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) ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬Management in the food Industry(
‫ﻟﻴﮑﻮﺍﻝ‬‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪ‬ :–21‫ﺍګﺴﺖ‬۲۰۱۳
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.‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﭘﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺎﺭﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﮏ‬ ،‫ټﻴﻨګﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺍړﻳﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨځﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ .‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﻣ...
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‫ډﻭﻟﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬ ‫ګټﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮی‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﭘﺎ...
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‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬
۱-‫ﺑﻮﺧﺘﻮی‬ ‫ځﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی...
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په خواړیزه صنعت کی مدیریت

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Food Industry Management is like the same as management and other entrepreneurial managements.

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په خواړیزه صنعت کی مدیریت

  1. 1. 1 ) ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬Management in the food Industry( ‫ﻟﻴﮑﻮﺍﻝ‬‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪ‬ :–21‫ﺍګﺴﺖ‬۲۰۱۳ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﮐﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬، ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩی‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻠﮑﻮ‬‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﺍﻳښﻮﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ځﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺗﺮﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ګﺮﻭﭘﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻭړﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ‬. ‫ﺣﻀﺮﺕ‬، ‫ﺭﻫﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭی‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﯽ‬ (‫)ﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻴﺮ‬leader‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭټﺎﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻮګﻪ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻳﯽ‬ (‫ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫)ﮐﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺣﻀﺮﺕ‬‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭی‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ځﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫څﻮک‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ (‫)ﺭﻫﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻭﻟﯽ‬. ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺍﺯی‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨځ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﮐﺎﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺎﻟﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﺭﮐﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﻨۍ‬ ‫ﻳﻮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻨځ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺗﻔﮑﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻮی‬‫ﺧﭙﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺮﻳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭼﺎ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭی‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻮی‬ ‫ﻣﺎډﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ځﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﺭﻧۍ‬ ‫ﻭړی‬ ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬. ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻘﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ځﻮک‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬،‫ﻋﻠﻮﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻴﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻏﻮﺍړی‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩی‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻣګﺮ‬ .‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ځﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭی‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻫﻴږی‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ټﻮﻟﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﻨۍ‬: ۱-‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﻨۍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ۲-‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ۳-‫ځ‬‫ﭘﺮﻣﺨﺘګ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻴړﻧﻪ‬ ۴-‫ﭘﻠﻮﺭﻝ‬ ۵-‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻣﻮﻧﺪﻧﻪ‬ ۶-‫ﻟﻮﺟﺴﺘﻴﮏ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ۷-‫ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺴﭙﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ۸-‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭی‬ ۹-‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﯽ‬ ۱۰-‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻳﺴﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﭙﺰی‬ ‫ﺍړﺗﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﻨۍ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮګﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ټﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬.‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﭘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ځﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺩی‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫څﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ځﻮﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻪ‬ ‫ټﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬. ‫ﺳﻄﺤﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺒ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻫﺒﺮی‬ ،‫ﮐﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ،‫ﺩﻫﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺟﻮړﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ،‫ﺫﻫﻨﯽ‬ ،‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ډﮐﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮړﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻭړ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﯽ‬ .‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻨځﯽ‬‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻮﺍړی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮی‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺭﺍځﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﭘﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﻨﯽ‬ .‫ﮐړی‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍړﻳﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺗﯽ‬
  2. 2. 2 .‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﭘﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺎﺭﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﮏ‬ ،‫ټﻴﻨګﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺍړﻳﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨځﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ .‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻣﺦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻮ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﯽ‬‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰی‬ ‫ﻳﻮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ځﻮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ځﻮﺍﺑﻮﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﭘﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﭘﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ‬ .‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻳﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ .‫ﺍﺭﺯﻭی‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ،‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮړﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻮی‬ .‫ﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ټﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺭی‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻭﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺑڼﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺗﯽ‬.‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺍړﺗﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺳﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻮ‬ ،‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ټﻮﻝ‬ .‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﺯﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻮګﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ .‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﻧﺎﮐﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻪ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺳﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪی‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ :‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬ 1.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ‬ 2.‫ﻣﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﯽ‬‫ﺎﺑﻊ‬ 3.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﮑﻨﺎﻟﻮژﻳﮑﯽ‬ 4.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻌﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺗﻮﮐﻮ‬ ‫ﻭړ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍړﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﻧﻴﺴﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﭼﻮﻟﻮ‬‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﺪﺍی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮړﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻴﺴﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬One off production‫ﻭﺍﻳﯽ‬‫ﮐړی‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺎﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﻮﺍړی‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ .‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻧګ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻴڅ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬batch‫ﻳﺎ‬‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺩﻳږی‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ګﺮﻭﭘﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺼﺎﻳﻮی‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺍﺯی‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻭړﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﯽ‬‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍی‬ ‫ﮐﺘﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬‫ﻳﺎ‬mass production‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ډﻳ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬‫ﻭﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺮﻩ‬‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﻮښﺘﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﭽﻪ‬ ‫ډﻳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺪی‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻳږی‬‫ﭼﺎﮐﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﮑﻪ‬.‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩی‬ ‫ډﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬Just in time‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺪی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺩﻳږی‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪی‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐړﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻮځﺎی‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻮی‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮی‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺍﻳښﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ټﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺪﻳﻮچ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ټﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﺭﺍﮐړﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬.‫ی‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺩی‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻫﺑﺭی‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﮐﻧﺗﺭﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺭﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﻭړﻭﻧﻪ‬
  3. 3. 3 ‫ډﻭﻟﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍړﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬ ‫ګټﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮی‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧګﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻤړۍ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ .‫ﮐړی‬ ‫ﻻﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ګټﻪ‬ ‫څﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﮐړی‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﭼﻮﻭﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧګﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻠﻪ‬sole proprietorship‫ﻭﺍﻳﯽ‬. ‫ﺑﻞ‬‫ﺷﺮﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧګﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﺪﺍی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧګﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮﻭ‬ ‫څﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻟﻮﺩﻭﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭﻭ‬ ‫ځﻴﻨﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﻧﻠﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻮی‬ partnership.‫ﻳﺎﺩﻳږی‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﻮړ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﺪﺍی‬ .‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﮑﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻗﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺮی‬ ‫ﮐﻪ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ګټﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﺪﺍی‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ .‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺯی‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻴﺴﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ټﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻟﻮﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﮑﻴﺖ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬Corporation‫ﭘﻪ‬ .‫ﻳﺎﺩﻳږی‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮړﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻭ‬ ‫ټﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰی‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻌﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭی‬ ،‫ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﺪﺍی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻴږی‬ ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻳﯽ‬ ،‫ﻭځﻴړی‬ ‫ﺍړﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ .‫ﻭﮐړی‬ ‫ﺳﻮچ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﮑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺑﺮﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ډﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺩی‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫څﻴړﻧ‬ ‫څﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻫﻤﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮﻟﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﻮﺭ‬ ‫ډﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍځﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﺱ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﮐﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﭙﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺩی‬ .‫ﮐړی‬cause and effect analysis‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﮐړی‬fish bone analysis‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬5M‫ﻳﺎﺩﻳږی‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ . :‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﻨځﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬M:‫ﺩی‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺩ‬ 1.‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬-Man 2.‫ﭼﺎﭘﻴﺮﻳﺎﻝ‬ ،-Milieu 3.‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻡ‬-Material 4.‫ﺁﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬-Machine 5.‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬–Method 6.‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬-Management ‫ﭘﻨ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺷﭙږ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ځﻪ‬M:‫ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻮی‬ ‫ښﻮﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺎګﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻩ‬
  4. 4. 4 ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ۱-‫ﺑﻮﺧﺘﻮی‬ ‫ځﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ۲-‫ﻭﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻏﻼﺳﺖ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮښﺖ‬ ۳-‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﻭړﺗﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﮐﻮﻭﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻠﻮ‬ ۴-‫ﻟﺮی‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭی‬. ۵-‫ﭘﻪ‬‫ﺧﺒﺮﻭی‬ ‫ځﺎﻥ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻨﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﮏ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ۶-‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬. ۷-‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴټ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺘﻮﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ۸-‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﮐﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻮﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬. ۹-‫ﻧﻴﺴﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺟﻞ‬ ۱۰-‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﻭړﺍﻧﺪی‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﺭی‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﻮﺍړی‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎ‬. ۱۱-‫ﻭﭘﻴﮋﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪی‬ ‫ژﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻐﻮی‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻮﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ټﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬. ۱۲-‫ﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫څﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ډﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬. ۱۳-‫ﻭﺭﮐﻮی‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ‬ ‫ډﻳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻭﻧﻮ‬ ‫ګﺮﻭﭘﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺟﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻭړﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻧﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺧﺕ‬ ‫ډﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻳﻭﺍﺩﻭﻧﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ‫ﭘﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺧﺕ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺳﺑﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺟﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻭړﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺯﻧﺱ‬ ،‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﻧﻳﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺭڼﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺳﺗﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣګﺭ‬ .‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺗﺟﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺭﻳﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﭘﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺩی‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﻗﻳﻣﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻳﻔﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺕ‬ ‫ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻧﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺷﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺗﻭﻧﺯﻩ‬ :‫ﻭﮐړی‬ ‫ﺳﻭچ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺩی‬ ‫ټﮑﻭ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺩی‬ ‫ﻧﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺭی‬ 1..‫ﮐړﻻی‬ ‫ﻧﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫څﻭک‬ ‫ﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﮐړی‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺻﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺧﺹ‬ 2.‫ﻣﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧښﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺗﺎﺳﯽ‬ ،‫ﺟﻭړﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺯﻧﺱ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭی‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻳﺩﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﮑﯽ‬ ‫څﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻳﺕ‬ 3.‫ﺷﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﭼﻣﺗﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﻧﻳﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ،‫ﺗﻌﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻭﺩﻳﺟﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺭﻭ‬ ‫ښﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﺕ‬ ‫ښﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﺩی‬ ‫ﺟﻭړﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺯﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻭﻧﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭی‬ ‫ﻣﺳﻭﻟﻳﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ 4.‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻳﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﭘﻝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻣﺎﻣﻭﺭﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﭼﻭﻭﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧګﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻧﻳﻧﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺳﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﻣﮑﻥ‬ .‫ﻭﻟﺭی‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺩﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻓﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﯽ‬ 5..‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﮐړﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺭﻳﻧﻧګﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺻﻭﻧﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﻳﻔﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻏﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 6..‫ﮐړی‬ ‫ﺟﻭړﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳژی‬ ‫ﺫﺧﻳﺭی‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺻﻭﻻﺗﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 7.‫ﺍﻧ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺻﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﻳﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻣﺣﺻﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺭی‬ ‫ټﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﭘﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮑﺷﺎﻑ‬ .‫ﻭﺭﮐړی‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮑﺷﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻭړ‬ 8..‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺗﺧﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﭼﻳﻧﻠﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻭی‬ ‫ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﻭﮐﺗﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﮐﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺂﺧﺫﻭﻧﻪ‬ 1.) .‫ﻧﻌﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻳﺩ‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﻟﺩ‬۲۰۱۲:‫ﺷﺗﻭﻥ‬ .(‫)ﺁﻧﻼﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻳﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻧﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺫﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .(http://karana.blogfa.com/9102.aspx 2. International Food Information Council Foundation. (2011) . Food Production Factsheet: Food Technology (online). Available at: http://www.foodinsight.org/Content/3843/Final_Food_Production_Fact_Sheet_5.11.pdf (consulted on 21st June 2013) 3. http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/fishbone.html 4. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/publication/starting-up-booklet.pdf 5. http://www.preserveproduce.ca/files/resource/file/PPP-10-Steps-Workshop-Supplement.pdf

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