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  1. 1. Service Quality Perceptions of Domestic Airline Consumers in India: An Empirical Study* Bhagyalakshmi Venkatesh 1 & R. Nargundkar2 Abstract Pricing and service quality are the key variables that decide the brand equity of each player in the airline industry. Existing literature suggests that measurement and management of service quality is the key for survival of airline companies. This research paper examines the service quality delivered by four major airlines in India on the backdrop of stiff competition in the airline service sector. The process of traveling on a domestic airline was divided into pre-flight, in- flight and post-flight experiences. A survey was conducted to find out the perceived service quality of frequent fliers on each of the four airlines across a series of service performance variables. The airline brands were positioned in a perceptual space, where the perceived service attributes were also mapped. Clear differences emerged among the airlines, with two of them perceived as being similar to each other, and the other two differing in many respects.1. INTRODUCTION expected to grow by 20 percent annually over the next five years.India at present has twelve competingairlines in the domestic market as against Only a small percentage of India’sa single government owned airline in population travels by air partly due to1991. According to McKinsey Quarterly the high costs of domestic flying.(2005), the Indian aircraft market is the According to the Center for Asia Pacificworld’s second largest commercial Aviation (CAPA) consultancy, newaircraft market. On-time performance and players will help domestic passengerservice levels have risen dramatically and numbers. The players in the currentfares have dropped. Passenger traffic is airline market include airlines like Air* Received April 12, 20061. Research Associate, Dept. of Management Studies, PESIT, 100 Ft Ring Road, Bangalore, e-mail: bhagi3@gmail.com2. Director-MBA Program, Dept. of Management Studies, PESIT, 100 Ft Ring Road,Bangalore, e-mail:
  2. 2. 114 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of ManagementDeccan with low-cost, low-fare and no measurement in the airline industry in thefrills along with airlines like Kingfisher, U.S.A. These studies were based onwhich offers some frills, and premium economic variables, and pre-deregulation,airline like Jet Airways. Competition has developed as service quality assessmentsbrought in some price advantages to from the perspective of the airlinetravelers and has converted many railway consumer. Kearney (1986) was the first onepassengers to airline travelers. This article to conduct service quality assessmentsexamines customer satisfaction among from the perspective of the airlinetravelers of four major domestic airlines consumer in his doctoral dissertation work,in India. Because of proliferated number which examined service quality from theof players in the airline industry, airlines perspective of industry-based economicmay enjoy new business opportunities and marketing measures.along with high competitive threats. The Many researchers and marketers haveobjective of this study is to understand the focused their attention on customercustomer satisfaction levels of the four evaluations of services in an effort to findmajor airlines viz. Jet Airways, Indian ways to improve service quality (Fisk,Airlines, Air Deccan and Kingfisher. Brown, & Bitner, 1993). Extensive researchA comparison of customer satisfaction has been conducted in the field of servicebased on service quality was done among quality. Parasuraman et al. (Parasuraman,the four major airlines based on responses Berry, & Zeithaml, 1991; Parasuraman,from frequent fliers across fourteen Zeithaml, & Berry, 1985, 1988) developedvariables on a five point Likert scale. A a service quality measure, calledflying experience was divided into three SERVQUAL, which states that thestages- namely, pre-flight, in-flight and customer’s assessment of overall servicepost-flight experience. A questionnaire quality is determined by the degree andwas designed in such a way that the same direction of the gap between theirsets of variables were measured among expectations and perceptions of actualthe customers of the four airlines under performance levels. They also identifiedstudy. Fliers who had flown any of the five essentials for service quality: tangibles,four airlines could answer the questions reliability, responsiveness, assurance, andpertaining to those airlines. The objective empathy. They proposed that perceivedof this study was to understand the service quality could be estimated bysatisfaction levels of the airline customers. calculating the difference betweenThe study measured the expected level of expectations and perceptions of actualservice quality using a Likert type scale. service performance. The SERVQUAL scale has been criticized for its validity and2. LITERATURE REVIEW reliability. Buttle (1996) pointed out thatIn the 1970’s the Civil Aeronautics Board including all 44 items (22 items of service(Douglas & Miller, 1974; Jordan, 1970) expectations and a duplicate of 22 items ofdeveloped the initial tools of service quality service performance) in one study often
  3. 3. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 115makes the survey task too difficult for customers consider service reliability, in-respondents. Cronin and Taylor flight comfort, and connections as the key(1992,1994) have empirically proved that factors determining satisfaction withthe measures of service performance or airline service, whereas KoreanSERVPERF, is more effective than passengers generally regard reliability,SERVQUAL, which includes expectations assurance, and risk factors as predictorsas well as performance. SERVPERF is now of satisfaction. This study conducted bywidely used in measuring customer Cunningham, Young, and Lee (2002) isevaluations of service quality interesting as it has measured service(Cunningham and Young, 2004). quality based on SERVPERF which is a set of multi-dimensional measures ofCunningham and Young (2004) used customer evaluations of service qualitySERVPERF in measuring the airline (Cunningham, Young, and Lee 2002).service quality. Their literature reviewsuggests that initial publications on airline Wen Li and Chen (1998) studied theservice quality appeared in 1988 quality evaluation of domestic airline(Gourdin, 1988). Fick & Ritchie and industry using modified Taguchi lossGourdin & Kloppenborg were the first to function with different weights and targetapply the service quality gap model to the values. By using Taguchi loss function oneairline industry in 1991. Fick and Ritchie can quantify quality and thus compare(1991) used the SERVQUAL scale to service quality objectively. According tomeasure perceived service quality within Wen Li and Chen (1998), the process ofseveral service industries including the traveling a domestic airline can beairline industry. They found the mean described as follows:scores of consumer expectation and Ticket— Check –in—boarding—perception of service performance departure—flying—arrival—baggagemeasures and failed to determine the claimrelative impact of various SERVQUALitems on overall service quality and Three quality categories with tensatisfaction (Cunningham etal 2004). identified variables are proposed by Wen Li and Chen (1998) and service quality ofMeasurement and management of service domestic airline is quantified accordingly.quality is the fundamental issue for the Taguchi loss function requires industrysurvival and growth of airline companies measures to measure airline service(Cunningham, Young, and Lee 2002). quality.Cunningham, Young, and Lee (2002)conducted studies on perceptions of As stated earlier, airline traffic in India hasairline service quality of U.S. and Korean picked up only recently. However,customers based on SERVPERF and competition has brought to surface,industry-based measures, as well as their industry issues such as insufficientperceptions of risks involved in the airline number of pilots, airport facilities andchoice. The results suggested that U.S. trained personnel. When the objective of
  4. 4. 116 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of Managementlow-cost carriers is to convert railway Our study attempts to examine thepassengers to airline travelers at a very satisfaction level of service quality oflow-fare, the focus of the service provider domestic airline travelers in India acrossmay not be on the service quality but in fourteen airline travel process variablesproviding the basic service product. In suggested by Wen Li and Chen (1998)comparison, America’s budget airlines which are modified to suit the Indianhave started to increase service quality in standards. Some of these variables canspite of the low fare offers. Southwest and also be included as the reliability andJet Blue have strong brand presence and responsiveness variables of SERVPERF.offer well defined service rather than just The flying experience has been dividedlow prices (Economist, 2004). On the other into preflight, on flight and post flighthand, airline service quality across the have reached new heights where 3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESin international airlines such as VirginAtlantic Airways have introduced double 1. To study the customer perceptions ofsuites, in-flight beauty therapy treatments service quality of each of the fourand massages, free limousines to and from airlines under studythe airport and many more. 2. To compare the service quality of theAs a result of low fares, there is an airlines under studyexpected increase in the volume ofdomestic airline travelers in India which 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYhas accelerated competition in the air 4.1 Questionnaire Designtravel market. While certain segments in The respondents were asked to evaluatechoosing an airline, consider price the service quality of the service providedadvantages, service quality cannot beabsent. According to Zeithaml and Bitner by the airline, which they have traveled.(1996b), the concept of satisfaction is Perceived service quality of each variableinfluenced by five variables viz. 1) service was measured through questionsquality 2) product quality 3) price 4) designed on a 5-point Likert-type scalesituation and 5) personality. ranging from always to never. For example, the on-time services of theNatalisa and Subroto ( 2003) combine the airline was measured through thevariables of product quality and service question, “The flights are on time” withquality into variable of service quality and always as a the best positive response andstudied the customers’ perception of never as the worst negative response, anyservice quality in the domestic airline other response can be recorded betweenservices of Indonesia. “always” and “never” on the scale.In short, service quality of airlines have Similarly, other good ground service – in-been studied based on industry measures, flight service and post-flight service wereSERVQUAL, SERVPERF, Taguchi loss measured through the same scale. Thefunction and Zeithaml and Bitner Model. questionnaire also had a question to check
  5. 5. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 117the response to the loyalty programs full fare to low priced airlines.provided by the airlines to frequent fliers Convenience sampling was done. Targetedwhich was measured through, “ the sample size was 30 per airline, andairline offers real benefits to frequent achieved sizes were as follows.fliers” on the five point Likert – type scale. 5. DATA ANALYSIS & RESULTSThe authors discussed the air travelprocess with at least five frequent fliers The statistical analyses used were one wayof domestic airlines in India to understand ANOVA, Discriminant Analysis, Clusterthe process in the Indian condition apart analysis and Cross Tabulation. Analysisfrom the fact that both the authors are of research data used the level ofthemselves frequent fliers of domestic significance, a = 0.05airlines. For further reference, 5.1 Mean Difference Resultsquestionnaire is attached as Appendix 1. Table 2 provides a summary of the mean4.2 Sample Characteristics scores for the variables in the study.Some of the SERVPERF variables The objective of this study was to examinedeveloped by Cronin and Taylor (1992) customer perception of service quality.were adapted along with the process One way-ANOVA was performed andvariables (Wen Li and Chen 1998) to the the result showed a significant differenceIndian market conditions based on the fact among the four airlines, except in twothat air traffic in India has gone up only in variables viz. baggage loss and onlinethe last three years and still a very small booking. Travelers agreed that all thepercentage of the population travel by air. airlines manage baggage well and all of“Population” consisted of the customers offour domestic airline companies in India them provided online booking.viz. Jet Airways, Indian Airlines, Air 5.2 Pre-Flight Service QualityDeccan and Kingfisher. These airlines were Pre-flight service was examined by ratingselected, as they are representative of the the variables listed below.major segments in the airline industry fromTable 1 – Airline wise Composition of 1. Flights are on timeSample 2. Good ground service, No Company Obtained number 3. The airline keeps its travelers of samples informed in the case of a delay 1 Jet Airways 39 through SMS or a call 2. Indian Airlines 40 4. The airlines makes regular 3. Air Deccan 29 announcement in case of a delay to 4. Kingfisher 26 keep the travelers informed of the“Always” (as a response) was a given a score of status quo(=1) and “Never” (as a response) was a given a 5. The airline provides refreshmentsscore of (=5) and any other response was betweenthese. whenever there is a delay,
  6. 6. 118 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of ManagementTable 2 – Service Quality Scores for Various Airlines Variables Indian Air Kingfisher One-Way Jet Air Airlines Deccan ANOV Mean Mean Mean Mean df F Signi Value ficance On-time 1.9231 3.0750 3.96 2.4583 3 21.941 .000 Delay information 1.7895 3.1282 2.8929 2.3158 3 7.372 .000 Announce delay 1.4595 2.0278 2.9231 1.8571 3 9.593 .000 Good in-flight service 1.5641 2.8158 3.7692 1.5833 3 37.506 .000 Good in-flight food 1.7632 2.7895 3.8261 2.0435 3 20.961 .000 Waiting time for 2.2895 2.6053 3.2800 2.4167 3 4.760 .004 baggage Baggage loss 4.1212 3.6857 3.8696 4.4000 3 1.347 .263 Compensate baggage- 2.6957 3.2083 3.8667 2.5000 3 3.028 .035 Loss Good ground service 1.7059 2.6000 3.0833 1.5417 3 12.147 .000 Refreshments on delay 1.9189 3.0000 4.1818 1.8095 3 19.609 .000 Accommodation on- 2.2258 2.7931 4.1053 2.7647 3 7.231 . 000 Delay 1.2571 1.7241 1.3333 1.2381 3 1.805 .151 Discounted fare 1.4000 2.0294 1.3462 1.5000 3 3.184 . 023 Real benefits for- 1.4211 2.5455 2.5455 2.1111 3 5.489 .002 Frequent fliers6. Provide accommodation if there is a delay. Except for Air Deccan, the other long delay. three airlines were rated as providing good ground service. In the case of a delayAll the six pre-flight SERVPERF variables Jet Airways and Kingfisher usuallywere found to be significant as shown by provided the travelers with refreshmentsthe one way ANOVA that is displayed as whereas Air Deccan never provided suchTable 2. The four airlines provided services. Except Air Deccan, all the othersignificantly different service quality in airlines usually provided accommodationthe pre flight service. in case of delay. The study conducted byJet Airways travelers found its flights to Gourdin and Kloppenborg (1991)be on time usually against Air Deccan identified on-board comfort, being kepttravelers who rated its flights to be almost informed regarding delays and beingnever on time. Jet Airways, Kingfisher, cared for when travel was disrupted asand Air Deccan usually informed the being important to passengers.customers about delay in advance 5.3 In-flight Servicesthrough SMS or telephone call. IndianAirlines was rated average on this service Jet Airways, Indian Airlines and Kingfisherquality variable. All the four airlines were were rated as providing very good in-flightfound to be above average in announcing service whereas Air Deccan was rated to
  7. 7. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 119be providing almost no service quality on Table 3: Wilks’ Lambdain-flight services. Jet Airways was found Test of Wilks’ Chi- df be providing good in-flight food along Fun- Lambda squarewith Kingfisher. Indian airlines was rated ction(s)as average in providing good in-flight 1 through 3 .238 60.340 42 .033food. Air Deccan did not offer in-flight foodat all. The study conducted by Gourdin 2 through 3 .625 19.774 26 .802and Kloppenborg (1991) did not find 3 .933 2.897 12 .996courteous cabin attendants and beverageservice on short flights as important to Table 4: Standardized Canonicalpassengers. Discriminant Function Coefficients5.4 Post Flight Services FunctionAir Deccan travelers rated longest waiting 1 2 3time for baggage arrival against other on time .354 .242 .733airlines. Baggage loss was found to be delay information -.283 .979 -.150almost never a problem with Jet Airways good inflight service .742 .211 -.407and Kingfisher where as Indian Airlines good inflight food -.326 .072 -.086and Air Deccan travelers had to face waiting time .582 -.199 -.253baggage loss, sometimes. On the for baggageoccurrence of baggage loss Air Deccansometimes never compensated for the baggage loss .073 -.091 .416baggage loss. compensate -.617 .233 -.535 baggage lossThere was no significant difference among good ground service .024 -.135 -.643the airlines on services such as online refreshments on delay .521 -.273 .072booking which just meant such a servicewas provided by all the airlines. All the accomodation on delay .529 -.466 .304airlines were found to be providing online booking -.118 -.069 -.352discounted fares and real benefits for discounted fare -.526 .130 .502frequent fliers. real benefits for -.060 .440 .1025.5 Discriminant Analysis frequent fliers that function 1 consists of good in-flightDiscriminant analysis revealed significant service, waiting time for baggage,differences among the airlines. Three compensation for baggage loss,functions were produced, of which the refreshments on delay, accommodationfirst was statistically significant. (Refer on delay and discounted fare. Hence, weTable 3). The second and third functions could conclude that the differencewere not significant. between airlines is a multi-dimensionalFrom the standardized discriminant construct consisting of in-flight service,function coefficients (Table 4) , it appears delay handling, baggage handling and
  8. 8. 120 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of Managementpricing. Together, these may be named as perceptual map is drawn using functionsbasic service elements, on which airlines 1 and 2, the relative positions of the fourseem to differ significantly. The only brands of airlines which is derived fromexception seems to be delay information, Table 5.loading highly on function two, and delay The perceptual map shows that Jet Airwaysannouncement and good ground service, and Kingfisher are positioned together. Airwhich are loading highly on function Deccan and Indian Airlines are positionedthree. But these are not significant far away from each other. A, B, C and D instatistically and therefore should be the perceptual map represents the airlinestreated with caution. as per Table 6 given below. The horizontalPositioning of the four airline brands axis represents Function 1 and the verticalthrough Discriminant Analysis: A axis, Function 2.Table 5: Functions at Group Centroids The fourteen attribute vectors are mappedairline name Function across the perceptual space. Vectors 1 to 1 2 3 Table 6: Brands of Airlines from the Group Centroids Jet Airways -1.022 -.733 -.158 Sl No Airline Name Indian Airlines -.361 .886 -.074 Air Deccan 2.300 -.264 -.059 A Jet airways Kingfisher -.350 -.189 .643 B Indian airlinesUnstandardized canonical discriminant C Air Deccan functions evaluated at group means D Kingfisher Graph 1 : Perceptual Map of four domestic airlines in India based on Perceived Service Quality: Discriminant Function 1 (horizontal axis) vs Function 2(vertical axis) 6 2 5 4 3 14 2 1 8 4 B 1 1 3 5 1 2 0 C D -4 -3 -2 -1 0 7 1 2 3 4 5 A -1 9 6 10 -2 3 11 -3 M Series 1
  9. 9. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 12114 can be identified from Table 7 given 5.6 Cluster Analysisbelow. Cluster analysis was performed to findTable 7: Attribute Vectors based on out the similarity between brands and toStandardized Canonical Discriminant reiterate the positioning exercise done byFunction Coefficients Discriminant analysis. An ANOVA conducted for cluster analysis showed 1 On time that all the service attributes to be 2 Delay information significantly different across the different 3 Announce delay clusters (Refer Table 8). 4 Good in-flight service 5 Good in-flight food Four major clusters were identified. Cross 6 Waiting time for baggage tabulation was conducted to find the 7 Baggage loss relationship between the brands and the 8 Compensate baggage loss four different clusters. Table 9 shows that most of the Jet Airways and Kingfisher 9 Good ground service customers belong to cluster 2. Indian 10 Refreshments on delay Airlines and Air Deccan customers 11 Accommodation on delay dominate cluster 3. Cluster 4 has a large 12 Online booking representation of customers of Indian 13 Discounted fare Airlines where as cluster 1 does not seem 14 Real benefits for frequent fliers to be very significant.Table 8: ANOVA Cluster Error Mean df Mean df F Signi Square Square on time 30.783 3 .940 126 32.745 .000 delay information 35.893 3 1.209 120 29.680 .000 announce delay 29.422 3 .687 116 42.822 .000 good inflight service 39.452 3 .715 123 55.167 .000 good inflight food 38.787 3 .695 118 55.770 .000 waiting time for baggage 16.200 3 .853 121 18.995 .000 baggage loss 37.954 3 .861 107 44.093 .000 compensate baggage loss 18.986 3 1.214 68 15.641 .000 good ground service 26.857 3 .846 113 31.728 .000 refreshments on delay 39.417 3 1.278 109 30.845 .000 accomodation on delay 34.155 3 1.291 92 26.456 .000 online booking 6.105 3 .677 102 9.020 .000 discounted fare 5.528 3 .900 113 6.140 .001 real benefits for frequent fliers 20.021 3 1.430 107 13.999 .000
  10. 10. 122 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of ManagementTable 9: Airline Name and Cluster Number of Case Cross tabulation Cluster Number of Case Total 1 2 3 4 airline name Jet Airways 0 27 5 7 39 Indian Airlines 1 7 17 15 40 Air Deccan 6 0 18 5 29 Kingfisher 2 15 4 5 26 Total 9 49 44 32 134Based on the above findings, Jet Airways airline provides good service quality.and Kingfisher can be considered as Indian Airlines was rated as providingbrands which have similar attributes, as good in-flight food, waiting time formost of their customers are found to be baggage, good ground service,members of cluster two. accommodation on delay and a few other elements such as price, online booking and6. CONCLUSION benefits for frequent fliers. Indian AirlinesThis study has several managerial was rated as average or below average onimplications, as it demonstrates that the the rest of the service variables. Baggageadapted version of SERVPERF scale is loss has been reported as a problem facedapplicable in the Indian conditions. When by some of the Indian Airlines customers.considered in totality the results of this Air Deccan has been rated by its customersstudy suggest that implementation of basic as providing good service quality inservice quality is essential to combat the informing customer about delay. Airgrowing competition. Differentiation can Deccan customers are happy with itsoccur only by adding new service elements provision for online booking, discountedalong with providing better quality in fare and real benefits for frequent fliers.delivering the current service. Safety has The study revealed that customers werebeen considered as a major element in not happy with all the other servicechoosing an airline brand in the west, post variables which suggest that the overall9/11. Crisis management has also taken service quality of Air Deccan is notdifferent dimensions in the U.S in the considered good. Some of the Air Deccanairline industry post 9/11. This trend customers report baggage loss as asuggests that many different social events problem. Air Deccan calls itself a no-frilland variables also have an impact on how service provider as it is a low cost airline.customers look at each brand. This study The travelers of Air Deccan seem to rate itshows that customers of Jet Airways rate to be a bad service provider even thoughit as an airline that provides very good they were flying on low fares. When Airservice quality across the fourteen service Deccan has large volume loads andvariables. Kingfisher ranks second and its generates revenue, it should rethink itscustomers have reported that usually the value proposition in terms of providing
  11. 11. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 123basic service quality to stay in the market. Cronin, J. J., Jr., and Taylor, S. A. (1992),In the U.S.A, Southwest and Jet Blue have “Measuring Service Quality: Aa strong brand presence and offer well Reexamination and Extension,” Journal ofdefined service rather than just low prices Marketing, 56 (July), 55–68.(Economist, 2004). Most of the low cost Cronin, J.J.,Jr. and Taylor, S.A. (1994),airlines in Europe had to shut shop as they “SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconcilingwere not providing even the basic service Performance-Based and Perceptions-Minus-quality. A study conducted by Natalisa & Expectations Measurement of ServiceSubroto (2003) on the customer satisfaction Quality, Journal of Marketing, 58(January),of domestic airlines in Indonesia proved 125-131that customer’s perceptions of service Douglas, G.W.,& Miller, J. C., III. (1974). Economicquality influence the level of customer regulation of domestic air transport: Theory andsatisfaction by using regression analysis. policy . Washington, DC: BrookingsIt can also be a case of concern to Indian Institution.Airlines and Air Deccan as our study has Economist (2004). Turbulent Skies, Vol. 372, Issuefound that the overall service quality 8383provided by these airlines are consideredbelow satisfactory by its customers. Fick, G. R., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1991). “Measuring service quality in the travel and tourism7. LIMITATIONS industry,” Journal of Travel Research, 30 (Fall),The findings of this study are limited to 2-9.the airline industry in India. This study Fisk, R. P., Brown, S. W., and Bitner, M. J. (1993),has not considered industry measures to “Tracking the Evolution of the Servicesmeasure service quality. We have Marketing Literature,” Journal of Retailing, 69,measured only the customer perception 1 (Spring), 61–103of service quality. Gourdin, K. N., & Kloppenborg, T. J. (1991).REFERENCES Identifying service gaps in commercial air travel: The first step toward qualityButtle, F(1996). SERVQUAL: Review, Critique, improvement. Transportation Journal, 31(1), Research Agenda , European Journal of 22-30. Marketing, 30,1, 8-32 Jordan,W. A. (1970). Airline regulation in America:Cunningham, L. F., Young C. E., & Lee, M (2004). Effects and imperfections. Baltimore: Johns Perceptions of airline service quality Pre and Hopkins University Press. Post 9/11. Public works Management & Policy, Kearney, T. J. (1986). Quality of service under airline 9(1), 10-25 deregulation. Doctoral dissertation, IndianaCunningham, L. F., Young C. E., & Lee, M. (2002). University at Bloomington. Cross-cultural perspectives of service quality and risk in air transportation. Journal of Air Nargundkar, R (2003), Marketing Research, 2nd Transportation, 7(1), 3-26. Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
  12. 12. 124 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of ManagementNatalisa Diah and Subroto Budiarto(2003), and its implications for future research. “Effects of Management Commitment on Journal of Marketing, 49, 41-50. Service Quality to Increase Customer Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. Satisfaction of Domestic Airlines in (1988). SERVPERF: A multiple-item scale for Indonesia” , Singapore Management Review, measuring consumer perceptions of service Volume 25 (1) quality. Journal of Retailing, 64, 28-31.Pandit, Ranjit V (2005). Why Believe in India. Wen Li, Ching and Chen K. Alice(1998). McKinsey Quarterly, Special Edition, 133-170 Quality Evaluation of Domestic AirlineParasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Zeithaml, V. A. Industry Using Modified Taguchi Loss (1991). Refinement and reassessment of the Function with Different Weights and Target SERVPERF Scale. Journal of Retailing, 67, 420- Values. Total Quality Management, 9(7), 150. 645-653Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A.,& Berry, L. L. Zeithaml and Bitner (1996), Services Marketing, (1985).A conceptual model of service quality Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
  13. 13. Venkatesh et al, Service Quality ... 125 APPENDIX 1 Service Quality of Domestic Airlines in India: An Empirical StudyDr. Rajendra Nargundkar and Ms. Bhagyalakshmi Venkatesh of Dept. Of ManagementStudies, PESIT Bangalore are conducting a study on the service quality of four Indiandomestic airline services. We request you to spare a few minutes to fill up the questionsbelow. Thank You.Please circle the relevant response on the following questions for all airlines you have traveled.(1=Always, 5=Never, and other responses are between these.) 1. The flights are on-time a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 2. The airline informs you in advance if there is delay (through sms or call) a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 3. If the flight is delayed, regular announcements are made a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 4. In-flight service is good a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 5. The in-flight food is good a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 6. The waiting time for baggage arrival is reasonable a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never
  14. 14. 126 Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of Management 7. Baggage loss is a problem with a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 8. The airline compensates for lost baggage if such a situation arises, a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 9. The airline provides good check-in services a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 10. The airline provides refreshments whenever there is a delay a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 11. The airline provides accommodation if there is a very long delay a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 12. The airline provides online booking services a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 13. The airline offers discounted fare schemes a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never 14. The airline offers real benefits to frequent fliers a. Jet Airways Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never b. Indian Airlines Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never c. Air Deccan Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never d. King Fisher Always 1 2 3 4 5 Never