul Abedin Deputy Secretary Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, & Guest Faculty of Department of Law Southeast University Subject: Submission of an Assignment Dear Sir, It is a great pleasure for me that I have the opportunity to submit Assignment on “International Telecommunication Union”. I took a great pleasure in preparing the report of this Assignment. According to your guidelines I have been able to effectively and enthusiastically accomplish the report. This report attempts to describe my observation, learning and recommendations based on general reasoning and empirical evidence. I have tried my level best to put meticulous effort for the preparation of this report. Any shortcomings or fault may arise as my unintentional or clerical mistakes. I will wholeheartedly welcome any clarification and suggestion for any review and conception Disseminated through this assignment. Your active supervision and crafted guidance made it possible for me to prepare this report successfully. I remain available at your convenience to clarify any quarries if necessary. Sincerely Yours, ……………………… 2
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS At first, I would like to thanks Almighty Allah for his kindness on me in accomplishing this report. The author is immensely grateful to all of them who have given guidance, help and co-operation during the tenure of the study. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected and distinguished supervisor To Dr. Md. Jakerul Abedin, Guest Faculty of, Southeast University, Department of Law & Justice for his individual suggestions, valuable time, important information and guidance during the study period that greatly inspired me in preparing this report successfully. Of course there are some very special names that cannot be forgotten. I am also grateful to the Department of Law, Prime University for providing me such an opportunity to come closer to real situation. Finally, I want to express my deep gratitude to my family members to all well wishers whose enormous helps assisted me to complete this report. ……………………….. 3
  • Table of Content: SL. Subject 01. Introduction 02. Objective 03. Mission 04. Strategy 05. ITU sectors:- Radio communication, Standardization, Development 06. Legal framework of ITU 07. Leadership 08. Membership 09. Development:- Projects, ITU Publications, Regulatory Publications, Radio Regulations 10. World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012 11. Changes to International Telecommunication Regulations 12. Proposed Changes to the Treaty and Concerns 13. WCIT-12 Conference Participation 14. Standards development of ITU 15. Standards approval of ITU 16. Connected Community 17. Technology Development 18. Capacity building 4
  • 19. ITU Council Overview 20. Bibliography 1. Introduction: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally founded as the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications), is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern technologies. The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.BDT's Capacity Building.* * www.itu.int 5
  • Objective : To build human and institutional capacity in order to improve skills in the development and use of telecommunication/ICT networks and applications, and to foster digital inclusion for people with special needs, such as persons with disabilities, through awareness raising, training activities, sharing information and know-how and the production and distribution of relevant publications. Mission: The Human Capacity Building Division of the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) works to strengthen the human, institutional and organizational capacity of developing countries in a manner that prepares them for the challenges of a digital economy. Strategy: This mission is achieved through a) information and resource sharing on all major topic areas covered by ITU-D activities; b) delivery of ICT learning, training and development opportunities designed to build capacity across all social layers; and c) promotion of current and best-in-class human resources strategies and management practices. These activities are carried out a) through our ongoing regular programme activities; b) through special projects; and c) through partnerships, including the ITU Centres of Excellence and Internet Training Centres. Upon request, we also provide advisory and consulting services to Member States in the areas of human capacity and organizational development. Our capacity building interventions, resources and tools target different audiences - ranging from government policy-makers and regulators, to professional business-focused curricula for ICT executives and managers, to specialized programmes for technical and operational staff. W 2. ITU sectors: The ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom: W www.itu.int 6
  • Radio communication (ITU-R): Managing the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources is at the heart of the work of the ITU Radio communication Sector (ITU-R). Standardization (ITU-T): ITU's standards-making efforts are its best-known – and oldest – activity; known prior to 1992 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT (from its French name "Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique") Development (ITU-D): Established to help spread equitable, sustainable and affordable access to information and communication technologies (ICT). ITU Telecom: ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. ITU Telecom World 2011is ITU Telecom's 40th Anniversary with the first event in 1971. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors.∇ 3. Legal framework of ITU: The basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union". In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions, Resolutions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences, Assemblies and Meetings of the Union.  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Telecommunication_Union 7
  • 4. Leadership: The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, who is elected to a four-year term by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference.At the 17th ITU Plenipotentiary Conference (2006) in Antalya, Turkey, the ITU's member states elected Dr Hamadoun Touré of Mali as Secretary-General of the Union. He was re-elected for a second four-year term at the 18th ITU Plenipotentiary Conference (2010) in Guadalajara, Mexico. 5. Membership: Membership of ITU is open to governments, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies, research and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which can join ITU as non-voting Sector Members. There are 193 member states of the ITU, which includes 192 UN member states (all except Palau) and the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011.The Republic of China (Taiwan) was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but nevertheless received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". The Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. 6. Development: 1. Projects: Project development in the areas of regulatory and market environments; development technologies and networks; ICT applications; access to ICTs through special initiatives; capacity building; cyber security; emergency telecommunication; climate change; and statistics and indicators. Initiates action necessary for the improvement of the efficiency of project implementation including reporting, evaluation and closure of projects in collaboration with project partners. " 2. ITU Publications: the publications section of ITU’s website, with information on New Releases as well as Best Sellers, all up-dated on a dayto-day basis. Over 4'500 titles in printed form and growing number on CD- 8
  • ROM, DVD and Online. Free access to ITU-R and to most “in force” ITU-T Recommendations, as well as to numerous other publications. (a).Hard Copy Publications: Order hard-copy versions of your selected publications in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and/or Russian (where available) by adding titles to your cart and communicating your billing and delivery information online. Alternatively, download a copy of the informative Publication Notice, completing and returning the associated order form to ITU Sales for processing and delivery. Discounts are available for ITU Members and administrations of Least Developed Countries (LDC's). (b).Online Subscription Services: Annual subscription services for direct, online access to major collections of ITU Publications via a user name and password. Download the relative "Publication Notice" to acquire specific pricing information on single-user or multi-user licenses, then return a completed copy via fax, post or email. Please do not forget to sign a copy of this license, to be sent to ITU's Sales Service with your order. Discounts are available for ITU Members, administrations of Least Developed Countries (LDC's) and university libraries.  If you have already subscribed to an Online subscription and have received your user name and password valid for 12 months, follow the links below to access the Publications, services and/or documents available with the relative subscription (*noting recent information on a recent broadening of free access). (c). CD-ROM and DVD Publications: Individual issues or yearly subscriptions for several titles on CD-ROM or DVD The collection of documents provided on each CD-ROM or DVD are  www.itu.int/en/ITU-D 9
  • fully indexed and searchable. Add titles to cart or download the associated Publication Notice and return a completed copy to ITU Sales. Discounts are available for ITU Members, administrations of Least Developed Countries (LDC's) and university libraries. Click here for the license agreement. • Contents of ITU-T Recommendations on current DVD • ITU-T Regulations • Contents of ITU-R Recommendations on current DVD • Radio Regulations • ITU-R Maritime and General Publications • ITU-R Software and Databases (d). Electronic Bookshop: Immediate download of the electronic (Acrobat PDF, MS Word) versions of individual ITU Publications with secure credit card payment, or eventual download via bank transfer or check. Minimum of 20 Swiss francs per publication. Immediate downloads are not intended for resale and no member discounts can be applied to this type of purchase. Complete lists of ITU Publications are accessed from the links on the left of this page. With regard to Recommendations only, recent decisions have been made to allow broad access to both ITU-T Recommendations and ITU-R Recommendations. See below links for details. @ • • • @ ITU-R Recommendations (Radiocommunications) *Note: all electronically posted versions (including pre-published) in all formats now free to general public. ITU-T Recommendations (Telecommuncations) www.itu.int › Home › ITU-D › ICT Statistics 10
  • 3. Regulatory Publications: (a). West African Common Market Project: • West African Common Market Project: Regulatory Capacity Building Projects for the UEMOA and ECOWAS countries Final Report, • 2005 West African Common Market Project: Regulatory Capacity Building Projects for the UEMOA and ECOWAS countries Training Catalogue (b).Telecommunication Policies: • 1996 The African Green Paper: Telecommunication Policies for Africa, • 2002 Telecommunication Policies for the Arab Region (The Arab Book), • 2000 Telecommunication Policies for the Americas (The Blue Book), • 1999 Telecommunication Policies on CD-ROM 5. Radio Regulations: The Radio Regulations contains the complete texts as adopted by the World Radio communication Conference (Geneva, 1995) (WRC-95) and subsequently revised and adopted by World Radio communication Conferences, including all Appendices, Resolutions, Recommendations and ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference. 7. World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012: In December 2012, the ITU facilitated the The World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012 (WCIT-12) in Dubai. WCIT-12 was a treaty-level conference to address International Telecommunications Regulations: international rules for telecommunications, including international tariffs. The previous conference to update the Regulations (ITRs) was held in Melbourne in 1988.* In August 2012, ITU called for a public consultation on a draft document ahead of the conference. It is claimed the proposal would allow government restriction or blocking of information disseminated via the internet and create a global regime of monitoring internet communications – including * www.itu.int/en/ITU-D 11
  • the demand that those who send and receive information identify themselves. It would also allow governments to shut down the internet if there is the belief that it may interfere in the internal affairs of other states or that information of a sensitive nature might be shared.Telecommunications ministers from 193 countries attended the conference in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 8. Changes to International Telecommunication Regulations: The current regulatory structure was based on voice telecommunications, when the Internet was still in its infancy. In 1988, telecommunications operated under regulated monopolies in most countries. As the Internet has grown, organizations such as ICANN have come into existence to manage key resources such as Internet addresses and Domain Names. Some outside the United States believe that the United States exerts too much influence over the governance of the Internet. 9. Proposed Changes to the Treaty and Concerns: Current proposals look to take into account the prevalence of data communications. Proposals under consideration would establish regulatory oversight by the U.N. over security, fraud, traffic accounting as well as traffic flow, management of Internet Domain Names and IP addresses, and other aspects of the Internet that are currently governed either by community-based approaches such as Regional Internet Registries, ICANN, or largely national regulatory frameworks. The move by the ITU and some countries has alarmed many within the United States and within the Internet community. Indeed some European telecommunication services have proposed a so-called "sender pays" model that would require sources of Internet traffic to pay destinations, similar to the way funds are transferred between countries using the telephone.1 On 22 November 2012, the European Parliament passed a resolution urging member states to prevent ITU WCIT-12 activity that would "negatively impact the internet, its architecture, operations, content and security, business relations, internet governance and the free flow of information online". The resolution asserted that "the ITU is not the appropriate body to assert regulatory authority over the internet". 1 www.itu.int › Home › ITU-D › ICT Statistics 12
  • On 5 December 2012, the lower chamber of the United States Congress passed a resolution opposing U.N. governance of the Internet by a rare unanimous 397–0 vote. The resolution warned that "... proposals have been put forward for consideration at the [WCIT-12] that would fundamentally alter the governance and operation of the Internet ... [and] would attempt to justify increased government control over the Internet ...", and stated that the policy of the United States is "... to promote a global Internet free from government control and preserve and advance the successful Multistakeholder Model that governs the Internet today." The same resolution had previously been passed unanimously by the upper chamber of the Congress in September. On 14 December 2012, an amended version of the Regulations was signed by 89 of the 152 countries. Countries that did not sign included the United States, Japan, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, India and the United Kingdom. The Head of the U.S. Delegation, Terry Kramer, said "We cannot support a treaty that is not supportive of the multistakeholder model of Internet governance". The disagreement appeared to be over some language in the revised ITRs referring to ITU roles in addressing unsolicited bulk communications, network security, and a resolution on Internet governance that called for government participation in Internet topics at various ITU forums. Despite the significant number countries not signing, the ITU organization came out with a press release: "New global telecoms treaty agreed in Dubai". 10. WCIT-12 Conference Participation: The conference itself was managed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). While certain parts of civil society and industry were able to advise and observe, active participation was restricted to member states. The Electronic Frontier Foundation expressed concern at this, calling for a more transparent multi-stakeholder process.[33] Some leaked contributions can be found on the wcitleaks.org web site. Google-affiliated researchers have suggested that the ITU should completely reform its processes to align itself with the openness and participation of other multistakeholder organizations concerned with the Internet. 11. Standards development of ITU: ITU-T offers a unique contribution-driven and consensus-based environment, using the latest collaboration tools and facilities. Contribution 13
  • is the term used to describe membership input into a Study Group. This input can be on any relevant topic but is typically limited to suggesting new work areas; draft Recommendations, changes to existing Recommendations. Studies Groups drive their work primarily in the form of study Questions. Each of these addresses technical studies in a particular area of telecommunication standardization. Each SG has a Chairman and a number of vice-chairmen appointed by the World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA). To assist in the organization of the work, the SG may be organized into a number of working parties. The working party is the next organizational unit down within the study group (SG). It coordinates a number of study Questions on a related theme, e.g. the Media Coding Working Party in Study Group 16 deals with all study Questions relating to coding of speech, audio and video streams that we use every day for Internet calls, DVDs, etc. The team of experts working on a specific Question is known as the reporter group. Their meetings are chaired by the relevant rapporteur. Considering the text of the Question and guidance from the SG, the participants determine what Recommendations are required and develop text for these Recommendations taking all relevant inputs into account and consulting other relevant parts of ITU-T. During a meeting of the parent WP or SG, the experts will normally meet to progress the work, but they may also meet independently of the parent WP or SG, in a more informal setting, when required. A Question is the basic project unit within ITU-T. The area of study of the project is defined by the text of the Question, and this is generally approved by the study group itself. For a new Question to be established, it is necessary that a number of Members commit to support the work. Questions address technical studies in a particular area of telecommunication standardization, and are driven by contributions. A Question is normally terminated once the defined work has been completed, or the task is revised in the light of developments, which can be technical, market-oriented, network or service driven. 12. Standards approval of ITU: The “Alternative Approval Process” (AAP) is a fast-track approval procedure that was developed to allow standards to be brought to market in the timeframe that industry now demands. This dramatic 14
  • overhaul of standards-making by streamlining approval procedures was implemented in 2001 and is estimated to have cut the time involved in this critical aspect of the standardization process by 80 to 90 per cent. This means that an average standard which took around four years to approve and publish until the mid nineties, and two years until 1997, can now be approved in an average of two months, or as little as five weeks. The vast majority of standards are approved in this way. Only those that have regulatory implications are not, they use the what is called the traditional approval process (TAP). Besides streamlining the underlying procedures involved in the approval process, an important contributory factor to the use of AAP is electronic document handling. Once the approval process has begun the rest of the process can be completed electronically, in the vast majority of cases, with no further physical meetings. The introduction of AAP also formalizes public/private partnership in the approval process by providing equal opportunities for both Sector Members and Member States in the approval of technical standards. Once the text of a draft Recommendation prepared by Study Group (SG) experts is considered mature, it is submitted for review to a SG or Working Party (WP) meeting. If agreed by the meeting it is given Consent. This means that the SG or WP has given its consent that the text is sufficiently mature to initiate a final review process leading to approval of the draft Recommendation. After this Consent has been achieved, the Director of ITU-T's secretariat, the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB), announces the start of the AAP procedure by posting the draft text to the ITU-T web site and calling for comments. This gives the opportunity for all members to review the text. This phase, called Last Call, is a four-week period in which comments can be submitted by Member States and Sector Members. If no comments other than editorial corrections are received, the Recommendation is considered approved since no issues were identified that might need any further work. However, if there are any comments, the SG chairman, in consultation with TSB, sets up a comment resolution process by the concerned experts. The revised text is then posted on the web for an Additional Review period of three weeks. Similar to the Last Call phase, in Additional Review the Recommendation is considered as approved if no comments are received. If comments are 15
  • received, it is apparent that there are some issues that still need more work, and the draft text and all comments are sent to the next Study Group meeting for further discussion and possible approval. After a Last Call in which comments were received, if the SG Chairman sees that there is insufficient time for comment resolution and an Additional Review period, the draft Recommendation and unresolved comments can be sent directly to the next meeting of the SG for resolution and agreement. 13. Connected Community: This is a unique and essential conversation. Experts from industry and government, regulation and innovation debate the radical transformation of the ICT sector, ITU Telecom World is the platform for high-level debate, knowledge-sharing and networking for the global ICT community - essential to drive industry success and address critical socio-economic challenges. ITU Telecom is the part of ITU responsible for organizing these annual events. (a).Unique Audience: ITU Telecom World events bring together a uniquely comprehensive audience of public and private sector players at the highest level. Heads of State and Government, ministers, policy makers and regulators meet industry CEOs from operators, vendors, service providers and content developers, thought-leaders, academics and UN Agency heads on a wider scale than at any other industry event. (b). Knowledge Sharing: The world-class forum offers interactive discussion unrivalled in the reach of its content and the quality of its speakers. Panellists are experts in their fields, offering informed opinions and contrasting perspectives from government, business and technology. Innovative solutions, strategies, policies, models and markets emerge from passionate and collaborative debate.® (c). Showcasing:  http://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx 16
  • National pavilions, industry stands and thematic pavilions showcase products, technologies, investment and partnership opportunities from around the world on the show floor. Centred around the Open Space meeting hub and featuring media and leaders' lounges, the futuristic Innovation Space and workshop areas, the show floor provides a natural environment for networking and knowledge-sharing on a global stage. (d). Networking: Networking events and spaces are crafted to facilitate the connections that matter between public and private sector decision-makers, between individuals, ideas and industry players. Connections that stimulate innovation, opportunity and partnerships, driving the success of the industry - whether through targeted bilateral meetings, structured social occasions or informal discussions over coffee. 14. Technology Development: The development of digital technologies and the convergence of broadcasting, telecommunications and informatics offer sizeable opportunities for the implementation of appropriate new technologies by developing countries.The World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC) held in Hyderabad (India) from 24 May to 4 June 2010 adopted, among others, the Programme 1: " Information and Communication Infrastructure and Technology Development ". The programme assists Member States and ITU-D Sector Members to maximize the utilization of appropriate new technologies in the development of their information and communication infrastructure. The programme also assists developing countries to plan, build, operate, upgrade, manage and maintain technologies applicable in their networks and services. This includes the development of the Telecommunications and Information infrastructure and applications. Applied research and the transfer of technological know-how will be an indispensable part of the task of expediting the access to new technologies on a non-discriminatory basis for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The programme will be carried out by various means, including symposia, workshops, conferences, seminars and expert advice as well as information sharing, creation of tools and training 17
  • material.As issues of network reliability and quality of service continues to be of considerable interest to developing countries, the programme focuses on management issues, marketing techniques and the introduction of new services, taking into account the recent trends in the development of telecommunications, broadcasting and informatics.© 14. Capacity building: Capacity building in ITU's context refers to strengthening the human and institutional capacity of developing countries to adapt to an evolving ICT and telecommunication sector. Building broad telecommunication/ICT literacy enables citizens to access and contribute information, ideas and knowledge in order to create an inclusive information society. Providing assistance in human and institutional capacity building that improves telecommunication/ICT skills to support the development and use of telecommunication/ICT networks and applications continues to be a priority for the ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D). In this regard, the strategic goal of the ITU-D is threefold, and includes: To promote the availability of infrastructure and foster an enabling environment for telecommunication/ICT infrastructure development and its use in a safe and secure manner; To provide assistance to developing countries; To expand the benefits of the information society to the membership in cooperation with public and private stakeholders, and to promote the integration of the use of telecommunications/ICTs into the broader economy and society as drivers of development, innovation, wellbeing, growth and productivity globally. Furthermore, the objectives of ITUD, according to the ITU Strategic Plan, include Objective 5 which refers directly to capacity building and development. 15. ITU Council Overview: The ITU is governed by the Plenipotentiary Conference and the Administrative Council. The Plenipotentairy Conference is the supreme organ of the Union. It is the decision making body which determines the direction of the Union and its activities.® The Council, on the other hand, acts as the Union’s governing body in the interval between Plenipotentiary Conferences. Its role is to consider broad   http://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx www.itu.int/en/ITU-D 18
  • telecommunication policy issues to ensure that the Union's activities, policies and strategies fully respond to today's dynamic, rapidly changing telecommunications environment. • Council Membership • Council Troika • Council 2013 Chairman ITU Council also prepares a report on the policy and strategic planning of the ITU and responsible for ensuring the smooth day-to-day running of the Union, coordinating work programmes, approving budgets and controlling finances and expenditure. The Council also takes all steps to facilitate the implementation of the provisions of the ITU Constitution, the ITU Convention, the Administrative Regulations (International Telecommunications Regulations and Radio Regulations), and the decisions of Plenipotentiary Conferences and; where appropriate, the decisions of other conferences and meetings of the Union. Bibliography: www.itu.int/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Telecommunication_Union https://www.facebook.com/pages/ITU/103018419782973 https://twitter.com/ITU • www.itu.int/wsis • www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/ • www.itu.int › Home › ITU-D › ICT Statistics • • • • • 19