Gent 12.3.2011     Neurophysiological background for the effects       of EAT based on studies in brain research          ...
Monday, March 21, 2011
FINNISH RIDING THERAPY        	 Riding therapy is functional in its            nature. It exposes the patient as a        ...
FINNISH RIDING THERAPYMonday, March 21, 2011
RIDINGTHERAPIST                                                                           Written study work              ...
Monday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
PERCEPTION                         	 Perception refers to the person’s ability to                             understand, ...
PERCEPTION       STIMULUS       SENSATION       INTERPRETATION       COMPREHENSIONMonday, March 21, 2011
PERCEPTION           	   Perception depends on both learning and maturation.                 Babies are not given the perc...
Human development is a blend                         of nature and nurture, genes and                         environment....
Monday, March 21, 2011
NEURONS                 The brain is made of nerve                 cells or neurons, which are                specialized ...
SYNAPSE               Information from one              neuron to another flows                  across a synapse.         ...
Monday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
SENSORY SYSTEMS                           ENTEROCEPTORS/ FAR SENSES                                     see               ...
TACTILE SYSTEM 	 	                         	                               MECHANORECEPTORS OF THE SKINMonday, March 21, 2...
VESTIBULAR SYSTEMMonday, March 21, 2011
RECEPTORS OF VESTIBULAR SYSTEM                         SEMICIRCULAR CANALS AND OTOLITH ORGANSMonday, March 21, 2011
PROPRIOCEPTION                         GOLGI TENDON ORGAN         MUSCLE SPINDELMonday, March 21, 2011
Sense organs                         start to work                         when something                         stimulat...
Most of the sensory information                         (except smell) passes through the                         thalamus...
BODY SCHEMASMonday, March 21, 2011
BODY SCHEMAS        	        • Body schemas are the internal representations of the          anatomy and dynamics of the b...
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX                             SENSORY                           HOMUNCULUSMonday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
VISUAL                                                         AUDITIVE            TASTE                                  ...
VISUAL             SMELL                                                         AUDITIVE            TASTE                ...
BODY SCHEMAS             • Body schemas are needed for the awareness of               the body and for motor planning, the...
DRAW A PERSON TEST (Cook 1988)                         4y9m                  11 yMonday, March 21, 2011
DRAW A PERSON TEST (Cook 1988)                         4y9m                  11 yMonday, March 21, 2011
SENSORY PROFILE ( Dunn 2001)        • Sensory profile provides a standard method for measuring and          reporting senso...
Monday, March 21, 2011
NEUROLOGICAL THRESHOLDS    	 Refer to the amount of stimuli required for a neuron or          neuron system to respond.   ...
The Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on the Social Functioning of                             Children with Autism   ...
SENSORY INFORMATION                   Sensory information is critical not only for the                 development of the ...
SENSORY                   INPUT                     MOTOR                     OUTPUTMonday, March 21, 2011
Normal development is coded by genes until 4 months                  of age.       	        Feedback of child’s own moving...
NEURAL CONTROL OF HUMAN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT                                                       (H.Forsberg )             ...
CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS (CPGs)       	 Locomotion and other rhythmic motor behaviours are based             on the acti...
CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS        	    The evidence for existence of CPGs comes from newborns;               infant steppi...
Monday, March 21, 2011
SENSORY FEEDBACK       • The fine regulation of rhythmic human movements typified by         locomotion can be understood as...
SENSORY INPUT                	 It is well documented that rhythmic and repetitive                         proprioceptive a...
To be effective, the sensory      information must be meaningful for      the person; the activity must produce      pleas...
Movement, in it´s effectiveness, can take place of any other modality, but              no therapeutic modality in the wor...
As research techniques              and technology become              more sophisticated,              scientists and pra...
University of Rostock, Germany 2011           Basic neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying               ...
Vanderbuilt Brain Istitute, Multisensory Research Laboratory,                                           USA 2011          ...
PLASTICITY  	  	   Plasticity is the lifelong ability of the brain        to reorganize neural pathways on the basis      ...
MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION                            = MULTIMODAL INTEGRATION                              MULTISENSORY PRO...
www.imrf.info               •         The International Multisensory Research Forum                         (IMRF) facilit...
Wake Forrest University                Multisensory Enhancement                                                           ...
Multisensory enviroment        MS is an interactive environment that generates real time        stimuli of different sense...
Multisensoring marketing          Multisensory marketing and sensory branding          is based on the idea that we are mo...
Multi-Sensory Marketing                          Entering the subconsciousMonday, March 21, 2011
www.magicofnuuksio.comMonday, March 21, 2011
”Sometimes when other kids spoke to me I would sc arcely hear,       then sometimes they sounded like bullets.”        ”I ...
Rubber Hand Illusion                   Ehrsson, Spence, & Passingham (2004)Monday, March 21, 2011
THE PINOCCHIO ILLUSIONMonday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
Spatial, temporal and physical characteristics of the sensory            stimuli that are combined critically determine ho...
Monday, March 21, 2011
Poor balance is often associated       with neurological disorders and       behind balance problems there are       often...
Monday, March 21, 2011
INTEGRATION OF              SENSORY INPUTSMonday, March 21, 2011
INTEGRATION OF     MOTOR              SENSORY INPUTS   PLANNINGMonday, March 21, 2011
INTEGRATION OF      MOTOR              SENSORY INPUTS    PLANNING           MUSCULAR EXECUTIONMonday, March 21, 2011
INTEGRATION OF      MOTOR              SENSORY INPUTS    PLANNING                                  ATTENTION           MUS...
Monday, March 21, 2011
VISUAL SYSTEM          photoreceptors of              the retinaMonday, March 21, 2011
VISUAL SYSTEM          photoreceptors of              the retina         VESTIBULAR SYSTEM      receptors of semicircular ...
TACTILE SYSTEM             VISUAL SYSTEM                                  mechanoreceptors of the          photoreceptors ...
TACTILE SYSTEM             VISUAL SYSTEM                                  mechanoreceptors of the          photoreceptors ...
Monday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
Monday, March 21, 2011
CAN YOU HEAR AND FEEL THE SMILE?Monday, March 21, 2011
MIRROR NEURON MECHANISM      	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	      • Enables us to understand all the aspects of other´s        behavio...
MCGURK EFFECT            BA + GA = DAMonday, March 21, 2011
CP           •      Primary problems in CNS, Brain injury, upper motor                  neuron lesion           •      Int...
CP                     •   the child uses what she/he finds useful using                         compensatory patterns    ...
NeuroMuscularElectroStimulation on sensory level                                    Helena Mäenpää 2010     •       To inc...
Bivelee it or not, rcesrhaeers at              Cmabrigde hvae dirvoseced taht the              oredr of ltteers in a wrod ...
BEDANKT EN TOT ZIENS !                                   .Monday, March 21, 2011
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Satu selvinen 2011

  1. 1. Gent 12.3.2011 Neurophysiological background for the effects of EAT based on studies in brain research satu.selvinen@gmail.com• Finnish Riding Therapy• Perception• Sensory processing• Body schemas• Neuronal Group Selection Theory• Central Pattern Generators• Multisensory processing• Postural Balance• Mirror neuron mechanismMonday, March 21, 2011
  2. 2. Monday, March 21, 2011
  3. 3. FINNISH RIDING THERAPY Riding therapy is functional in its nature. It exposes the patient as a whole person to a total experience. This experience includes the entire body, its feelings, thoughts into a continuous sensory and motor experience. An experience shared by the rider, the horse and the total environment. A truly holistic experience.Monday, March 21, 2011
  4. 4. FINNISH RIDING THERAPYMonday, March 21, 2011
  5. 5. RIDINGTHERAPIST Written study work PRACTISE + SEMINAR Physiotherapeutic and occupational use of horse in therapy ORIENTATION PRACTISE + SEMINAR Educational, developmental and psychological use of horse in therapy ORIENTATION PRACTISE + SEMINAR Horse in therapy ORIENTATIONMonday, March 21, 2011
  6. 6. Monday, March 21, 2011
  7. 7. Monday, March 21, 2011
  8. 8. PERCEPTION Perception refers to the person’s ability to understand, or make meaning out of the sensory input received through the sensory organs (such as the eyes and ears). The perceptual process occurs through mechanisms in the brain that link the current sensory information with memories and past experiences with similar sensory information. Kandel, E., Schwartz, J. & Jessell, T.(2000)Monday, March 21, 2011
  9. 9. PERCEPTION STIMULUS SENSATION INTERPRETATION COMPREHENSIONMonday, March 21, 2011
  10. 10. PERCEPTION Perception depends on both learning and maturation. Babies are not given the perceptual world with all its categories at birth. They actively create it through they experiences, memories and cognitive processes. We have to learn how to see and hear with meaning. We develop our sensory processing skills and achieve the comprehension through interaction with the enviroment. Bogdashina 2003Monday, March 21, 2011
  11. 11. Human development is a blend of nature and nurture, genes and environment. There is no cognitive, perceptual, emotional, or motor skill that is not influenced by both of these factors. Brain development is "activity-dependent," meaning that the electrical activity in every circuit--sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive--shapes the way that circuit gets put together.Monday, March 21, 2011
  12. 12. Monday, March 21, 2011
  13. 13. NEURONS The brain is made of nerve cells or neurons, which are specialized to carry messages in our body. The human brain has about 100 milliard neurons.Monday, March 21, 2011
  14. 14. SYNAPSE Information from one neuron to another flows across a synapse. Every neuron has thousands of connections with other neurons. Every synapse is able for hundreds of operations.Monday, March 21, 2011
  15. 15. Monday, March 21, 2011
  16. 16. Monday, March 21, 2011
  17. 17. SENSORY SYSTEMS ENTEROCEPTORS/ FAR SENSES see hear smell taste EXTEROSCEPTORS/ NEAR SENSES touch pressure temperature pain INTEROCEPTORS/INNER SENSES proprioception vestibularMonday, March 21, 2011
  18. 18. TACTILE SYSTEM MECHANORECEPTORS OF THE SKINMonday, March 21, 2011
  19. 19. VESTIBULAR SYSTEMMonday, March 21, 2011
  20. 20. RECEPTORS OF VESTIBULAR SYSTEM SEMICIRCULAR CANALS AND OTOLITH ORGANSMonday, March 21, 2011
  21. 21. PROPRIOCEPTION GOLGI TENDON ORGAN MUSCLE SPINDELMonday, March 21, 2011
  22. 22. Sense organs start to work when something stimulates receptors. Once stimulated, the receptors send nerve impulses along sensory nerves.Monday, March 21, 2011
  23. 23. Most of the sensory information (except smell) passes through the thalamus and then to the opposite hemisphere of the cortex. The signals from each sensory organ are processed in specialized areas of the brain. When the information reach the cerebral cortex we become conscious of the stimuli and the brain tell us what the stimulus is.Monday, March 21, 2011
  24. 24. BODY SCHEMASMonday, March 21, 2011
  25. 25. BODY SCHEMAS • Body schemas are the internal representations of the anatomy and dynamics of the body in the brain. • They are built up by sensory information.Monday, March 21, 2011
  26. 26. SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX SENSORY HOMUNCULUSMonday, March 21, 2011
  27. 27. Monday, March 21, 2011
  28. 28. VISUAL AUDITIVE TASTE VESTIBULAR TOUCH BODY SCHEMAS PROPRIOCEPTION TEMPERATUREMonday, March 21, 2011
  29. 29. VISUAL SMELL AUDITIVE TASTE VESTIBULAR TOUCH BODY SCHEMAS PRESSURE PROPRIOCEPTION TEMPERATUREMonday, March 21, 2011
  30. 30. BODY SCHEMAS • Body schemas are needed for the awareness of the body and for motor planning, they are essential to all voluntary movements. • Body schemas have essential properties required for multisensory integration. • They are a key element of self-conciousness and they form a basis for social cognition.Monday, March 21, 2011
  31. 31. DRAW A PERSON TEST (Cook 1988) 4y9m 11 yMonday, March 21, 2011
  32. 32. DRAW A PERSON TEST (Cook 1988) 4y9m 11 yMonday, March 21, 2011
  33. 33. SENSORY PROFILE ( Dunn 2001) • Sensory profile provides a standard method for measuring and reporting sensory processing abilities in everyday life. • It provides a tool for linking performance strengths and barriers with sensory processing patterns. • Each measure describes a persons response to various sensory experiences. • Caregivers complete the questionnaire.Monday, March 21, 2011
  34. 34. Monday, March 21, 2011
  35. 35. NEUROLOGICAL THRESHOLDS Refer to the amount of stimuli required for a neuron or neuron system to respond. When the nervous system responds really quickly to a sensory stimulus, there is a low threshold = hyper- responsive (or overresponsive) When the nervous system responds more slowly than expected, there is a high threshold = hypo-responsive (or under responsive) for responding. Dunn 2003Monday, March 21, 2011
  36. 36. The Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on the Social Functioning of Children with Autism Margaret M. Bass, Ph.D. Maria Llabre, Ph.D. • The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Sensory Profile (SP) were completed by teachers and parents to assess social functioning at three times: pre-and-post intervention and a two month follow-up. • The means between the treatment and control groups at post-test indicated significant group differences on the following SP scales: Sensory seeking, emotionally reactive, inattention/distractibility, and sensory sensitivity.Monday, March 21, 2011
  37. 37. SENSORY INFORMATION Sensory information is critical not only for the development of the central nervous system but also for the adaptation to the surrounding world and for moving and learning. The ability to relate sensory input to motor output forms the basis of posture control development. Hadders-Algra 2005Monday, March 21, 2011
  38. 38. SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUTMonday, March 21, 2011
  39. 39. Normal development is coded by genes until 4 months of age. Feedback of child’s own moving is important to the normal development. This selection process creates favored muscle synergies or functional strategies for performing movements associated with desired actions from among the many combinations of movements that could be effective. Hadders-Algra 2002Monday, March 21, 2011
  40. 40. NEURAL CONTROL OF HUMAN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT (H.Forsberg ) The development of postural muscle activation patterns in sitting infants.Monday, March 21, 2011
  41. 41. CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS (CPGs) Locomotion and other rhythmic motor behaviours are based on the activity of spinal functional networks generating the rhythm and shaping the pattern of burts of motoneurons. These networks are called central pattern generators, CPGs, which are capable producing coordinated movements which require afferent and supraspinal input. (Grillner, 1986, Forsberg and Dietz 1997)Monday, March 21, 2011
  42. 42. CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS The evidence for existence of CPGs comes from newborns; infant stepping is initiated or triggered by peripheral stimuli. (Zehr and Duysens 2004) Another evidence is in persons with paraplegia; locomotor EMG activity and movements can be both elicited and trained. (Dietz 1997) CPGs are active controllers of human rhythmic movements. Monday, March 21, 2011
  43. 43. Monday, March 21, 2011
  44. 44. SENSORY FEEDBACK • The fine regulation of rhythmic human movements typified by locomotion can be understood as the sublime interaction of a triparte system consisting of supraspinal input, spinal central pattern generating circuits (CPG), and sensory feedback (Zehr 2004) • Sensory feedback is an integral part of the over all and is critical in modifying CPG-generated motor programs in online adaptations to environment (MacKay-Lyons 2002, Dietz 2003) • The control of locomotion involves the use of afferent information from variety of sources in the visual, vestibular, tactile and proprioceptive systems (Dietz 2003)Monday, March 21, 2011
  45. 45. SENSORY INPUT It is well documented that rhythmic and repetitive proprioceptive and tactile input indicates changes in the anatomy and function of the sensomotor cortex. (Kaas JH et al,1999) Also passive repetitive proprioceptive stimulation change the representation of the used body part. Lewis GN 2004Monday, March 21, 2011
  46. 46. To be effective, the sensory information must be meaningful for the person; the activity must produce pleasure or lead to the wanted goal. If the brain of a person cannot give meaning for the sensory information produced by the means of an activity, the brain slowly ignores theMonday, March 21, 2011
  47. 47. Movement, in it´s effectiveness, can take place of any other modality, but no therapeutic modality in the world can replace the effect of movement. Clemens Josef Tissot 1750-1826Monday, March 21, 2011
  48. 48. As research techniques and technology become more sophisticated, scientists and practioners gain knowledge and achieve a better understanding of the complexity of the CNS.Monday, March 21, 2011
  49. 49. University of Rostock, Germany 2011 Basic neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of Equine Assisted Activities (EAA/T) The activation of the oxytocin system is indirectly operationalized via measuring a set of indicators capturing the well investigated effects of oxytocin on stress (cortisol, heart rate), trust, and social behavior.Monday, March 21, 2011
  50. 50. Vanderbuilt Brain Istitute, Multisensory Research Laboratory, USA 2011 Altered Multisensory Processes in Autism Spectrum Disorder A better characterization of some of the fundamental aspects of (multi)sensory processing will represent an important step forward in our understanding of ASD, and should shed important insights into the neural substrates of this complex developmental disorder, as well as inform the design of more effective interventional strategies. Both sensory and multisensory processes are impacted in Autism.Monday, March 21, 2011
  51. 51. PLASTICITY Plasticity is the lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways on the basis of new experiences. Learning and memory are classical examples of neuroplasticity. Monday, March 21, 2011
  52. 52. MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION = MULTIMODAL INTEGRATION MULTISENSORY PROCESSING A STUDY HOW DIFFERENT SENSORY MODALITIES ARE INTEGRATED BY THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND HOW HOW THEY INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER AND ALTER EACH OTHERʼS PROCESSING.Monday, March 21, 2011
  53. 53. www.imrf.info • The International Multisensory Research Forum (IMRF) facilitates communication between scientists who work with sensory systems in which more than one sense modality plays a role. We seek to include any and all sense modalities, species, scientific disciplines, and perspectives (anatomical, cognitive, behavioral, computational, developmental, engineering, physiological, and others).Monday, March 21, 2011
  54. 54. Wake Forrest University Multisensory Enhancement • Performance enhancement is 700.0000 larger for multisensory than * unisensory stimuli 525.0000 • Selective attention modulates 350.0000 multisensory integration 175.0000 • Altered multisensory processing in dyslexia Auditory Visual Multisensory 0Monday, March 21, 2011
  55. 55. Multisensory enviroment MS is an interactive environment that generates real time stimuli of different senses. SNOEZELEN Snoezelen is a non-directive therapy and can be staged to provide a multi-sensory experience or single sensory focus, simply by adapting the lighting, atmosphere, sounds, and textures to the specific needs of the client at the time of use.Monday, March 21, 2011
  56. 56. Multisensoring marketing Multisensory marketing and sensory branding is based on the idea that we are most likely to form, retain and revisit memory when all five senses are engaged. Joshua G. Giordimaina 2008Monday, March 21, 2011
  57. 57. Multi-Sensory Marketing Entering the subconsciousMonday, March 21, 2011
  58. 58. www.magicofnuuksio.comMonday, March 21, 2011
  59. 59. ”Sometimes when other kids spoke to me I would sc arcely hear, then sometimes they sounded like bullets.” ”I did not see whole. I saw hair, i saw eyes, nose, mouth, chin…not face” ” Together, the sharp sounds and the bright lights were more than enough to oveload my sense. My head would feel tight, my stomach would churn, and my pulse would run my heart ragged until i found a safety zone.”Monday, March 21, 2011
  60. 60. Rubber Hand Illusion Ehrsson, Spence, & Passingham (2004)Monday, March 21, 2011
  61. 61. THE PINOCCHIO ILLUSIONMonday, March 21, 2011
  62. 62. Monday, March 21, 2011
  63. 63. Spatial, temporal and physical characteristics of the sensory stimuli that are combined critically determine how they are synthesized. Thus, multisensory stimuli that are in close physical proximity, that occur at or near the same moment in time, that are weakly effective on their own, and that are contextually similar result in enhanced neural activity Monday, March 21, 2011
  64. 64. Monday, March 21, 2011
  65. 65. Poor balance is often associated with neurological disorders and behind balance problems there are often impairments in sensory systems and body awareness. Deficits in sensory integration processes are often suspected as an underlying source of balance disorders in individuals who have sustained brain changes due to disease, trauma or aging.Monday, March 21, 2011
  66. 66. Monday, March 21, 2011
  67. 67. INTEGRATION OF SENSORY INPUTSMonday, March 21, 2011
  68. 68. INTEGRATION OF MOTOR SENSORY INPUTS PLANNINGMonday, March 21, 2011
  69. 69. INTEGRATION OF MOTOR SENSORY INPUTS PLANNING MUSCULAR EXECUTIONMonday, March 21, 2011
  70. 70. INTEGRATION OF MOTOR SENSORY INPUTS PLANNING ATTENTION MUSCULAR EXECUTIONMonday, March 21, 2011
  71. 71. Monday, March 21, 2011
  72. 72. VISUAL SYSTEM photoreceptors of the retinaMonday, March 21, 2011
  73. 73. VISUAL SYSTEM photoreceptors of the retina VESTIBULAR SYSTEM receptors of semicircular canals and otolith organs in the inner earMonday, March 21, 2011
  74. 74. TACTILE SYSTEM VISUAL SYSTEM mechanoreceptors of the photoreceptors of skin the retina VESTIBULAR SYSTEM receptors of semicircular canals and otolith organs in the inner earMonday, March 21, 2011
  75. 75. TACTILE SYSTEM VISUAL SYSTEM mechanoreceptors of the photoreceptors of skin the retina PROPRIOCEPTION VESTIBULAR SYSTEM proprioreceptors of receptors of semicircular muscle spindles, golgi canals and otolith organs tendon organ and joints in the inner earMonday, March 21, 2011
  76. 76. Monday, March 21, 2011
  77. 77. Monday, March 21, 2011
  78. 78. Monday, March 21, 2011
  79. 79. CAN YOU HEAR AND FEEL THE SMILE?Monday, March 21, 2011
  80. 80. MIRROR NEURON MECHANISM • Enables us to understand all the aspects of other´s behaviour, which is the basis for the social organization. • Enables imitation learning, which is at the basis of human culture. • Play a fundamental role in both action understanding and imitation. • There is relationship between the mirror-neuron system and language.Monday, March 21, 2011
  81. 81. MCGURK EFFECT BA + GA = DAMonday, March 21, 2011
  82. 82. CP • Primary problems in CNS, Brain injury, upper motor neuron lesion • Intact peripheral nerves, muscles, bones and joints; abnormalities secondary due to development, abnormal use and growth • Not only a motor problem and the level of severity in motor and additional problems varies • Often hyper- or hyporesponding sensory systemsMonday, March 21, 2011
  83. 83. CP • the child uses what she/he finds useful using compensatory patterns • the child has no experience of normal movement patterns • the child has not born spastic but the spasticity develops with functionMonday, March 21, 2011
  84. 84. NeuroMuscularElectroStimulation on sensory level Helena Mäenpää 2010 • To increase awareness of the trunk/limb • Functional goals/ selective movements • Reciprocal movements/ agonist-antagonist • To increase muscle strength and balanceMonday, March 21, 2011
  85. 85. Bivelee it or not, rcesrhaeers at Cmabrigde hvae dirvoseced taht the oredr of ltteers in a wrod desont rlaley matter. The olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rghit pclae. Eevn if the rset are tolatly julebmd up you can sitll raed it. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn barin deos not raed ecah lteter invuddilialy, but inesatd renisgoecs the wrod as a wlohe.Monday, March 21, 2011
  86. 86. BEDANKT EN TOT ZIENS ! .Monday, March 21, 2011
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