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  • 1. IntroductionStatistics is the study ofthe collection, organization,analysis, interpretation, andpresentation of data. Itdeals with all aspects ofthis, including the planningof data collection in terms ofthe design of surveys andexperiments.
  • 2. History The use of statistical methods dates back at least to the 5th century BC. The earliest writing on statistics was found in a 9th century book entitled: "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", written by Al-Kindi. In his book, he gave a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages, this was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis, according to the Saudi engineer Ibrahim Al-Kadi.
  • 3. Collection Of Data 1. When information is collected by the investigator herself or himself with a definite objective in mind, is known as PRIMARY DATA. 2. The information was gathered from a source which already had the information stored, the data obtained in this way is known as the SECONDARY DATA.
  • 4. Presentation of Data The Type Of Data we collected is known as raw data. We can present it in a number of ways like: 1. Frequency Table 2. Bar Graphs 3. Histogram 4. Frequency polygon 5. Line Graph. 6. Pie chart
  • 5. A graph consisting ofrectangles whose areais proportional to thefrequency of a variableand whose width isequal to the classinterval. It was firstintroduced by KarlPearson.It is said to be derivedfrom the Greek histosanything set upright(as the masts of a ship)and gramma drawing,record, writing.
  • 6. In a Frequency Polygon, aline graph is drawn byjoining all the midpoints ofthe top of the bars of ahistogram. A frequencypolygon gives the idea aboutthe shape of the datadistribution.The two endpoints of a frequencypolygon always lie on the x-axis.