Wardak Provincial ProfileContents 1. GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Geography 2. Demography and Population 2. CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROVINCE 1. Infrastructure and Natural Resources 2. Economic Governance and Private Sector Development 3. Agriculture and Rural Development 4. Education 5. HealthNote: This material has been taken from "Provincial Development Plan,Wardak Provincial Profile" prepared by the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitationand Development (MRRD), 2007.GENERAL INFORMATIONGeographyWardak province is situated on the southern outcrops of the Hindu-Kushmountain range. It is a strategic province in the Central Region ofAfghanistan sharing borders with Parwan and Bamyan to the north, Kabuland Logar in the east, and Ghazni to the south and west. The provincecovers an area of 9,023 km2. More than four-fifths of the province(84.1%) is mountainous or semi mountainous terrain while a little morethan one-tenth of the area (11.4%) is made up of flat land, as thefollowing table shows: Topography TypeFlat Mountainous Semi Mountainous Semi Flat Not Reported Total11.4% 63.4% 20.7% 3.6% .7% 99.8%Source: CSO/UNFPA Socio Economic and Demographic ProfileThe province is divided into 8 districts. The provincial capital is MaidanShahr which has a population of about 35,008 inhabitants.Demography and PopulationWardak has a total population of 529,343. There are around 83,984households in the province, and households on average have 6 members.The following table shows the population by district:
Population by District Number of Number of TotalDistrict males females populationMaidan Shar,Provincial 17,659 17,659 35,008CentreJalrez 22,680 22,193 44,873Hissa-i-Awali-Bihsud 12,537 12,542 25,079Markazi-Bihsud 47,387 46,941 94,328Daimirdad 14,593 14,272 28,865Jaghatu 23,699 22,968 46,667Chaki Wardak 42,733 40,643 83,376Sayed Abad 58,752 56,041 114,793Nirkh 29,066 27,288 56,354Total 268,331 259,419 529,343Source: CSO Provincial Profiles Nearly all of the population of Wardak (99%) lives in rural districts.Around 51% of the population is male and 49% is female. The majorethnic groups living in Wardak Province are Pashtoons, follwed by Tajiksand Hazaras. The most frequently spoken languages are Pashtu which isspoken by 70% of the population and Dari which is spoken by 27%.Wardak province also has a population of Kuchis or nomads whosenumbers vary in different seasons. In winter 10,670 individuals, 0.4% ofthe overall Kuchi population, stay in Wardak. The vast majority (89%) ofthese are settled. Of the remaining 11%, 35 households are short-rangemigratory and 105 households are long-range migratory. However,amongst these migratory communities only about a third migrates. In thewinter both groups stay mostly in one area and don’t move around duringthe season. The summer area for the long range migratory Kuchis fromWardak is Kabul Province, while long-range migratory Kuchis from theprovinces of Nangarhar, Logar, and Laghman, and to a lesser extentKabul, Khost, Kunar and Parwan move to Wardak in the summer, mostlythe districts of Bihsud and Jalrez.. The Kuchi population in the summer is122,810 individuals, 5.1% of the total Kuchi population.
CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROVINCEInfrastructure and Natural ResourcesThe provision of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation, energy,transport and communications is one of the key elements necessary toprovide the building blocks for private sector expansion, equitableeconomic growth, increased employment and accelerated agriculturalproductivity. In Wardak Province, on average only 22% of households usesafe drinking water. Nearly nine in ten households have direct access totheir main source of drinking water within their community, howeveraround one in ten of households (12%) has to travel for up to an hour toaccess drinking water, as the table below shows:Time required accessing main source of drinking waterIn community Less than 1 hour 1-3 hours 3-6 hours87% 12% 2% 0%Source: NRVA 2005On average only 4% of households have access to safe toilet facilities. Thefollowing table shows the kinds of toilet facilities used by households inthe province: Toilet facilities used by householdsNone/bush/ Dearan/Sahrah (area in Open Traditional Improved FlushOpen field compound but not pit) pit covered latrine latrine latrine9% 10% 14% 62% 4% 0%Source: NRVA 2005In terms of meeting the basic requirements for energy, there is oneelectric dam on the Logar River at Chak producing 3,300 kilowatts ofelectricity with only one of its three turbines operating. On average 9% ofhouseholds in Wardak province have access to electricity but only 1% ofhouseholds have access to public electricity.The transport infrastructure in Wardak is quite well developed, witharound a quarter (27%) of roads in the province able to take car traffic inall seasons, and over half (57%) able to take car traffic in some seasons.However, 16% of the province has no roads at all, as shown in thefollowing table:
Road Types Cars All Cars Some No NotDistrict Season Seasons Roads ReportedMaidan Shar, Provincial 42.2% 56.3% 0% 1.6%CentreJalrez 73.4% 9.7% 16.9% 0%Hissa-i-Awali-Bihsud 12.8% 69.1% 18.1% 0%Markazi-Bihsud 12.1% 56.9% 29.1% 1.9%Daimirdad 29.6% 65.2% 4.3% 0.9%Jaghatu 63.2% 36.8% 0% 0%Chaki Wardak 35.5% 59.5% 5.0% 0%Sayed Abad 58.4% 41.0% 0.6% 0%Nirkh 6.1% 91.9% 2.0% 0%Total 26.6% 56.6% 15.9% 0.9%Source: AIRD Provincial ProfilesAs far as telecommunications is concerned, there is a partial coverageform the AWCC and Roshan mobile networks in Maidan Shar, Jaghato,Sayedabad, Jalrez and Nirkh.Economic Governance and Private Sector DevelopmentCreating the conditions in which a dynamic and competitive private sectorcan flourish, is key to promoting economic growth, employment creationand poverty reduction. Wardak is both an agricultural and an industrialprovince, and minerals such as gems and marble are found in themountains of the provincial center and Narkh District, although theGovernment has banned the extraction of these resources. In terms ofindustry, one marble factory is working in the province, and there aremarble mines in the provincial centre and Sayed Abad District although nomining is currently undertaken there due to the government ban. Themajority of commercial activity in Wardak is related to trade in agriculturaland livestock products, although stone quarrying is also a growingbusiness in the area. The people from Wardak are also expert in Karezcleaning and repair and go to other parts of the country for this purpose.
Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 43% of households in Wardakprovince. Four fifths (79%) of rural households own or manageagricultural land or garden plots in the province. However, nearly aquarter (24%) of households in the province derive income from tradeand services, and around half (45%) of households earn some incomethrough non-farm related labor. Livestock also accounts for the income ofone fifth (21%) of households as the following table shows:Sources of income reported by households (%)Source of income Rural Urban TotalAgriculture 46 - 43Livestock 16 - 21Opium 1 - 1Trade and Services 27 - 24Manufacture 1 - 1Non-Farm Labor 46 - 45Remittances 18 - 16Other 5 - 6Source: NRVA 2005In 2005 there were 14 agricultural cooperatives active in Wardak involving3,359 members. This was an increase of more than 130% from 2003when the figure was only 1,455 members. In 2005 agriculturalcooperatives controlled a total of 5,068 Hac of land and achieved a surplusof products for sale of 20,000 tons. As a result of this, each member helda share in the capital of the cooperative to the value of 489,300Afs.Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large productionof industrial products in Wardak. Tobacco is produced in 94 villages of thetotal 1,989 mainly in Chaki Wardak, Markazi-Bihsud, Sayed Abad andJaghatu districts. Sugar extracts are produced in 32 villages, 19 of whichare located in Sayed Abad.The sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity, honey,which is produced in 68 villages, 55 of which are located in the district ofChaki Wardak. There is also a significant production of handicrafts mostlyrelated to rugs, carpets, jewelry, and shawls concentrated mainly in two
districts, Markazi-Bihsud and Hissa-i-Awali-Bihsud. More than 90% ofthese four handicrafts are produced in these two districts.In 2005, 42% of households in Wardak reported taking out loans. Ofthese households, a small percentage used these loans to invest ineconomic activity such as business investment (2%) and agriculturalinputs (1%).Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentEnhancing licit agricultural productivity, creating incentives for non-farminvestment, developing rural infrastructure, and supporting access to skillsdevelopment and financial services will allow individuals, households andcommunities to participate licitly and productively in the economy. Asagriculture represents the major source of income for nearly half thehouseholds in the province, rural development will be a key element ofprogress in Wardak. The most important field crops grown in Wardakprovince include wheat, barley, maize, rice and rapeseed. The mostcommon crops grown in garden plots include fruit and nut trees andproduce such as vegetables, potatoes, beans and alfalfa, clover or otherfodder.Around two-thirds of households with access to fertilizer use this on fieldcrops (65%) and to a lesser degree on garden plots (15%), although one-fifth of households use fertilizer on both field and garden (20%). The maintypes of fertilizer used by households in the province are shown in thefollowing table: Main types of fertilizer used by householdsHuman Animal Urea DAP% % % Average Kg per Household % Average Kg per Household43 59 54 115.5 Kg 45 135.9KgSource: NRVA 2005On average four fifths (83%) of households in the province have access toirrigated land, and around one fifth (18%) of households have access torain-fed land.Households (%) access to irrigated and rain-fed land Rural Urban AverageAccess to irrigated land 83 - 83
Access to rain-fed land 18 - 18Source: NRVA 2005Eighty eight percent of rural households and 94% of Kuchi households inthe province own livestock or poultry.The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, goats, donkey, poultryand cattle as the following table shows:Households (%) owning poultry and livestockLivestock Kuchi Rural Urban AverageCattle 35 51 - 29Oxen 4 14 - 6Horses 6 0 - 2Donkey 78 35 - 38Camel 21 2 - 8Goats 94 35 - 43Sheep 90 61 - 50Poultry 32 80 - 37Source: NRVA 2005EducationEnsuring good quality education and equitable access to education andskills are some of the important ways to raise human capital, reducepoverty and facilitate economic growth. The overall literacy rate in Wardakprovince is 25%, however, while more than one third of men are literate(38%), this is true for just over one tenth of women (10%). In thepopulation aged between 15 and 24 the situation for men is slightly betterwith 43% literacy, whereas for women the figure shows a decrease to 8%.The Kuchi population in the province has particularly low levels of literacy
with just 2.4% of men and a tiny number of women able to read andwrite.On average around a third (31%) of children between 6 and 13 areenrolled in school, however the figure is 41% of boys and 20% girls.Amongst the Kuchi population, one in four boys (25%) and no girls attendschool in Wardak during the winter months and 19% of boys and no girlsattend school in the province during the summer.Overall there are 251 primary and secondary schools in the provincecatering for 105,358 students. Boys account for 80% of students and 83%of schools are boys’ schools. There are 2,909 teachers working in schoolsin the Wardak province, 6% of whom are women. Primary and Secondary Education Schools Students Teachers Boys Girls Boys Girls Male FemalePrimary 133 40 67,643 21,177 - -Secondary 75 3 16,176 362 - - 208 43 83,819 21,539 2,744 165Total 251 105,358 2,909Source: CSO Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2006 Page 9 of 13Around one in ten of primary school students (10%) have a primaryschool in their village, but this is true for only 4% of secondary schoolstudents and only 2% of high school students. On the other hand, nearlytwo-thirds (64%) of High school students, a quarter (25%) of secondarystudents and one tenth (12%) of primary students have to travel morethan 10kms to reach their nearest school.Wardak province also has a higher education facility. Although there is noGovernment-run or private university, there is a Teacher TrainingInstitute.HealthEnsuring the availability of basic health and hospital services, anddeveloping human resources in the health sector is essential to reduce theincidence of disease, increase life expectancy and enable the wholepopulation to participate in sustainable development. A basic
infrastructure of health services exists in Wardak province. In 2005 therewere 46 health centers and 4 hospitals with a total of 187 beds. Therewere also 35 doctors and 155 nurses employed by the Ministry of Healthworking in the province, which represented an increase of almost twicethe number doctors and one and a half times the number of nursescompared to 2003. The major health facilities in the province identified in2007 are shown in the following table:Health ServicesHospitals ClinicsName Location Name LocationProvincial Maydan Shar, Behsud II, Comprehensive and Basic AllHospitals (4) Chak, Sayed Abad Health Centers (37) districtsSource: UNDSS Provincial Assessment 2007 provided by UNAMAThe province also has 100 pharmacies of which 87 are owned privatelyand 13 are run by the government.The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanentlypresent in their community. Out of 1,989 villages, only 42 have a healthcentre or dispensary within their boundaries. Access to health care isdifficult for many people in the province with nearly one out in threepeople (29%) having to travel more than 5km to reach their nearesthealth facility. More than two-fifths of the population (43%) has to travelover 10 kilometers to get medical attention in either a health centers or adispensary.Social ProtectionBuilding the capacities, opportunities and security of extremely poor andvulnerable Afghans through a process of economic empowerment isessential in order to reduce poverty and increase self-reliance. The level ofeconomic hardship in Wardak is reasonably high. More than one in ten thehouseholds in the province (12%) report having problems satisfying theirfood needs at least 3–6 times a year, and a further one third ofhouseholds (33%) face this problem up to three times a year, as thefollowing table shows:
Problems satisfying food need of the household during the last year Rarely (1-3 Sometimes (3-6 Often (few Mostly Never times) times) times a month) (happens a lot)Households 46 33 12 7 2(%)Source: NRVA 2005More than two fifths (41%) of the population in the province is estimatedto receive less than the minimum daily caloric intake necessary tomaintain good health, and on average, around three-quarters (72%) ofthe population have low dietary diversity and poor or very poor foodconsumption, as shown below: Food consumption classification for all households Low dietary diversity Better dietary diversityHouseholds Very poor food Poor food Slightly better food Better food(%) consumption consumption consumption consumptionRural 33 41 18 7Total 31 41 17 9Source: NRVA 2005In 2005, 9% of the population of Wardak province received allocations offood aid, which reached a total of 77,608 beneficiaries. In addition, of the42% of households who reported taking out loans, more than half (54%)said that the main use of their largest loan was to buy food. A further 9%used the money to cover expenses for health emergencies.In the same year a quarter (25%) of households in the province reportedfeeling that their economic situation had gotten worse compared to a yearago, and more than half (54%) felt that it had remained the same as thefollowing table shows:Comparison of overall economic situation compared to one year ago Much worse Worse Same Slightly better Much betterHouseholds (%) 7 18 54 21 0Source: NRVA 2005In 2005, more than a third (37%) of all households in the provincereported having been negatively affected by some unexpected event inthe last year, which was beyond their control. People living in the province
were most vulnerable to shocks related to agriculture, natural disastersand drinking water, as the following table shows:Households experiencing shocks in the province (%)Types of shocks Rural Urban AverageDrinking water 36 - 37Agricultural 45 - 50Natural disaster 44 - 39Insecurity 5 - 6Financial 6 - 6Health or epidemics 1 - 1Source: NRVA 2005Of those households affected by shocks, two-thirds (66%)reported thatthey had not recovered at all from shocks experienced in the last 12months and one-third (33%) said they had recovered only partially.Source:http://www.foodsecurityatlas.org/afg/country/provincial-Profile/WardakConsultation date: 21st Feb 2013