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The human nervous system

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  • 1. The Human Nervous System By Kenneth Tsang
  • 2. • It includes Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System. • It acts as a highway for information to travel. It controls movement in the body and also converts information for the brain to read and process. What is the Human Nervous System?
  • 3. Central Nervous System Spinal Cord • Structure • There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves which run through the spinal cord. These nerves are called “mixed” nerves because each nerve contains a sensory and a motor axon. • Information entering from the left side of the spinal cord will eventually go over to the right side of the brain and vice versa. The side switching can happen as soon as entering the spinal cord or until it reaches the brain. Spinal Cord Sensory Neuron Motor Neuron Receptor Effector
  • 4. Central Nervous System Spinal Cord (Cont.) • Function • The spinal cord is used for two main functions: • It acts as a pathway for information to travel from receptors (skin, eyes, mouth…) to the brain and from the brain to effectors (muscle). • The spinal cord can also be a minor coordinating centre for some simple reflexes like the withdrawal reflex.
  • 5. Central Nervous System • Brain • Cerebral Cortex − The cortex is the layer of tissue which covers the entire brain. The thickness can vary from 2mm to 6mm. The Cerebral Cortex appears to have a number of lumps and bumps − The Cerebral Cortex controls thought, language, reasoning, perception and voluntary movement. Cerebral Cortex
  • 6. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Cerebellum − The Cerebellum is behind the brain stem. It is similar to the Cerebral Cortex because it is divided into hemispheres − The Cerebellum controls movement, balance and posture. Cerebellum
  • 7. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Brain Stem − The brain stem is a name for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. The brain stem includes the medulla, pons and midbrain. − The Brain Stem controls most of the basic functions of life like breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Midbrain Pons Medulla
  • 8. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Hypothalamus • The hypothalamus is made of several areas of the lower brain. It is only the size of a pea which is about 1/300 of the entire brain. Hypothalamus
  • 9. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Hypothalamus • The Hypothalamus controls body temperature, emotions, hunger, thirst, circadian rhythms. Despite its size, the Hypothalamus controls some very important functions. One of the most important is the body temperature control. It acts as a thermostat so it senses the body changes and will tell different parts of the body to adjust. Hypothalamus
  • 10. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Thalamus • The Thalamus is divided into two sides. The Hypothalamus is positioned in between the two sides. • The Thalamus receives sensory information and movement information. Thalamus
  • 11. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Hippocampus − The Hippocampus is part of the Limbic System. − The Hippocampus is important for memory. Hippocampus
  • 12. Central Nervous System • Brain (Cont.) • Basal Ganglia − The Basal Ganglia is a group of structure including the globus pallidus, caudate nucleus and subthalamic mucleus. − Basal Ganglia controls and coordinates movement.
  • 13. Peripheral Nervous System • Sensory Neurons • Sensory Neurons are neurons which only allow information to travel one way. They can transmit information from Receptors (skin, eyes, ears) to the brain and to motor neurons.
  • 14. Peripheral Nervous System • Motor Neurons • Motor Neurons are neurons which only allow information to travel one way. The transmit information from the brain and the spinal cord to the Effectors (Muscles and Glands)
  • 15. Peripheral Nervous System • Example of a Reflex Arc • A reflex arc is the pathway that a nerve reflex, such as the knee jerk reflex, follows. 1. A tap on the knee stimulates sensory receptors (tendon), generating a nerve signal. 2. The signal travels along a nerve to the spinal cord. 3. In the spinal cord, the signal is transmitted from the sensory nerve to a motor nerve. 4. The motor nerve sends the signal back to effectors (muscle) in the thigh. 5. The muscle contracts, causing the lower leg to jerk upward. The entire reflex occurs without involving the brain.