Radio is the perfect medium for mass communication. If we compare it to other mass media, radio consistently ranks as the most popular means of disseminating information, regardless of the continent.
A combination of a number of discoveries by technicians and scientist from different countries gave rise to the development of wireless telegraphy and later to Radio Broadcasting. It took ten years for wireless telegraphy, to become a broadcasting system.
Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a Private Radio service in Madras in 1924. In the same year, the British Colonial Govt. granted a license to a private company, the Indian Broadcasting Company, to open Radio stations in Mumbai & Calcutta.
The company went bankrupt in 1930 & the colonial govt. took over the two transmitters and the Department of Labor & Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. In 1936, the Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) & placed under the Department of Communications.
When India became independent in 1947, AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. At independence, the Congress govt. under the Jawaharlal Nehru had 3 major roles: to achieve political integration, economic development & social modernization.
Radio Broadcasting is a govt. of India monopoly under the Directorate General of All India Radio- established in 1936 & since 1957 also known as Akashvani. At the time of independence, there were only 6 stations.
Despite financial and infrastructural constraints, the reach of the All India Radio (AIR) is far greater than other private channels, and it is the worlds largest network. AIR FM channels cover 23 per cent of the area and 31 per cent of the population, whereas private FM channels cover only 3.3 per cent of the area and 9.3 per cent of the population
Even after the completion of phase two, private FM would cover only 9.0 per cent of the area and 21 per cent of the population. Moreover, private FM channels were city centric, so the entire rural areas were deprived of their services, and AIR was the only radio service reaching them.
At present AIR has 23 stations and 361 transmitters, which is the largest network in the world, covering 91.42 per cent of the population. There are 5 regional headquarters for AIR : the North Zone in New Delhi; the North-East Zone in Guwahati, Assam; the East Zone in Calcutta; the West Zone in Mumbai & the South Zone in Madras.
After the advent of the Prasar Bharati, the huge AIR network was increasingly being constrained in terms of critical resources and inputs such as programs, establishments, latest equipment and maintenance, among others. These problems have arisen due to limited budget grant and acute staff shortage, as there has not been fresh recruitment for many years.
One constraint has arisen out of the role of AIR as public broadcaster as it has kept away from pure entertainment programming, which brings hefty amount as commercial revenue.
However, the growth of radio advertising in the current year has been projected to exceed 50 per cent because of two factors – social marketing and retail marketing, it said. AIR, which started its operations in 1927, broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects. In External Services, it covers 27 languages including 16 foreign and 11 Indian languages.
• The total number of radio sets at the time of independence in l947 was a mere 2,75,00O, but now-a-days Radio & T.V. is available almost in every house.
Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting content that is popular to a local audience but which may often be overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Modern-day community radio stations often serve their listeners by offering a variety of content that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations.
Community radio outlets may carry news and information programming geared toward the local area, particularly immigrant or minority groups that are poorly served by other major media outlets. More specialized musical shows are also often a feature of many community radio stations. Community stations and pirate stations (where they are tolerated) can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations typically avoid content found on commercial outlets.
Communities are complex entities and so what constitutes "community" in Community radio is often a contentious and tricky debate and will vary from country to country. Community may also often be replaced by a range of terms like "alternative", "radical", or "citizen" radio.
In India, the campaign to legitimize community radio began in the mid 1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February 1995 that "airwaves are public property". This came as an inspiration to groups across the country, but to begin with, only educational (campus) radio stations were allowed, under somewhat stringent conditions.
• Anna FM is Indias first campus community radio, launched on 1 February 2004, which is run by Education and Multimedia Research Centre (EM²RC), and all programmes are produced by the students of Media Sciences at Anna University. On 16 November 2006, the government of India notified new Community Radio Guidelines which permit NGOs and other civil society organizations to own and operate community radio stations.
About 4,000 community radio licenses are on offer across India, according to government sources. By 30 November 2008, the ministry of Information & broadcasting, government of India, had received 297 applications for community radio licenses, including 141 from NGOs and other civil society organizations, 105 from educational institutions and 51 for farm radio stations to be run by agricultural universities and agricultural extension centers (Krishi Vigyan Kendras).
Commercial FM radio stations number in the thousands and still are a main source of entertainment, news, and information for millions of listeners every week. Sometimes called traditional or terrestrial radio, FM still has much to offer even with the competition from Internet Radio, Satellite Radio, Cell Phone Radio, and MP3 players.
To provide information, education and wholesome entertainment, keeping in view the motto, "Bahujan Hitaya; Bahujan Sukhaya" i.e. the benefit and happiness of large sections of the people, and strive to : Uphold the unity of the country and the democrative values enshrined in the Constitution;
Present a fair and balanced flow of information of national, regional, local and international interest, including contrasting views, without advocating any opinion or ideology of its own.
Produce and transit varied programs designed to awaken, inform, enlighten, educate, entertain and enrich all sections of the people, with due regard to the fact that the national broadcast audience consists of a whole series of public. Produce and transmit programs relating to developmental activities in all their facets including, extension work in Agriculture, Education, Health and Family Welfare , Science and Technology.
Serve the rural, illiterate and underprivileged population, keeping in mind the special needs and interests of the young, social and cultural minorities, the tribal population, and of those residing in border regions, backward or remote areas. Promote social justice and combat exploitation, inequality, and such evils as untouchability and parochial loyalties.
Promote the interests and concerns of the entire nation, being mindful of the need for harmony and understanding within the country and ensuring that the programmes reflect the varied elements which make up the composite culture of India. Promote national integration.
The goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is "fit", i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organizations employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company.
Human resources management comprises several processes. These processes can be performed in an HR department
Workforce planning Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection) Induction, Orientation and Onboarding Skills management Training and development Personnel administration
Compensation in wage or salary Time management Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Employee benefits administration Personnel cost planning Performance appraisal
Responsible for the interpretation and application of the Staff Rules, regulations and procedures ensuring uniform application in accordance with guidelines from Headquarters. Provides advice to staff members on specific entitlements, taking action locally as appropriate. Ascertains human resource requirements for the office ensuring the timely advertisement and filling of vacancies.
Participates in the selection of internal candidates and submits appropriate recommendations; Interviews and tests new candidates, verifying educational qualifications and previous employment record. Manages the advertisement and filling of local vacancies, advising applicants on the nature of the responsibilities to be performed as well as entitlements and career prospects.
Briefs newly arrived staff on related administrative formalities and ensures all arrangements made for onward travel, if applicable. Supervises the prompt and efficient processing of documentation for the arrival and departure of international staff.
Controls the maintenance of the personnel records in the office; Monitors the follow-up of correspondence between each sub/field-office and Headquarters, ensuring that outstanding queries receive a timely response, after due analysis. Maintains and monitors leave records and requests for overtime.
Provides support, guidance and training to personnel staff as required; Participates in the review of training needs of staff making appropriate proposals to meet identified needs; Participates in local salary surveys. Represents the office individually or as part of a team in meetings concerning personnel issues.
Negotiates staff complaints and maintains harmonious relations with local Staff Council. Performs other duties as required. Negotiates staff complaints and maintains harmonious relations with local Staff Council; Performs other duties as required.
Capital Budgeting is a project selection exercise performed by the business enterprise. Capital budgeting uses the concept of present value to select the projects. Capital budgeting uses tools such as pay back period, net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index to select projects.
Payback Period Accounting Rate of Return Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return Profitability Index
Payback period is the time duration required to recoup the investment committed to a project. Business enterprises following payback period use "stipulated payback period", which acts as a standard for screening the project.
Accounting rate of return is the rate arrived at by expressing the average annual net profit (after tax) as given in the income statement as a percentage of the total investment or average investment. The accounting rate of return is based on accounting profits. Accounting rate of return does find a place in business decision making when the returns expected are accounting profits.
Net present value of an investment/project is the difference between present value of cash inflows and cash outflows. The present values of cash flows are obtained at a discount rate equivalent to the cost of capital.
The internal rate of return method is also known as the yield method. The IRR of a project/investment is defined as the rate of discount at which the present value of cash inflows and present value of cash outflows are equal. IRR can be restated as the rate of discount, at which the present value of cash flow (inflows and outflows) associated with a project equal zero.
Profitability index (PI) is the ratio of present value of cash inflows to the present value of cash outflows. The present values of cash flows are obtained at a discount rate equivalent to the cost of capital.
How much money do you need for your start-up? Anyone setting up a company needs to start by investing money in the project. You can find out how much you need to invest by planning your capital requirement. A capital requirement plan is a key part of every business plan. Entrepreneurs who have a low capital requirement and who can therefore launch the firm without outside capital often believe that no precise planning is necessary, since the amounts involved are small and can be financed from their savings.
The upshot is often that there is not enough money, and outside funding needs to be found at short notice. But by then it is too late for government loans to new start-ups, which can only be applied for before the company is founded. A thorough planning of the capital requirements is therefore one of the basic elements of every envisaged new firm. You need to find out how much capital you require.
Capital requirements prior to start-up Begin with the costs which accrue during your preparations for the launch. These include aspects like consultancy costs, notaries’ fees, fees for registrations and permits. Speak to your start-up adviser and work out together what the start-up costs will be.
Capital requirements for the initial operational phase How much money do you need to spend to get your company up and running? Make a distinction between fixed assets, such as licences, real estate, buildings, machinery, vehicles and office equipment, on the one hand, and current assets on the other.
The latter are the ongoing operational expenses for goods, administration, distribution, staff, etc., the cost of which you will subsequently cover from your income. Since in the initial phase you will have no or little money coming in, you will need to provide the funding for this initial phase in advance. Calculate a period of four to six months for this.
Capital requirements to cover living expenses Do not forget, if you wish to set up a community radio station, to include in your plans your personal expenses and your remuneration. This includes all the monthly spending you require for your private life. Calculate this generously and take account of unforeseen events like illness and accidents, but also repairs to house and car.
In an incorporated firm, you as the employed director would draw a salary. Therefore these costs should be included as staff costs. Establishing the level of your personal spending thus serves as a basis for the level of your monthly “salary” and for safeguarding your lifestyle.
Financing the capital requirement How much capital will your company earn to cover the costs, and how much additional capital will you initially have to invest in your company? In order to establish this, you need to ascertain the liquidity, i.e. the solvency of your company. Before the launch, you must initially estimate how high your revenues will be in the first few months.
• After the launch, you then produce your monthly liquidity plan on the basis of actual figures. You will need your liquidity plan to work out how much money you will be taking in in order to finance all your costs, including your personal expenses.• If your costs are higher than the revenues, you will have a shortfall and will need to inject extra capital from outside, i.e. either from your personal savings or from third parties.
Third-party financing of capital requirements If you find that you need to finance your project not just from your own financial assets, but also using government assistance loans and/or bank loans, you should work out how high the monthly interest payments and repayments of principal will be.
In the case of government assistance loans, the repayment of the principal is usually delayed. You need to include the repayments of interest and principal in your planning of capital requirements. After all, these too are costs which (possibly with the exception of the repayments of principal) will be borne by your company from day one.
A business feasibility study format can be as simple or complex as you desire. Simply, it is an examination of your business model. You are checking that it is possible to make a profit from your intended business.
When considering how to write a business feasibility study, it is important to consider three main areas of the business:• market environment• technical and operational requirements• financial projections
• The main difference between a feasibility report and a business plan is purpose. Business plans are written to explain business concepts and to show (by producing references to relevant research) that the concept is not only feasible, but profitable. Research is produced to support claims made in the business plan regarding a single pre-selected business model and concept.
Feasibility Reports outline the business concept/s (in the same way as a scientific experiment might pose a hypothesis), and then examines research to determine whether in fact there is sufficient support for the concept or not.
The report will conclude by either accepting that the concept is sufficiently profitable, making recommendations for refinements in concept in order to achieve profitability, or concluding that the concept is not viable, and should be dropped.
One challenge of working in account management is that most people wont recognize what you do from your job title. Most will either make a vague comment about how that line of work must be very interesting, or they will completely misunderstand what it is that you do.
Some people even confuse account managers with accountants or have the impression that an account manger works at a bank. In fact, an account manager is actually a sort of go-between. In this position, you are the all-important bridge between a companys clients and its creative team.
That means youll be spending a lot of time playing both sides of the proverbial fence. It also means that you are a critical component to the success of every business relationship that you manage. As a result, youll have plenty of responsibilities that will keep the job from ever getting dull.
For one, you would be handling much of the business development for the company. Because you would be a direct contact for clients, your relationships with those clients would be a deciding factor in whether they remain clients or not. You may also be charged with searching for new customers, including qualifying them to make sure that they would be a good fit for the company. You may also have to make presentations, do follow-ups, and handle other parts of the sales process in order to secure relationships with new customers.
You must also be part of the project management process. That means you will need to decide what should be done, who will be on the teams that will get it done, and how what needs to be done will be paid for. To do this effectively, you will need to meet with clients, determine their specific needs, and determine a plan for how your company may be able to help them. Then you must meet with your companys creative team to find out whether or not the plan is feasible, as well to hash out any details about deadlines and budgets which need to be passed onto the given client.
Account Mangers work with sales, customer services and account executives to make sure everyone is happy and that everything is running smoothly. Account Managers work with the companys clients to ensure that the clients business needs are met on time and in a satisfactory manner.
This involves analyzing the clients business operations and determining goals and the best way to meet them. They create budgets, forecasts and schedules to make sure that product(s) or project(s) are ready on time. They may be responsible for obtaining quotes for materials or sub-contractors. They must manage existing clients in a manner that grows the business.
Like all managers, Account Managers must have good leadership and management skills. They need to be organized and efficient. They must have the aptitude to build and sustain strong relationships with customers. However, they also need other abilities.
An Account Manager needs to be:• Good communicator• Detail-oriented• Responsible• Self-motivated• Computer savvy• Independent• Professional• Trustworthy and reliable
Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 Employees’ Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 Employees’ Pension Scheme, 1995 Dangerous Operations Under Maharashtra Factories Rule 114,Framed under Section 87 of The F.A. 1948
Bombay Shops & Establishment Act, 1948 The Mumbai Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1953 Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 Workmens Compensation Act, 1923 Payment of Wages Act, 1936 Liabilities of Directors and officers of Companies 24
Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology, which deals with radio and television broadcasting. Audio engineering and is also essential part of broadcast engineering, being their own subsets of electrical engineering. Broadcast engineering involves both the studio end and the transmitter end (the entire airchain), as well as remote broadcasts.
Every station has a broadcast engineer, though one may now serve an entire station group in a city, or be a contract engineer who essentially freelances his services to several stations (often in small media markets) as needed.