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Evidence of artistic interest in depicting figures in motion can be seen as early  as Paleolithic cave paintings. Animals ...
Another example includes a 5,200-year old earthen bowl foundin Iran in Shahr-e Sukhteh. The bowl has five images paintedal...
An Egyptian mural, found in the tomb of Khnumhotep andNiankhkhnum, at the Beni Hassan cemetery includes asequence of image...
Seven drawings by Leonardo da Vinci extending over two foliosin the Windsor Collection, Anatomical Studies of the Muscleso...
Even though some of these early examples may appear similarto an animated series of drawings, the lack of equipment toshow...
Numerous devices which successfully displayed animatedimages were introduced well before the advent of the motionpicture. ...
The magic lantern is an earlypredecessor of the modern dayprojector. It consisted of atranslucent oil painting, a simplele...
The origin of the magic lantern is debated, but in the 15thcentury the Venetian inventor Giovanni Fontanapublished an illu...
The Thaumatrope is based on the Greek word wonder turning.It is generally believed to have been invented by Peter MarkRoge...
A thaumatrope is a small circular diskor card with two different pictures oneach side that was attached to a pieceof strin...
The phenakistoscope was an early animation device.It was invented in 1831 simultaneously by              Belgian Joseph Pl...
It consists of a disk with a series ofimages, drawn on radii evenly spacedaround the center of the disk. Slots arecut out ...
The Zoetrope was produced in 1834 by William George Hornerand operates on the same principle as the phenakistoscope. Itwas...
The first flip book was patented in 1868 by John Barnes Linnettas the kineograph. A flip book is just a book with particul...
Flip book operates on the same principle as thephenakistoscope and the zoetrope what with the rapidreplacement of images w...
In previous animation devices the images were drawn in circleswhich meant diameter of the circles physically limited just ...
The Praxinoscope, invented by Frenchscientist Charles-Émile Reynaud,combined the cylindrical design of thezoetrope with th...
Charles-Émile Reynauds Theater Optique is the earliestknown example of projected animation, which is a largerversion of th...
It is an early motion picture exhibitiondevice. The Kinetoscope was designed forfilms to be viewed by one individual at at...
In 1923 a studio called Laugh-O-Grams went bankrupt and itsowner Walt Disney opened a new studio in Los Angeles.Disneys fi...
Laugh-O-Gram Studio was a film studio located on the second floorof the McConahay Building at 1127 East 31st in Kansas Cit...
After creating one last short, the live-action/animation AlicesWonderland, the studio filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in J...
“They used to fight for crumbs in my waste-basket when Iworked alone late at night. I lifted them out and kept them inwire...
Walt Disney was an American filmproducer, director, screenwriter, voiceactor, animator, entrepreneur,entertainer, internat...
He and his staff created some of the worlds most well-knownfictional characters including Mickey Mouse, for whom Disneyhim...
While working for the Kansas City Film Ad Company, where hemade commercials based on cutout animations, Disney becameinter...
Disney and his brother Roy pooled their money and set up acartoon studio in Hollywood where they needed to find adistribut...
The new series, Alice Comedies, provedreasonably successful,By the time the series ended in 1927, its focuswas more on the...
The new series, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, was an almostinstant success, and the character, Oswald – drawn and createdby Iwe...
Mickey Mouse is a funny animalcartoon character created in 1928 byWalt Disney and Ub Iwerks at theWalt Disney Studios. Mic...
Mickey first was seen in a single test screening Plane Crazy .Mickey officially debuted in November 1928 in Steamboat Will...
The Silly Symphonies were a series of animated short subjectsproduced by Walt Disney Productions. A total of 75 shorts wer...
By 1932, although Mickey Mousehad become a relatively popularcinema character, SillySymphonies was not assuccessful.The sa...
In late 1932, Herbert Kalmus, who had just completed work on thefirst three-strip Technicolor camera, approached Walt and ...
Donald Duck is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1934 atWalt Disney Productions.Donald is an anthropomorphic whi...
Goofy is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1932 at WaltDisney Productions. Goofy is a tall, anthropomorphic dog,...
Goofy debuted in animated cartoons, starting in 1932 withMickeys Revue. During the 1930s he was used extensively aspart of...
Pluto, also called Pluto the Pup, is a cartoon character createdin 1930 by Walt Disney Productions. He is golden, medium-s...
Pluto debuted in animated cartoons and appeared in 24 MickeyMouse films before receiving his own series in 1937. All toget...
Following the creation of two cartoon series, in 1934 Disney beganplanning a full-length feature. The following year, opin...
The multiplane camera is a special motion picture cameraused in the traditional animation process that moves a numberof pi...
It went into full production in 1934 and continued until mid-1937, when the studio ran out of money. To obtain the funding...
Following the success of Snow White, for which Disneyreceived one full-size, and seven miniature Oscar statuettes, hewas a...
In 1941, the U.S. State Department sent Disney and a group ofanimators to South America as part of its Good Neighbor polic...
Disney studios also created inexpensive package films, containing collections ofcartoon shorts, and issued them to theate...
Color television was introduced to the US Market in 1951. In1958 Hanna-Barbera released Huckleberry Hound, the first half-...
Hanna was an American animator, director, producer, voiceactor, and cartoon artist, whose film and television cartoonchara...
In 1957, they co-founded Hanna-Barbera, which becamethe most successful television animation studio in thebusiness, produc...
Stop Motion:- Stop motion (also known as stop frame) is ananimation technique to make a physically manipulated object appe...
This process is used for many productions, for example, themost common types of puppets are clay puppets, as used in TheCa...
In the turn of the century, there was another well knownanimator known as Willis O Brien. His work on The LostWorld (1925)...
Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style ofanimation which he titled the documentary Claymation. Soonaft...
Another more-complicated variation on stop motion is gomotion, co-developed by Phil Tippett and first used on thefilms The...
Traditional animation, (or classical animation, cel animation, orhand-drawn animation) is an animation technique where eac...
History of Animations - digitalmarketinghead@gmail.com
History of Animations - digitalmarketinghead@gmail.com
History of Animations - digitalmarketinghead@gmail.com
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History of Animations - digitalmarketinghead@gmail.com

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This Presentation is all about the history of animation. All the references are from reliable sources over internet on animations. The topics described are:
Early approaches to motion in art
Animation Before Film
The magic lantern
Thaumatrope
Phenakistoscope
Zoetrope
Flip book
Praxinoscope
The Silent Era
Theater Optique
The Kinetoscope
The Golden Age of Animation
Walt Disney
Alice Comedies
World War II era
Post-war period
The Television Era
Animation Techniques
Go motion
and more ...

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Transcript of "History of Animations - digitalmarketinghead@gmail.com"

  1. 1. Evidence of artistic interest in depicting figures in motion can be seen as early as Paleolithic cave paintings. Animals in these paintings were often depicted with multiple sets of legs in superimposed positions. Because these paintings are prehistoric they could be explained a number of ways, such as the artistsimply changing their mind about the leg’s position with no means of erasing, but it’s very likely that they are early attempts to convey motion.
  2. 2. Another example includes a 5,200-year old earthen bowl foundin Iran in Shahr-e Sukhteh. The bowl has five images paintedalong the sides, showing phases of a goat leaping up to nip at atree.
  3. 3. An Egyptian mural, found in the tomb of Khnumhotep andNiankhkhnum, at the Beni Hassan cemetery includes asequence of images in temporal succession. The paintings areapproximately 4000 years old and show scenes of youngsoldiers being trained in wrestling and combat.
  4. 4. Seven drawings by Leonardo da Vinci extending over two foliosin the Windsor Collection, Anatomical Studies of the Musclesof the Neck, Shoulder, Chest, and Arm, show detailed drawingsof the upper body with a less-detailed facial image. Thesequence shows multiple angles of the figure as it rotates andthe arm extends. Because the drawings show only smallchanges from one image to the next, the drawings implymotion in a single figure.
  5. 5. Even though some of these early examples may appear similarto an animated series of drawings, the lack of equipment toshow them in motion causes them to fall short of being trueanimation. The process of illustrating the passing of time byputting images in a chronological series is one of the mostimportant steps in creating animation so historic instances ofthis practice are definitely notable.
  6. 6. Numerous devices which successfully displayed animatedimages were introduced well before the advent of the motionpicture. These devices were used to entertain, amaze andsometimes even frighten people. The majority of these devicesdidn’t project their images and accordingly could only beviewed by a single person at any one time. For this reason theywere considered toys rather than being a large scaleentertainment industry like later animation. Many of thesedevices are still built by and for film students being taught thebasic principles of animation.
  7. 7. The magic lantern is an earlypredecessor of the modern dayprojector. It consisted of atranslucent oil painting, a simplelens and a candle or oil lamp. In adarkened room, the image wouldappear projected onto an adjacentflat surface. It was often used toproject demonic, frighteningimages in order to convince peoplethat they were witnessing thesupernatural. Some slides for thelanterns contained moving partswhich makes the magic lantern theearliest known example ofprojected animation.
  8. 8. The origin of the magic lantern is debated, but in the 15thcentury the Venetian inventor Giovanni Fontanapublished an illustration of a device which projected the imageof a demon in his Liber Instrumentorum. The earliest knownactual magic lanterns are usually credited to ChristiaanHuygens or Athanasius Kircher
  9. 9. The Thaumatrope is based on the Greek word wonder turning.It is generally believed to have been invented by Peter MarkRoget, who used one to demonstrate the theory of persistenceof vision to the Royal College of Physicians in London. Athaumatrope was a simple toy used in the Victorian era.
  10. 10. A thaumatrope is a small circular diskor card with two different pictures oneach side that was attached to a pieceof string or a pair of strings runningthrough the centre. When the stringis twirled quickly between the fingers,the two pictures appear to combineinto a single image.
  11. 11. The phenakistoscope was an early animation device.It was invented in 1831 simultaneously by Belgian Joseph Plateau And Austrian Simon von Stampfer.
  12. 12. It consists of a disk with a series ofimages, drawn on radii evenly spacedaround the center of the disk. Slots arecut out of the disk on the same radii asthe drawings, but at a different distancefrom the center. The device would beplaced in front of a mirror and spun. Asthe phenakistoscope is spun, a viewerwould looks through the slots at thereflection of the drawings which wouldonly become visible when a slot passesby the viewer’s eye. This created theillusion of animation.
  13. 13. The Zoetrope was produced in 1834 by William George Hornerand operates on the same principle as the phenakistoscope. Itwas a cylindrical spinning device with several frames ofanimation printed along the interior circumference. There arevertical slits around the sides through which an observer canview the moving images on the opposite side when the cylinderspins. As it spins the material between the viewing slits movesin the opposite direction of the images on the other side and indoing so serves as a rudimentary shutter. The zoetrope hadseveral advantages over the phenakistoscope. It didn’t requirethe use of a mirror to view the illusion, and because of itscylindrical shape it could be viewed by several people at once.
  14. 14. The first flip book was patented in 1868 by John Barnes Linnettas the kineograph. A flip book is just a book with particularlyspringy pages that have an animated series of images printednear the unbound edge. A viewer bends the pages back andthen rapidly releases them one at a time so that each imageviewed springs out of view to momentarily reveal the nextimage just before it does the same.
  15. 15. Flip book operates on the same principle as thephenakistoscope and the zoetrope what with the rapidreplacement of images with others, but they create the illusionwithout any thing serving as a flickering shutter as the slits hadin the previous devices.Flip books were more often cited as inspiration by earlyanimated filmmakers than the previously discussed deviceswhich didn’t reach quite as wide of an audience.
  16. 16. In previous animation devices the images were drawn in circleswhich meant diameter of the circles physically limited just howmany images could reasonably be displayed. While the bookformat still brings about something of a physical limit to thelength of the animation, this limit is significantly longer thanthe round devices. Even this limit was able to be broken withthe invention of the mutoscope in 1894. It consisted of a longcircularly bound flip book in a box with a crank handle to flipthrough the pages.
  17. 17. The Praxinoscope, invented by Frenchscientist Charles-Émile Reynaud,combined the cylindrical design of thezoetrope with the viewing mirror of thephenakistoscope. The mirrors weremounted still in the center of thespinning ring of slots and drawings sothat the image can be more clearly seenno matter what the device’s radius.Reynaud also developed a larger versionof the Praxinoscope that could beprojected onto a screen, called theTheater Optique.
  18. 18. Charles-Émile Reynauds Theater Optique is the earliestknown example of projected animation, which is a largerversion of the Praxinoscope that could be projected onto ascreen, called the Theater Optique. It predates even photographic video devices such as ThomasEdisons 1883 invention, the Kinetoscope and the Lumièrebrothers 1884 invention, the cinematograph.Reynaud exhibited three of his animations on October 28, 1892in Paris, France. The only surviving example of these three isPauvre Pierrot which was 500 frames long.
  19. 19. It is an early motion picture exhibitiondevice. The Kinetoscope was designed forfilms to be viewed by one individual at atime through a peephole viewer windowat the top of the device. The Kinetoscopewas not a movie projector but introducedthe basic approach that would becomethe standard for all cinematic projectionbefore the advent of video, by creating theillusion of movement by conveying a stripof perforated film bearing sequentialimages over a light source with a high-speed shutter.
  20. 20. In 1923 a studio called Laugh-O-Grams went bankrupt and itsowner Walt Disney opened a new studio in Los Angeles.Disneys first project was the Alice Comedies Series whichfeatured a live action girl who interacted with numerouscartoon characters.
  21. 21. Laugh-O-Gram Studio was a film studio located on the second floorof the McConahay Building at 1127 East 31st in Kansas City, Missouri.The studio played a role in the early years of animation: it was hometo many of the pioneers of animation, brought there by Walt Disney,and is said to be the place to have provided Disney with theinspiration to create Mickey Mouse.In May 1922, Disney founded Laugh-O-Gram Films with $15,000. Thecompany got an $11,000 contract to produce six fairy tale cartoons forPictorial Clubs, Inc., which went bankrupt; a seventh fairy tale wassold to them separately. Among Disneys employees on the serieswere several pioneers of animation:The company had problems making ends meet: by the end of 1922,Thomas McCrum, a Kansas City dentist saved him from total failurewhen he commissioned Disney for $500 for Tommy Tuckers Tooth, ashort subject showing the merits of brushing your teeth.
  22. 22. After creating one last short, the live-action/animation AlicesWonderland, the studio filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in July1923. Disney then moved to Hollywood, California. Disney soldhis movie camera, earning enough money for a one-way trainticket; he brought along an unfinished reel of AlicesWonderlandDisney told interviewers later that he was inspired to drawMickey by a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio.
  23. 23. “They used to fight for crumbs in my waste-basket when Iworked alone late at night. I lifted them out and kept them inwire cages on my desk. I grew particularly fond of one brownhouse mouse. He was a timid little guy. By tapping him on thenose with my pencil, I trained him to run inside a black circleI drew on my drawing board. When I left Kansas to try my luckat Hollywood, I hated to leave him behind. So I carefullycarried him to a backyard, making sure it was a niceneighborhood, and the tame little fellow scampered tofreedom.” –Walt Disney
  24. 24. Walt Disney was an American filmproducer, director, screenwriter, voiceactor, animator, entrepreneur,entertainer, international icon and wellknown for his influence in the field ofentertainment during the 20th century.Along with his brother Roy O. Disney, hewas co-founder of Walt DisneyProductions, which later became one ofthe best-known motion pictureproducers in the world.
  25. 25. He and his staff created some of the worlds most well-knownfictional characters including Mickey Mouse, for whom Disneyhimself provided the original voice. During his lifetime he received four honorary Academy Awardsand won 22 Academy Awards from a total of 59 nominations,including a record four in one year, giving him more awards andnominations than any other individual in history. Disney also won seven Emmy Awards. Disney took night coursesat the Chicago Art Institute and became the cartoonist for theschool newspaper, drawing patriotic topics and focusing on WorldWar I. In January 1920, Disney and Iwerks formed a short-lived companycalled, "Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists". However, followinga rough start, Disney left temporarily to earn money at the KansasCity Film Ad Company, and was soon joined by Iwerks who wasnot able to run their business alone.
  26. 26. While working for the Kansas City Film Ad Company, where hemade commercials based on cutout animations, Disney becameinterested in animation, and decided to become an animator.The owner of the Ad Company allowed him to borrow a camerafrom work to experiment with at home. After reading the Edwin G.Lutz book Animated Cartoons: How They Are Made, Their Origin andDevelopment, Disney considered cel animation to be much morepromising than the cutout animation. Eventually he decided to open his own animation business andrecruited a fellow co-worker at the Kansas City Film Ad Company.
  27. 27. Disney and his brother Roy pooled their money and set up acartoon studio in Hollywood where they needed to find adistributor for Walts new Alice Comedies, which he hadstarted making while in Kansas City but never got to distribute.Disney sent an unfinished print to New York distributor, whopromptly wrote back to him that she was keen on a distributiondeal for more live-action/animated shorts based upon AlicesWonderland.
  28. 28. The new series, Alice Comedies, provedreasonably successful,By the time the series ended in 1927, its focuswas more on the animated characters and inparticular a cat named Julius who resembledFelix the Cat, rather than the live-action Alice.Felix the Cat is a cartoon character created inthe silent film era. His black body, white eyes,and giant grin, coupled with the surrealism ofthe situations in which his cartoons place him,combine to make Felix one of the mostrecognized cartoon characters in film history.Felix was the first character from animation toattain a level of popularity sufficient to drawmovie audiences.
  29. 29. The new series, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, was an almostinstant success, and the character, Oswald – drawn and createdby Iwerks – became a popular figure.losing the rights to Oswald, Disney felt the need to develop anew character to replace him, which was based on a mouse hehad adopted as a pet while working in his Laugh-O-GramstudioIt subsequently took his company 78 years to get back therights to the Oswald characterMickeys voice and personality were provided by Disney himselfuntil 1947.
  30. 30. Mickey Mouse is a funny animalcartoon character created in 1928 byWalt Disney and Ub Iwerks at theWalt Disney Studios. Mickey is an anthropomorphicmouse who typically wears redshorts, large yellow shoes, and whitegloves. As the official mascot of TheWalt Disney Company, Mickey is oneof the most recognizable cartooncharacters in the world.
  31. 31. Mickey first was seen in a single test screening Plane Crazy .Mickey officially debuted in November 1928 in Steamboat Willie,one of the first sound cartoons.Mickey appeared primarily in short films, but also occasionally infeature-length films. Nine of Mickeys cartoons were nominated forthe Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which,Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became thefirst cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk ofFame.Beginning 1930, Mickey has also been featured extensively as acomic strip character. His self-titled newspaper strip, drawnprimarily by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has alsoappeared in comic books and in television series such as TheMickey Mouse Club (1955–1996) and others. He also appears inother media such as video games as well as merchandising, and is ameetable character at the Disney parks.
  32. 32. The Silly Symphonies were a series of animated short subjectsproduced by Walt Disney Productions. A total of 75 shorts were made between 1929 and 1939.The first, The Skeleton Dance was entirely drawn and animated byIwerks, who was also responsible for drawing the majority ofcartoons released by Disney in 1928 and 1929.Unlike the Mickey Mouse series Silly Symphonies did not usuallyfeature continuing characters other than Three Little Pigs which hadthree sequels to their first cartoonDonald Duck got his start in a Silly Symphonies cartoon and Plutosfirst appearance without Mickey Mouse was also in a SillySymphonies cartoon
  33. 33. By 1932, although Mickey Mousehad become a relatively popularcinema character, SillySymphonies was not assuccessful.The same year also sawcompetition increase as MaxFleischers flapper cartooncharacter, Betty Boop, gainedpopularity among theateraudiences.
  34. 34. In late 1932, Herbert Kalmus, who had just completed work on thefirst three-strip Technicolor camera, approached Walt and convincedhim to reshoot the black and white Flowers and Trees in three-stripTechnicolor.Flowers and Trees was already in production as a black and whitecartoon before Walt Disney saw three-strip Technicolor tests.Flowers and Trees would go on to be a phenomenal success and wouldalso win the first Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons in1932.Disneys exclusive contract with Technicolor, in effect until the end of1935, forced other animators such as Ub Iwerks and Max Fleischer touse Technicolors inferior two-color process or a competing two-colorsystem such as Cinecolor.
  35. 35. Donald Duck is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1934 atWalt Disney Productions.Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill,legs, and feet. He typically wears a sailor suit with a cap and a blackor red bow tie.Donald is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and hismischievous and irritable personality. Along with his friend MickeyMouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and wasincluded in TV Guides list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of alltime in 2002. He has appeared in more films than any other Disney character andis the fifth most published comic book character in the world afterBatman, Superman, Spider-Man, and Wolverine.
  36. 36. Goofy is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1932 at WaltDisney Productions. Goofy is a tall, anthropomorphic dog, and typically wears a turtleneck and vest, with pants, shoes, white gloves, and a tall hatoriginally designed as a rumpled fedora.Goofy is a close friend of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck and is oneof Disneys most popular characters.He is normally characterized as extremely clumsy and having littleintelligence, yet this interpretation isnt always definitive;occasionally Goofy is shown as intuitive and clever, albeit in his ownunique, eccentric way.
  37. 37. Goofy debuted in animated cartoons, starting in 1932 withMickeys Revue. During the 1930s he was used extensively aspart of a comedy trio with Mickey and Donald. Starting in 1939,Goofy was given his own series of shorts which were popular inthe 1940s and early 50s. He also co-starred in a short serieswith Donald.Four more Goofy shorts were produced in the 1960s after whichGoofy was only seen in television and comics. He returned totheatrical animation in 1983 with Mickeys Christmas Carol. Hislast theatrical appearance was How to Hook Up Your HomeTheater in 2007.Goofy has also been featured in television, most extensively inGoof Troop (1992–1993), as well as House of Mouse (2001–2003)and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–present).
  38. 38. Pluto, also called Pluto the Pup, is a cartoon character createdin 1930 by Walt Disney Productions. He is golden, medium-sized, short-haired dog with black ears. Pluto is notanthropomorphic beyond some characteristics such as facialexpression, though he did speak for a short portion of hishistory. He is Mickey Mouses pet. Officially a mixed-breeddog, Pluto is clearly modeled on the English Pointer breed,most evident in the film "The Pointer". The prominent Disneyartist Norm Ferguson owned an English Pointer. Together withMickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck and Goofy, Plutois one of the "Big Five"—the biggest stars in the Disneyuniverse. Though all five are non-human animals, Pluto aloneis not dressed as a human.
  39. 39. Pluto debuted in animated cartoons and appeared in 24 MickeyMouse films before receiving his own series in 1937. All togetherPluto appeared in 89 short films between 1930 and 1953. Severalof these were nominated for an Academy Award, including ThePointer (1939).Because Pluto does not speak, his films generally rely onphysical humor. This made Pluto a pioneering figure incharacter animation, which is expressing personality throughanimation rather than dialogue.
  40. 40. Following the creation of two cartoon series, in 1934 Disney beganplanning a full-length feature. The following year, opinion pollsshowed that another cartoon series, Popeye the Sailor, produced byMax Fleischer, was more popular than Mickey Mouse.Disney was able to put Mickey back on top as well as increase hispopularity by colorizing and partially redesigning the character tobecome what was considered his most appealing design to date.When the film industry learned of Disneys plans to produce ananimated feature-length version of Snow White, they were certainthat the endeavor would destroy the Disney Studio and dubbed theproject "Disneys Folly". Disney used the Silly Symphonies as a platform for experiments inrealistic human animation, distinctive character animation, specialeffects, and the use of specialized processes and apparatus such as themultiplane camera – a new technique first used by Disney in the 1937
  41. 41. The multiplane camera is a special motion picture cameraused in the traditional animation process that moves a numberof pieces of artwork past the camera at various speeds and atvarious distances from one another. This creates a three-dimensional effect, although not actually stereoscopic. Variousparts of the artwork layers are left transparent, to allow otherlayers to be seen behind them. The movements are calculatedand photographed frame-by-frame, with the result being anillusion of depth by having several layers of artwork moving atdifferent speeds - the further away from the camera, the slowerthe speed.
  42. 42. It went into full production in 1934 and continued until mid-1937, when the studio ran out of money. To obtain the fundingto complete Snow White, Disney had to show a rough cut ofthe motion picture to loan officers. The film premiered at theCarthay Circle Theater on December 21, 1937 and at itsconclusion the audience gave Snow White and the SevenDwarfs a standing ovation. Snow White, the first animatedfeature in America made in Technicolor, was released inFebruary 1938 under a new distribution deal with RKO RadioPictures. The film became the most successful motion pictureof 1938 and earned over $8 million on its initial release, theequivalent of $132,085,110 today.
  43. 43. Following the success of Snow White, for which Disneyreceived one full-size, and seven miniature Oscar statuettes, hewas able to build a new campus for the Walt Disney Studios.Snow White was not only the peak of Disneys success, but alsoushered in a period that would later be known as the GoldenAge of Animation for the studio.Feature animation staff, having just completed Pinocchio,continued work on Fantasia and Bambi as well as the earlyproduction stages of Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan and Windin the Willows while the shorts staff carried on working on theMickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto cartoon series
  44. 44. In 1941, the U.S. State Department sent Disney and a group ofanimators to South America as part of its Good Neighbor policyShortly after the release of Dumbo in October 1941, the USentered World War II. The U.S. Army and Navy Bureau ofAeronautics contracted most of the Disney studios facilitieswhere the staff created training and instruction films for themilitary, home-front morale-boosting shorts
  45. 45. Disney studios also created inexpensive package films, containing collections ofcartoon shorts, and issued them to theaters during this period.During this period, Disney also ventured into full-length dramatic films that mixedlive action and animated scenes.By the late 1940s, the studio had recovered enough to continue production on thefull-length features Alice in Wonderland and Peter Pan, both of which had been shelvedduring the war years.Work also began on Cinderella, which became Disneys most successful film sinceSnow White and the Seven Dwarfs.In 1948 the studio also initiated a series of live-action nature films, titled True-LifeAdventures. Despite its resounding success with feature films, the studios animation shorts wereno longer as popular as they once were, with people paying more attention to WarnerBros. and their animation star Bugs Bunny.
  46. 46. Color television was introduced to the US Market in 1951. In1958 Hanna-Barbera released Huckleberry Hound, the first half-hour television program to feature only animation. In 1960Hanna - Barbera released another monumental animatedtelevision show, The Flintstones, which was the first animatedseries on prime time television. Television significantlydecreased public attention to the animated shorts being showntheatres.
  47. 47. Hanna was an American animator, director, producer, voiceactor, and cartoon artist, whose film and television cartooncharacters entertained millions of people for much of the 20thcentury.When he was a young child, Hannas family moved frequently,but they settled in Compton, California, by 1919.After working odd jobs in the first months of the Depression,Hanna joined the Harman and Ising animation studio in 1930.During the 1930s, Hanna steadily gained skill and prominencewhile working on cartoons.In 1937, while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM),Hanna met Joseph Barbera. The two men began a collaborationthat was at first best known for producing Tom and Jerry andlive action films
  48. 48. In 1957, they co-founded Hanna-Barbera, which becamethe most successful television animation studio in thebusiness, producing programs such as The Flintstones,The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Jetsons, Scooby-Doo,The Smurfs, and Yogi Bear.Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eightEmmy Awards. Their cartoons have become culturalicons, and their cartoon characters have appeared in othermedia such as films, books, and toys.Hanna–Barberas shows had a worldwide audience of over300 million people in their 1960s heyday, and have beentranslated into more than 28 languages
  49. 49. Stop Motion:- Stop motion (also known as stop frame) is ananimation technique to make a physically manipulated object appearto move on its own.The object is moved in small increments between individuallyphotographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when theseries of frames is played as a continuous sequence.Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stopmotion for their ease of re-positioning. Stop motion animation usingplasticine is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motionfilms can involve using humans, household appliances and otherthings for comedic effect. Stop motion using objects is sometimesreferred to as Object animation
  50. 50. This process is used for many productions, for example, themost common types of puppets are clay puppets, as used in TheCalifornia Raisins and Wallace and Gromit, and figures made ofvarious rubbers, cloths and plastic resins, such as TheNightmare Before Christmas and James and the Giant Peach.Stop motion animation was also commonly used for SPECIALEFFECTS work in many live-action films, such as the 1933version of King Kong and The 7th Voyage of Sinbad.The first instance of the stop motion technique can be creditedto Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton for Vitagraphs TheHumpty Dumpty Circus (1897), in which a toy circus of acrobatsand animals comes to life.
  51. 51. In the turn of the century, there was another well knownanimator known as Willis O Brien. His work on The LostWorld (1925) is well known, but he is most admired for hiswork on King Kong (1933), a milestone of his films madepossible by stop motion animation.In the 1960s and 1970s, independent clay animator Eliot NoyesJr. refined the technique of "free-form" clay animation with hisOscar-nominated 1965 film Clay (or the Origin of Species).Noyes also used stop motion to animate sand lying on glass forhis musical animated film Sandman (1975)In 1975, filmmaker and clay animation experimenter WillVinton joined with sculptor Bob Gardiner to create anexperimental film called Closed Mondays which became theworlds first stop motion film to win an Oscar.
  52. 52. Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style ofanimation which he titled the documentary Claymation. Soonafter this documentary, the term was trademarked by Vinton todifferentiate his teams work from others who had been, orwere beginning to do, "clay animation". While the word hasstuck and is often used to describe clay animation and stopmotion.In the 1970s and 1980s, Industrial Light & Magic often used stopmotion model animation for films such as the original StarWars trilogy: the chess sequence in Star Wars, the Tauntaunsand AT-AT walkers in The Empire Strikes Back, and the AT-STwalkers in Return of the Jedi were all stop motion animation,some of it using the Go films. The many shots including theghosts in Raiders of the Lost Ark and the first two feature filmsin the Robocop series use Phil Tippetts go motion version ofstop motion.
  53. 53. Another more-complicated variation on stop motion is gomotion, co-developed by Phil Tippett and first used on thefilms The Empire Strikes Back (1980), Dragonslayer (1981), andthe RoboCop films.Go Motion involved programming a computer to move parts ofa model slightly during each exposure of each frame of film,combined with traditional hand manipulation of the model inbetween frames, to produce a more realistic motion blurringeffect.Tippett also used the process extensively in his 1984 short filmPrehistoric Beast, a 10 minutes long sequence depicting aherbivorous dinosaur being chased by a carnivorous.It acted as motion models for his first photo-realistic use ofcomputers to depict dinosaurs in Jurassic Park in 1993.
  54. 54. Traditional animation, (or classical animation, cel animation, orhand-drawn animation) is an animation technique where each frameis drawn by hand. The technique was the dominant form ofanimation in cinema until the advent of computer animation. Theindividual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs ofdrawings, which are first drawn on paper. To create the illusion ofmovement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. Theanimators drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparentacetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assignedcolors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completedcharacter cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture filmagainst a painted background by a rostrum camera.The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by thebeginning of the 21st century. Today, animators drawings and thebackgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into acomputer system. Various software programs are used to color thedrawings and simulate camera movement and effects.
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