Planning Design Process I have included the design process as used In industry on my opening slide to ensure that all of the key areas my project are met with the highest of quality and used it to plan my project activities in order Fig.1 Design Process Introduction The purpose of this slide was for me to be able to refer to the time scale of project and to ensure all of the required deadlines are met and for me to aim to cover all tasks This is an industrial process Method For this slide and the Gantt chart I used Microsoft Excel to create a chart. In order for me to have this accurately I then copied the chart and placed it onto this slide. I used the guidance sheet for the tasks and estimated the time for the activities related to the difficulty of the task. Conclusion By allocating a set amount of time to each task (that I believe is a fair allowance related to the difficulty of the task) and linking the tasks together, I was able to get an idea of the total timescale of the project. I will be able to track my progress in the project . This will ensure that the deadlines are met on time. If I fall behind I will be able to make minor alterations to ensure that the time scale is correct. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting
Identification of a problem Fig.1 A paint can being held by the handle First Problem My first idea came from my grandparents. They had been having some painting done and their painter had outlined a problem. When you are painting up a ladder in order to hold the paint can there are two ways. Firstly you can hold the can by the attached handle, however when doing this he explained how he often painted his hand with the brush when dipping it in. The other way is to hold the can by the bottom however after a while this can put a lot of strain on your arm and give you cramp. Introduction The purpose of this slide was for me to be able to locate a suitable problem in order for me to solve for my GCSE project. I will communicate my problem using detailed diagrams and photos. This is in order for potential clients to relate to the problem with ease. Second Problem My second problem was made clear, again by my grandparents who explained how they found it difficult to hold a mug of tea for a long period of time. With the mug you must hold it by the handle, often very uncomfortable, or the outside which often, after a while will start to burn your hands. Mugs, are designed in order to make it easy for you to drink out of but how are you supposed to do this when to hold the mug it is very uncomfortable. Fig.2 A current mug Identification of a problem In order to locate a suitable problem for my project I asked my family and family friends if they had any problems which they believe I could solve within the scope of a GCSE project. It was when I asked my grandparents that they gave me a few problems. I will briefly explain a few of the ideas I was given on this slide and consequently choose one of the three to analyse on the next couple of slides. Fig.3 An office chair Third Problem My third problem came from a family friend who works in a relatively small office who said how he found it difficult to move around in such a small area in his large office chair. He asked me to analyse the problem. Choice of Project I chose the coffee mug as I believe it is the most feasible project in the scope of the school workshop as a one off. This project will take me nearly two years to complete to the highest quality, and should not bring a high cost attached. I must of course consider my skills in the workshop are limited and can only use the range of materials and machines available to me. It also offers a large customer market and interest Conclusion From the three problems of which I have outlined on this page I have decided to choose the coffee cup to go ahead with as my GCSE project. I will hopefully throughout the project find a solution to the problem. Although the other two problems are good I feel that there is a bigger market and more substance for me to continue with the mug. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Fig.1 The current coffee/tea mug I have included this as it allows me to always have a look at the specifications of the design. Problem Analysis Introduction On this slide I will outline the problem with the current coffee mug and using photos which I have taken, and detailed annotations will give a clear problem in which the client can relate to easily. Hopefully the pictures will communicate the problem the easiest by allowing, first hand, every aspect of the problem to be understood. Fig. 2 Holding the mug by the handle Handle is not cushioned Particularly for the elderly or people with arthritis Fig.4 Holding the mug by the rim Can get very Uncomfortable Uncomfortable Finger Avoiding Heat Communication of the problem As we can see with the photos to the right when holding the coffee and tea mug there is a major problem. If you wish to use the handle to hold the mug then you come to the problem that over a period of time your fingers become sore.(see fig.2) However if you wish to hold the tea or coffee mug as demonstrated (fig. 3) by the outside of the mug is very hot and can burn your hand. Also when carrying the mug it is very easily dropped. Fig.3 Holding the mug by the outside Burns your fingers Easily Dropped Conclusion As we can see from the three annotated pictures there is a very real problem with something that a lot of us use every day. On the next slide I will start to actually analyse the problem in detail. In the three photos of which I have analysed they all suggest that the key problem area of the mug is handling the mug , With the mug I feel there is a lot of room for improvement in the design and specification of the product.
Ergonomics – The product must be easily held so that the user is not caused any dis-comfort from holding it
Mug is very hot Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Fig. 1 Pugh’s Plate This will allow me to be able to refer to all of the aspects that my product must meet Design Brief and Major Specification Clarification of the Design Brief and Major Specifications is an Industrial Practice Introduction In this slide I will include the design brief and major specification of my product. From this page I will determine what my product will be required to do. My design brief is my statement of intent and my Major specifications are a list which will enable me to ensure the product is of the highest quality. Industrial practice is key as it is the list from the client to the possible designer or team. The start point of a project always defines the task. I must meet the major specification of the mug being able to be held comfortably. Design Brief To design and manufacture a prototype mug that is aesthetically pleasing, ergonomically sound and that will make people want to buy my product. However this mug must not just be different in terms of aesthetics it must also perform uniquely by combining modern technology in order for people to have a very safe drinking experience. Major Specifications To design and manufacture a prototype mug for hot drinks. My product must :
Aesthetics; my product must be aesthetically pleasing so that it is desirable to the customer and sell
Size; my product must be comfortable to use so that all sizes of people are able to use my product
Cost; my product must be relatively inexpensive so that all types of social background are able to afford it
Function; my product must be easy to carry so that people are able to stand or walk with the mug
Performance; my product must be easy to use so that very little effort is required to be able to drink from the mug
Ergonomics; my product must be able to be used by all types of people with varying hand sizes
Manufacturing; my product must be easy to manufacture so that I am able to make my product in the scopes of the school workshop
Durability; my product must have a long product life span so that people are not required to spend lots of money when the mug is no longer able to be used
Pugh’s Plate Pugh’s plate is a diagram which helps to categorise each criteria. This will help me to be very specific in my major specifications that I must meet throughout my project. My product The product that I design will be the answer to the problems and I can use this page as a reference to come back to and remind me of what my product is required to do and how I will go about it. As we can see from Fig.2 the current coffee mug has definite room for improvement both in design and in specifications . Conclusion From this slide I will be able to easily refer to the design brief and all of the specifications that my product must meet. I will as more specifications as research my product and learn more detail. Fig.2 The current mug Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
A Research Plan will help me to organise and structure my research topics Research Plan Introduction This page shows the research plan that I have developed in order to organise future work and to provide a logical structure to this key section of the project. Researching is important as it will allow me to investigate different issues and ideas that will need to be taken into consideration before I start developing a suitable solution for my project and therefore improve the quality of my final product as I shall know more. Table.1 A table to show the plan for my market research Method I decided the best way to plan out my research was to produce a table, split into key headings. The first and most important column states each research category needed to be considered (shown in red). This then presents a series of questions related to each category which will now need to be investigated. The remainder of the columns finally show what methods and sources I will use to answer these questions, and how this information will be presented. I will be sure to use a variety of primary and secondary research and plan the type of data I collect for my analysis. This is so that I am able to analyse and easily get a visible result that will effect my product. Conclusion This page has allowed me to organise the research section of my project thus saving me time in the future. I can now carry out this task more efficiently as I know exactly what I need to understand and the methods I will use to achieve and present this information. I can now relate my research to my major specifications by looking in detail at what the public would like the product to be like. On the next slide I will begin my market research using a questionnaire. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Market Research The questionnaire I gave for people to fill in for my market research. Questionnaire My name is Ally Satchwill and I am currently studying Design and Technology at Bedford school; for my GCSE level project I will be re-designing the coffee mug.Below is a set of questions, I would be very grateful is you could give up a small amount of time in order to answer them so I can get some firsthand feedback of the design problem allowing me to generate some ideas of solving the problem. 1. Do you use a Tea/Coffee mug? (Please Circle) Yes No 2. If yes, How often per day? (Please Circle) Once Twice Three times Four times 3. Do you usually hold the mug by the handle or the main body? (Please Circle) Handle Main Body 4. Do you find it uncomfortable to hold the mug for a long period of time? (Please Circle) Yes No 5. If yes why? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Do you ever find it difficult to clean the mug by hand? (Please Circle) Yes No 7. If yes why? ……………………………………………………………………………… 8. Would you prefer the mug to be classic or modern? (Please Circle) Classic Modern
9. How much would you be willing to spend on the product? (Please Circle) 0 - £1 £1- £2 £2 - £3 £3 - £4 £4 - £5 10. Would you prefer a re-usable or disposable mug? (Please Circle) Re-usable Disposable 11. Would you have any ideas on what you think the product should be made from? …………………………………………………………………………… 12. Do you feel there are any existing products which solve the problem with the mug? (Please Circle) Yes No 13. If yes please explain the design. (Feel free to use a diagram) ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… …………………………………………
14. Is there anything you would base the design on? (Please Circle) Yes No 15. Please could you give a quick sketch of how you would like the product to look.
Introduction Market research is the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to marketing decision-making. Using a combination of primary and secondary research tools to better understand a situation. The main purpose of this exercise is to establish the ‘needs and wants of the market’, meaning any questionnaires or interviews will need to be based around this objective. This page will show the questionnaire that I conducted for my project and will explain the relevance of this. Method Market research is a major industrial process and is done with all design ideas and developing products in large companies. To carry out this process to the highest potential many of these companies may employ specific market research companies to gain a competitive advantage. Here they will find out the exact needs and wants of the consumer and monitor trends in the market (popularity and purchases), allowing them to use this to their advantage. Google defines this as : Specific product ideas can then be generated. For this research to be representative a large market will need to be identified. The size of this will vary on the scale of the problem. On an industrial scale this target will likely be in excess of 1000. Obviously due to cost factors this number will need to be kept to a minimum, therefore feedback gained from this market segment will need to be as accurate as possible. I did this by constructing a questionnaire. I chose questions that would give me a mix of qualitative and quantitiatve answers Conclusion This page has introduced my market research section and has explained the importance of this process in industry. The page also shows the questionnaire that I presented to local people, family and friends. The results from this will now be presented on the next page in a series of statements illustrations and graphs, allowing me to generate ideas in the future much more easily and effectively. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Market Research Results Pie Chart 2 – A chart to show how potential clients would like the product to look From the chart we can see that when asked whether they would prefer a modern or a classic styled mug, people preferred the more modernlook on the mug. I have learnt that my product’saesthetics must be modern. Therefore my product must be designed to a modern standard Introduction This page shows the results that I gain from the marketresearch. The feedback I received was accurate. The page will now show severalstatements regarding the qualitativequestions answered by the individual people, and some sketches that I selected from the questionnaire that I felt had some potential to be lookedfurther into. I of course must remember the market needs. Pie Chart 3 – A chart to show how clients currently hold the mug From the question that I asked I discovered, as expected, most people do in fact hold the mug by the un-comfortable handle. This is a key area for my project, and this also relates to the question to the left which is all about the handling of the mug. I have learnt about performance. Pie Chart 1 – A Chart to show whether clients find it un-comfortable to hold a mug Pie Chart 4 – a chart to show how much potential clients would be willing to spend From the question that I asked to the right, I discovered that more people would be willing to spend more for a high quality product rather than spend less for a product of less quality. This means that cost of manufacture still must be kept to a minimum, however the product must be of high quality. From the questionnaire's that I gave out over three quarters of the people expressed how they find the current mug uncomfortable to hold for a long period of time. From this question that I asked we can see that the performance of the coffee mug must be improved.
Ergonomics – My product must therefore be a suitable size to hold for all hand sizes
Pie chart 5 – A Chart to show possible re-use of the mug From this question that I asked in my questionnaire I have discovered that people would much prefer a re-usable mug than a disposable one. I must therefore design a product that can be re-used and this can increase the product life-span. Conclusion From this slide I have learnt a number of specifications in which my product must fill and I have found these resulthelpful. I have in turn learnt a new specification from each question. Continued on the next page. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Market Research Results 2 Pie chart 2 – A chart to show how often people use the mug every day Introduction This page shows the results that I gain from the marketresearch. The feedback I received was accurate. The page will now show severalstatements regarding the qualitativequestions answered by the individual people, and some sketches that I selected from the questionnaire that I felt had some potential to be lookedfurther into. Pie Chart 1 – A Pie chart to show whether clients find it difficult to clean the mug by hand When I asked people about how often they use the mug in every day use, and I discovered that people use the mug very frequently which simply re-iterates why my product is needed and can solve the problem with the current mug. Pie chart 3 – A chart to show what the potential materials my product could be made from From my questionnaire, when I asked people about whether they found the mug difficultto clean quite a few of the people agreed that yes it can be difficult to clean. They explained how that as the mug narrows they find it difficult for them to be able to fit their hands. Although we can see that morepeople said that it was difficult to clean the mug the people who said no might have had a dishwasher therefore producing anomalies. For one of the questions in my questionnaire was did you have any idea on what my product should be made from. In the chart above I have shown the results. We can see that most people would prefer it to be made of either china or durable plastic. This is therefore a clear sign that people perceive these two materials as high quality materials. Conclusion From this slide I have learnt a number of specifications in which my product must fill and I have found these resulthelpful. I have in turn learnt a new specification from each question. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Existing products Analysis To the right there is the current plain coffee mug. I feel that I can take more pointers away from this design than positives which draw me to this. Firstly the handle is very un-comfortable to hold, one of my major specifications There is then the main body of the product which will burn your hand and is not designed to be very easily held. The tea would cool down as there is no insulating layer and although the main function of the mug is there it does not appear to be doing it very well. This mug is not very aesthetically pleasing and is very simple. The quantity the mug can hold is reasonable. The ergonomics of the mug are good. A good point about the mug is that the dimensions mean that the mug is short and therefore is hard to be knocked over and could be easily cleaned, a majorspecification I learnt from my market research. Introduction This page will be looking at existing products that I may be able to potentially adapt ideas and design aspects from. This exercise is important as it will aid me in the process of generating ideas for my project. There are a few current products that potentially use ideas that I could adapt into a suitable solution to my initial design problem. This page will show the first two ideas that I will then choose one for my product analysis where I will look at a product in more detail. I am of course looking at these products to learn the good points to be inspired, and the negatives to avoid making the same mistakes. Fig.1 A plain mug Analysis This is a thermos flask which is not completely linked to my project however it is designed to keep the contents hot just as my product must do. I do not feel that the thermos flask is aesthetically pleasing. It is not designed for the product to look at. From the thermos flaks’ I have used they have always had a faultless function. They keep the tea hot for long periods of time. The insulating materials to not conduct heat and therefore can hold the flask easily and safely. Analysis This is a half pint glass designed by Tim Parsons in 1996. From this mug I can take both positives and negatives. Firstly the mug should keep the tea hotter for longer due to the fact that the air surroundings will act as a insulating layer, one of my major specifications. Again this will work in the same way for a cold drink. The glass is designed for you to be able to hold it with ease and for it to be very comfortable. I believe that the mug is very aesthetically pleasing and appears to be very ergonomically sound. The mug can hold a half pint, a very reasonable amount. There are a few negatives to the glass. Although the glass is made well, it is glass. This can easily shatter and the height and base dimensions could be improved. The glass could easily be knocked over. Also one of the points I received back from my questionnaires was that it must be easilycleaned by hand. This mugs looks as though it may be difficult to be cleaned by hand. This is a novel design, it is eye catching and desirable but it is also very clever as it takes something that we know and puts it in a different light. Fig.2 A thermos flask Specification from market research Performance – The project may incorporatetechnology from existing products. Performance – The chosen solution for the project must tackle all of the problems outlined in the original design brief. Function –The project must keep the tea hot for as long as possible. Conclusion This page has allowed me to analyse some existing products allowing me to generate some ideas of a possible solutions for my project. I can now carry out my research more effectively as I will be able to specify particular areas, thus allowing me to go into further detail in the relevant areas. Fig.3 A half Pint glass Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Product Analysis Plan Introduction This next few pages will look at a detailed analysis of a product that will relate to my design problem. The purpose of a product analysis is to gain inspiration into possible ideas that I could adapt into my product. Alternatively the product analysis will allow me to identify faults on existing products that I can improve on in the designing of my ideas. The product that I have chosen to study for this page is the half pint mug. I chose this product as I felt that is fulfilled a similar purpose to what I am trying to achieve. Fig.1– Illustration of the product that be studying during this detailed analysis. I have chosen the half pint mug for my product analysis as I feel it has been very well designed and is very closely related to my project. I can look in detail at all aspects of the mug. Method This first page of product analysis will mainly show the plan of this section. The method I used to present this was to firstly list all of the relevantcriteria of the product, then state the specific areas that need to be looked at for each of these. All of this information is listed in the table to the right. Conclusion After identifying each of these criteria's I will now conduct some practical testing to show how each of these have been taken into consideration when the product was originally designed (starting with function). Some of these criteria's are more important than others therefore I will go into more detail for the most relevant area. Contents Depth of Understanding Label Alignment Justify Text Highlighting Ally Satchwill
Research: Function Introduction After introducing each of the relevant criteria in the previous page I will now start to analyse these in order of relevance starting with function. This task will be carried out through practical analysis and hands on testing of the product and will include annotated photographs and detailed analysis Function To start my product analysis I conducted an experiment in order to test the claim that the Tim Parson’s mug will keep the water to a higher temperature for a greater length of time. In order to do this I needed to compare the Tim Parson’s mug to an ordinary mug, which I had obtained. Over nearly twenty minutes I would compare the surface temperature and the temperature of the liquid inside the mugs. We would measure each alternating every thirty seconds. As shown in Fig.1 we can see that we poured equal amounts of boiling water into the mug, containing thermometers. We then began a stopwatch in order to have a structured timing system. Fig.2 Shows how I measured the water temperature. From the graph we can see that the mugs were very similar in temperature in which they kept the temperature of the water and are actually equal for a lot of the time. We can see then that the claim that the mug keeps the contents of the mug to a higher temperature for a longer period of time is not in fact true. As this is one of my major specifications I must ensure that I find a solution to this and ensure that it is a function of the product I design. Fig.1 Pouring in the water Fig.2 Measuring the temperature Conclusion From this first hand testing I have learnt that the design of the Tim Parson’s mug is good, however it does in fact have faults and does not appear to achieve the claims. I must be very careful in my design and must ensure that my product does function to the best ability. Fig.3 The Ordinary mug
Research: Function Introduction After beginning to analyse the products function I shall continue to do this on this slide. This task will be carried out through practical analysis and hands on testing of the product and will include annotated photographs and detailed analysis Fig.1 The surface temperature being recorded Function To finish my product analysis on function I measured the side of the mugs to compare this. As one of my major specifications was to be able to hold the outside of the mug comfortably and safely. In order to do this I needed to compare the Tim Parson’s mug to an ordinary mug, which I had obtained. Over nearly twenty minutes I would compare the surface temperature. I would measure every thirty seconds. As shown in Fig.1 we can see that we poured equal amounts of boiling water into the mug, containing thermometers. Then using a surface temperature recorder I was able to measure the outside of the two mugs easily. From the graph new can see that the Tim Parson’s mug does in fact keep the surface temperature of the mug to a low temperature or around 35°C. After looking at the surface temperature of the ordinary mug we can see that it begins at a very high temperature and very slowly begins to fall. After conducting some qualitative data I determined that around 35°C, the temperature of the Tim Parson’s mug was about the optimum temperature for a person to be able to comfortably hold the mug in their hand. Fig.2 The measuring tool Fig.3 The mug Conclusion From this first hand testing I have learnt that the design of the Tim Parson’s mug is good at maintaining a comfortable and safetemperature for a person to be able to hold the mug. Myproductmust achieve this
Product Analysis Introduction After beginning to analyse the products function I shall now begin to analyse the products manufacture and aesthetics. I shall do this by examining the looks and how the product may have been made. I shall then look at the materials of the product by looking at the product in great detail. Manufacture As we can see below, this is the original design that Tim Parson came up with. This image was taken from the London design museum’s website. This shows how he plans to make four sections of the machine and then put them together in order to make the shape required. I must remember that he was making this process in order to make thousands of his product where as I will only be making one. We can see how he explains that the liquid will be surrounded by air to keep the liquid cool or hot for longer. A little plastic cap will keep the air trapped around the mould. Aesthetics I fell that a lot of time has been spent into researching possible designs of the Tim Parson’s mug. It eventually was based on the pint mug as we know it today. The half pint glass was also designed as, I feel, a more aesthetically pleasing look to the glass. See Fig.1. Although the mug looks nice, we must bear in mind, would you want to drink a mug of tea or coffee from a pint glass? I feel that the answer would be no in a lot of cases and therefore when I design my product I must ensure to keep in with the design of current mugs, improving the quality of the product. Materials The Tim Parson’s mug is made from porous ceramic which has been glazed to give the finish a smooth feel. Porous ceramics are made from aluminum oxide and silicon carbide. Porous ceramics are easily made by a machine using conventional diamond cutters and wheels. Since it is not ductile and the granules are removed the porous ceramic pore structure is not affected by cutting and grinding. The mug could also be made by using ceramic slip. This is the process in which the material is built up layer by layer, allowed to cool and the process repeated. The product is then glazed. Fig.4 The ceramics process Fig.2 The Mug standing Fig.3 Holding the mug Fig.1 The initial design for the mug. Conclusion From this product analysis I have learnt that my product must be simple to manufacture, an aesthetically pleasing product, and made of suitable materials.
Product Analysis Introduction On this page I shall look at ergonomics, size and weight and shall analyse these areas of the product in great detail in order to determine if any of these could be improved in my product. Fig.3 This shows the mug lying alongside the ruler allowing me to measure the height. I then measured the width by measuring the width of the top. Ergonomics The ergonomics of the Tim Parson’s mug appear to be very good. It is based on the standard pint glass that we all use and know. To hold the mug it is very comfortable for a long periods of time, a major specification of my project. As we can see the hand fits the area and size of the mug very well. The added rim aids in holding the mug. Size The size of the mug is reasonable. As I have already explained the ergonomics of the mug are very good. Using this ruler (Fig.2) I was able to measure the mug. The mug is 140mm tall, 45mm wide and holds approximately 200ml of liquid. On the London design museum website it explains that the mug is dishwasher safe, a specification of my product. Fig.1 Shows also that the mug is not too thin or fat and is safe to hold. Cost The cost of this product is £14.99. considering this is a bespoke design item, I feel this cost is reasonable. It is a high quality, well made product. This product is more expensive compared to other mugs. Fig.2 The tri square I used This is what the design museum say that the mug does: “The ceramic half pint mug has an ingenious twin-wall design which helps to keep your drink warm and the outside of the mug cool, so you can pick it up without burning your fingers.” The size of the mug is important as one of my specifications was for my product to be able to be used by a wide range of ages. I would like my product to be able to be used by all ages as my product will be safe to use. Tim Parson’s mug is designed on the pint mug, a Weight The Tim Parson’s Mug is relatively light and easy to hold. If the product was any lighter then it would be a fault as people would find it too light to hold and may start to drop it. However the balance is very good, very comfortable to hold and easily carried. The mug is very well balanced, not too heavy or light at either end. mug normally only used by adults and very rarely used by children of a young age. Having a large height and small width could increase the chances of the mug being knocked over. Fig. 4 The hollow insides of the mug. Fig.5 The mug lying alongside the ruler
Mood Board Introduction On this page I shall produce a number of images to spark ideas. I shall use this as a visual aid and this sets the mood for my project. Conducting this secondary research, my images shall be of products relating to my project. Conclusion From this page, my mood board I have included a number of images in order to learn ideas for my product. This shall aid mainly in the aesthetics of my design and shall also help in the performance section as these pictures show a number of different ways in which it is possible to hold the mug. I have learnt that a vast majority of the mugs do not have a lid, an insulating cover and therefore they will all loseheat reasonably quickly.
Buzz Page Introduction On this page I shall show some new ideas. I have obtained these from other people as I have been immersed in my project for a length of time, and I want to gain a new perspective from other young designers. I shall also be completing some designs for fellow pupils. I shall present my sketches and then analysein detail and take the positives into my project. Analysis 1 My first idea has a lot of new, good ideas which could be taken forward into my project. The aesthetics, handle comfort, removable lid and the eyes allowing the user to see how much of the contents are left are all strong positives for this product. I also like the idea of having a grip for each finger, where as on the current mug there is just a handle. A slight negative is, should you wish to hold the mug by the outside there has been no measure to reduce heat of the mug itself. Fig.1 The First design Method On this slide I shall analyse the drawings made by fellow pupils. I could take new ideas from these sketches. Using our class seven people drew a sketch for my project. They have annotated the drawings to enable me to spring new ideas for my project. Having worked on my project for a long time taking a look at other peoples projects, and creating sketches for them, has enabled me to broaden my mind. Analysis 2 The second mug is designed mainly on the fact, that you are able to see the contents of the drink through a small window on the side of the mug. The handle is to be coated in foam in order for extra comfort. However, from what I can see the rest of the mug is very similar to the mug at the moment. The lid is a good idea, however, I am not sure how it is possible to drink with this on. Fig.2 The Second design Analysis 3 The third design is based on a comfortable handle and having thermo chromatic strips for you to see what the temperature is. Thermo chromatic plastic turns different colours with the application of heat. It turns red when the contents are hot and would turn blue when the contents are cool, a great safety idea. Again, the rest of the mug appears to be the same and the problem of heat escaping through the top has not been addressed. Fig.3 The Third design
Buzz Page Analysis 5 This design is based on the kettle. Having a hollow rim on the outside allows the contents to be kept hot or cold. Having a glass, or clear plastic as a material allows the user to be able to see how much is left. The surface is heatproof and the removable handle so that it is easy to be stored. The lip allows the liquid to be poured out although this would not be able to drink from this. Another bonus is that a thermometer is inside the outside of the mug to allow you to see the temperature of the contents. Introduction On this page I shall show some new ideas. I shall continue from the previous page with more sketches from fellow pupils. Analysis 4 This design has covered nearly all of the required aspects. The handle is big, large enough to fit every finger, andpadded finger in-prints for extra comfort and grip. There is a hollow rim at the outside of the mug to insulate the mug by keeping the contents hotter for longer and also would keep the outside of the mug cooler for people to be able to hold the outside should they wish to. Also the lid which is operated by the pull of a finger in the grip, would also insulate the contents. There is a window running down the side of the mug to allow you to see how much is left. A great design. Fig.2 The Fifth design Analysis 6 This design is based on my major specification of having a comfortable, safe place to hold the mug using comfortable handles. This design has an aesthetically pleasing design whilst being able to be used by a large market. This also has a wide base for added stability making this safe and sturdy. I feel that the issue of heat escaping through conduction, convection and radiation could have been addressed more. Fig.3 The Sixth design Analysis 7 The last design is again, based on aesthetics and is meant to look like an elephant. The nose is designed so that it is possible to drink out of when you wish to. The ears are made so that they fit in with the design and are also comfortable. The base is made from a sticky rubber base. The fact that the eyes change colour with temperature using thermo chromatic plastic. Fig.1 The Fourth design Conclusion From these two pages I am able to take the positive ideas and use them for my initial idea section. I will able to be improve and enhance the ideas shown in the designs from these pages. The main points I feel that I must take are the handle for comfort and the aesthetics for my product. My product must be comfortable and safe to hold and must be aesthetically pleasing. I will of course consider the idea of having a padded handle and must look very carefully at my design. The fourth design has opened my eyes and has made me consider having a lid or cover to keep the contents hot or cool. Fig.4 The Seventh design
Initial Ideas - 1 Introduction On this page I shall begin to analyze the first of the six ideas that I have come up with which solve my problem. I shall present the sketch page along with a brief CAD design which I have made on Pro Desktop. Analysis My first design was based on a vase theme which I later modified. It has a wide base, which is made of a non – stick rubber to help with the safety when the mug is sitting on a surface . The mug has a rim near the top of the body to aid with the easy holding of this mug. Having an insulating double wall helps with keeping the contents hotter or cooler for longer. The mug is not the most aesthetically pleasing, however with some development this problem could be easily rectified. The mug is quite tall and as a minor safety issue this could be easily knocked over. There are no handles however should you wish to hold a mug by this way, this would be a compromise the user would have to make. Wide rim for grip Rubber base Fig.1 My Cad for Initial idea 1
Initial Ideas - 2 Introduction On this page I shall continue to analyze my initial ideas. This page is on idea 2. Analysis This mug was produced my one of my fellow classmates in the Buzz Page section. I especially liked this design, and therefore brought it through into my initial ideas section. The mug has a large, padded handle which can significantly aid in the holding of the mug. Using a small lever mechanism, placed in the handle, where the index finger would be, is connected to a removable flap on one side of the lid in order to minimise heat loss. Again a double insulating wall is used and a transparent plastic is used in the middle to allow the user to see how much of the contents are left in the mug. The handle is a great design however it would be with difficulty that the user could hold the mug by the outside. The handle would interfere with the ergonomics of the mug in this case.
Initial Ideas - 3 Large mug and easily held Large ring to hold the mug Introduction On this page I shall continue to analyze my initial ideas. This page is on idea 3. This, my third design is all based on a large, natural theme. The mug is very simple, very alike a bowl and saucer. Analysis The mug is very easily held with both hands as there is a large surface area. Using both hands the mug is safe. The rim must also be with the mug. The rim cradles the mug to allow it to sit level in order for you to be able to sit the mug on a flat surface. This also helps as it will not leave any marks on a surface acting as a coaster. The mug would be made of wood, this gives a good finish as well as being a good insulator. The mug is large, however this a bad point when you begin to think about heat retention. With a large surface area convection is a huge problem as there is no way of preventing contents to lose heat. Also there are no handles for the user to hold the mug and holding the mug with both hands is the only option for this mug. Fig.1 Cad image Fig.2 My sketch of my idea
Initial Ideas - 4 Introduction On this page I shall continue to analyze my initial ideas. This page is on idea 4.This design is mainly focused on aesthetics of the product yet carries out the required functions very well as well. Fig.1 My sketch Analysis Firstly the mug is nearly perfect for heat retention as a lid completely covers the surface of the mug. A small tube is situated on the upper part of the mug for the user to drink from. A small air hole is placedopposite this to prevent air bubbles creating a rush of fluid when the user is drinking. A side of the mug is moulded for the users fingers to grip the mug. A thumb slot is placed in the middle of the mug to help with comfort. The lid join is near the top of the mug to allow the most liquid. The only negative of this mug is that as it is designed to be held with one hand, the maximum quantity is average.
Initial Ideas - 5 Introduction On this page I shall continue to analyze my initial ideas. This page is on idea 5. Analysis This design incorporates nearly all of the features that my product must when I make my product. The handle is not connected at the bottom to allow people with different sized hands to be able to use the mug comfortably and safely. There is a small flap on the lid that is used to prevent heat loss and to help you drink at a steady flow. The mug has a non-stick rubber base to help with grip while the mug is sitting on a surface. With a comfortable handle, there should be no need to, however should the user wish to they can easily use the mug by holding it with two hands on either side. The mug is also made of a thermo chromatic plastic which would change colour with temperature. The aesthetics of the mug could be improved to help support the great technology in the product. Fig.1 My Sketch Comfortable Handle Large content area
Development - Modelling Introduction Modelling was done in order to firstly evaluate which idea should be taken further (out of design idea 4 and design idea 5) as these were the two ideas that were narrowed down to after the initial ideas section with both showed potential and advantages. Modelling also allowed a prototype, a visual and real life representation of what a scaled version of the end product will look like, therefore this allowed ideas to be developed accordingly in order to improve on any faults that I come across. The two main materials used for this modelling were wood and Styrofoam. These were chosen as they were quick and easy to shape and work with. My materials were mainly chosen to give strength and rigidity to my product as more appropriate materials would be chosen for aesthetics for my final product. 1 This first photo is to show some of the tools and apparatus I used to measure, accurately the sides and base of my mug. This is a vernier calliper and I used it to measure the thickness of the wood accurately. 3 This photo shows how I glued the further two sides on to the base and currently attached sides 2 This photo shows the base glued together with the first two sides. I could only do two sides at a time to ensure a tight seal and rigidity 4 This photo shows the mug, with all four sides attached and a high quality finish 5 This photo shows the lid that has been made on ProDesktop and ready to be machined 6 This photo shows the lid and mug fully assembled Conclusion Modelling, testing, prototyping is an invaluable tool. As it provides manufacturers with a model, that can be changed before the final product is produced. It saves time and money but also enables the designer to develop a better product. I shall now evaluate my models in the next section and continue with my development.
Development – Evaluation of Modelling Introduction On this page I shall evaluate my model in order to establish the positives and negatives of the model and why it has been beneficial and what needs to be looked at in the developmentstages. Therefore by testing it against my specs and doing other trials with customers I will be able to get feedback on my model. Evaluation From the modellingprocess I have learnt a number of things. First of all, that accuracy must be ensured in everything you complete. The first positive of the modelling was that I learnt a process that must be planned with detail and must be stuck to in order to stay on schedule. The first main positive of this particularidea was the fact that the handle makes it easily held by all sizes of hand. Having no point where the handle reaches the mug near the bottom means that all hands can hold the mug easily. Secondly was the fact that with the use of a lid the contents will be held hotter for much longer as there is an insulating cover. This, along with comfort in holding the mug are the two major specifications of my project. Also we can see that the mug is sturdy and stands safely. Unfortunately in my model I was not able to incorporate the fact of the double, insulating wall of the outside of the mug, however once this has been accounted for, the mug would also be able to be held by the outside safely, and the surface temperature would be safe for the user to hold it. We can see from the photos that it is rather difficult to drink from a square mug and that the build quality was not to the highest standard. Fig.1 The assembled mug Fig.2 Drinking from the mug Fig.3. Showing the mug leaking Conclusion This page has shown some basic initial models in order to give a representation of the general shape and form of what a scaled version of the crude designs from the initial ideas will look like if they were to be manufactured from these original designs. Now a suitable solution has been decided on for my project, this can now be looked into in more detail in order to improve any faults to the existing design. This will be done in the development of function section.
Development – Evaluation of Modelling Introduction On this page I shall evaluate my concept of a new, unique lid system. I shall show the stages through the manufacture and the testing of the lid. Fig.2 The two parts to the lid, indicating where they will line up. Fig.3 This shows the top part of the lid after being machined. I have drilled a large drinking hole, and also an air hole to prevent the rush of liquid when the air gets trapped, similar to the effect in a cola bottle. Fig.1 This shows the base of the lid, after having been machined on the CNC miller. It also includes the flap, which I had made out of melted glue into a flat base. Conclusion We can see from this page that the lid system works. Although the lid did not sit quite flush with the mug, this is a minor issue that can be changed with size adjustments. However from this testing I learnt that when the mug is tilted to fill for the first time it works perfectly, however when tipped to drink this, the liquid will flow from the mug into the lid, meaning that there is a continuous flow from the mug to the drinking hole, a problem which I shall develop again in another development of function. Fig.5 This shows the lid, holding water inside, and how there is no spillage from the seal. Fig.4 The seal being cut away from the lid to help secure the lid fits tightly with the mug.
First Proposal Introduction On this page I will be sketching and presenting a new design idea, which I have come up with after completing the development of the function. An appealing colour helps the aesthetics The drinking hole Fig. 1 This image shows how the unique lid system works and its solution to the problem of how the liquid is cooled in a ‘reservoir’ and then is allowed to cool through a drinking hole while the remains of the mug stays hot. Fig.2 A cad image of my model A handle suited for all hand sizes A flat base to help with stability Conclusion This, the first proposal, is my first look at what my product will look like in my final proposal. I have produced high quality computer generated images which help to understand how the product actually works. Along with my sketches, hopefully I have presented a clear and thorough design. After this I shall continue to develop the other areas of the mug.
First Proposal Introduction On this page I will be presenting some screenshots which I have taken from the ProDesktop programme which has helped me to create a computer generated image of my sketch Fig.1 This image, taken from the ProDesktop programme is of the lid and how the smooth, rounded edges are an appealing and pleasing design. I shall include more detailed photos below so that the inside of the lid system is able to be seen and how it works. Fig.2 This image shows the lid which shall attach to the mug and shows how the liquid is allowed to rise through the centre hole and then has a resting platform where the liquid is allowed to cool. Fig.3 This image shows how the centre hole is risen above the lid base to allow an area for the liquid to cool. This height would not be too large as this would increase the angle of which the user would have to tilt the mug. Fig.4 This image shows in more detail how the liquid filters through the hole in the centre of the unique lid system. Conclusion This, the first proposal, is my first look at what my product will look like in my final proposal. After this I shall continue to develop the other areas of the mug. I have produced high quality computer generated images which help to understand how the product actually works. Along with my sketches, hopefully I have presented a clear and thorough design.
Research – Current Product Designers Fig.2 This image shows mugs, that have been designed on the clips that rock climbers might use. This has taken an idea that is normally used in something else, and put into a mug design. I can e inspired by this design but I must of course consider that this is only to a every niche market. Introduction On this page I shall look at some of the products from the ‘core77’website . These will mainly be novelty items, however these can help me to consider the fact of having a aesthetic novelty product. Fig.1 This image shows a design that incorporates the use of a tea bag, into the main body of the mug. I could be inspired by this mug by the fact of having novelty additions to my mug. Fig.4 This mug shows a purely aesthetically based product, by combining a problem, of how people do not know what to put in a cup of tea or coffee. This product howeverdoes not solve my issues yet I can be inspired by the fact that the niche market may like a aesthetically appealing, novelty product. Fig.3 This mug, again takes something that we know normally as something different and puts it in a different perspective. This idea uses plugs as ways of storing the mugs together. I can be inspired by this design by considering the storage of the product. Conclusion From this page I have learnt that my product, whilst fulfilling its function in the best way possible, must be aesthetically appealing to the consumer market, and although these products are very much to niche markets, they can help give me some ideas on the aesthetics of my product.
Development - Aesthetics Fig.1 This mug off the ‘core77’ website helped me to design the flowinghandle. We can see that although this does not reflect, and also joins at the bottom, it is a very flowing handle Introduction On this page I shall show how I have considered other products, and then develop my aesthetics in such a way to appeal to the majority of the consumer market rather than a niche market, which is not the idea of my product, having such a large market to please. Fig.4 This image shows what my mug looks like now. I feel that the curve of the handle reflecting the curve of the mug is very appealing and that this is a large improvement on what the mug looked like before. Fig.2 This image shows how my product looked before I developed the aesthetics of the product. The square, sharp edges, are not very appealing. Fig. 3 This is the handle that I have developed from being square, to a curve with the mug. Conclusion From this page where I have developed my aesthetics, I have learnt that my handle will now reflect the curve of the mug. I firstly decided to curve with the mug, however I have now decided to curve away with the mug, as I believes it looks more appealing to the market, and also will help with the ergonomics of the handle which is also a major specification. I have therefore met my specification of the mug being appealing to a large market.
Development – Function Introduction On this page I will be developing the function of idea 5. I will develop the way in which the contents of the mug are kept hot or cold, as there is a clear problem, also with a change in the connection between the lid and the mug itself, along with how the user holds the mug. Fig. 1 The first idea for the lid, however after tests were done in my evaluation of modelling I have decided to change the design. I have now gone for a more funnel like system (see fig.3) Fig.3 The chosen solution to how the liquid shall travel between the mug and the reservoir of the lid. Conclusion From the development of the function of my product, I have learnt that the new lid system will greatly increase the time in which the contents are kept hotterforlonger. I have also developed how the lid interacts with the mug itself and the new method appears to work very well. I have also developed how the user holds the mug and have used a handle with indents for extra comfort and grip. These two things combined, will hopefully, greatly increase the quality of my product, the reason for development.
Second Proposal Introduction On this page I will be sketching and presenting a new design idea, which I have come up with after completing the development of the function. An appealing colour helps the aesthetics Allows the liquid to flow through Where the liquid will sit Fig. 2 The lid system A handle suited for all hand sizes and how it reflects the curve of the mug A flat base to help with stability Fig.1 A cad image of my model Conclusion This, the second proposal. This is the design of my mug that I shall now take forward into the manufacturing stages. This is the mug I will make and have developed in such a way that it has very few problems.
Development – Function Fig.3 This image shows how, with the use of an ‘o’ ring the lid will be secured on the inside of the mug meaning that the lid will not slip off when attempting to drink from it. I will need to be very accurate with the measurements for this as it will ensure that the lid sits flush with the inside of the mug. Introduction On this page I shall continue to develop the function of the product in order to make sure that my product reaches all of the specifications. Fig.1 This image shows how the valve would sit across the gap where the liquid would flow through allowing the liquid to sit in the lid yet not fall back through and into the main body of the mug. This would also mean that the liquid in the lid would be allowed to cool to a more reasonable drinking temperature. Fig.4 This shows the solution that I have chosen in order to take forward. We can see that there is a large hole on the right hand side of the mug in order to allow the maximum amount of liquid through in an easy ‘tip’ of the mug. The mug will be tipped away in order to let the liquids flow through the hole then, when levelled off the liquid will sit in a compartment on the side where the drinking hole will be. Angle to sit flush with the mug Fig.2 This image shows how I have designed the lid to sit on an angle, reflected on the top of the mug meaning that the liquid will sit on the side, where, at a later stage a drinking hole will be placed. Conclusion From the development of the function of my product, I have learnt that the new lid system will greatly increase the time in which the contents are kept hotterforlonger. I have also developed how the lid interacts with the mug itself and the new method appears to work very well. I have also developed how the user holds the mug and have used a handle with indents for extra comfort and grip. These two things combined, will hopefully, greatly increase the quality of my product, the reason for development.
Development - Ergonomics Introduction On this page I will be developing the ergonomics of my idea . I will develop the way in which the user holds the mug by the handle, and using my research from the size, will be able to create a handle that is a suitable size to suit all hand sizes. Fig.3 The mug as a whole product Fig. 2 This shows the handle from a front view allowing the curve to be seen. Although it cannot be seen from this angle, the handle reflects the angle of the mug to look appealing and mainly to suit the ergonomics allowing there to be plenty of room between the handle and the mug. Fig.1 This shows how the handle is quite thick in order to give the user enough grip to be able to comfortably hold on to the handle. Conclusion From the development of the ergonomics of my product, I have been able to produce a handle that reflects the mug’s natural curve. I believe that the mug is very comfortable, and from my research of size, will now be able to accommodate 95% of the population,. Now my handle is of the right thickness. I have learnt that my handle must be comfortable to hold, by being of a suitable thickness but also that it must look appealing and in context with the mug
Research – Ergonomics & Anthropometrics Introduction This next page of research will be looking at ergonomic and anthropometric data in relation to my project. This is important as it will help me in the designing of possible ideas, allowing them to be ergonomically comfortable and suitable for consumer use. The measurements that I considered to be relevant were various grips, hand sizes. Information on these dimension was gathered from the software “people sizes 2000 easy,” this program was used as it offered accurate and readily available data that was representative of the whole population. Measurements were gathered from the 1st to 99th percentile of the population of British males and females from ages 18-65. This was a necessary as it offered data that was most relevant to the market that I aim to targeted my product towards. I used “people sizes 2000 easy” as it is a database of anthropometric data. The second dimensions I looked at were the total hand breadths mainly across the palm of the hand to the thumb knuckle. These are necessary as they will give me an understanding of the general size that a handle will need to be. The total hand breadth sizes were measured at 120mm for males and 79mm for females, meaning any handles that I design will ideally need to be wider than these measurements. in order for my handle to fulfil its purpose, by allowing the user to easily hold the mug with the handle., I must also consider that the user does not wish to use the handle, and my project must also incorporate this fact. Conclusion This page has outlined the different body measurements that relate in some way to my design problem. Now I have obtained this data I can start to brainstorm some ideas of possible solutions to my design problem, giving accurate and realistic evidence on how this will allow the product to beergonomically comfortable for the consumer to use. Specifications:
Ergonomics features on my design ideas must be tailored towards dimensions listed on this page, (e.g. handles must be over 120mm wide to accommodate males and females).
The product must be available for at least the 5-95th percentile of the population.
Identifying grip sizes is important as it is likely that I will need to incorporatesome sort ofhandles into my project, therefore to design these appropriately I will need to consider these various measurements. The total grip dimensions from the thumb to the middle finger were measured at 58mm for males and 38 for females, meaning ideally any handles I design will need to be of a circumference lower than these measurements.
Research Size – Modelling Fig.1 The large mug Introduction On this page I will be researching the size of two models that I have made, to see whether the market believe that the mugs are either too small, or whether they believe it is the right size, I shall be comparing the two mugs in the form of a pie chart to help me present the data I collected easily. Pie Chart 1 – A chart to show the opinions of the large mug We can see clearly from the pie chart that the opinion of my model of the square mug is too large. When I asked people they told me that it was too large for a hot drink. Seventeen people said it was too large with just three saying it was the right size Pie Chart 2 – A chart to show the opinions of the small mug We can clearly see from this pie chart that the general opinion was that this mug was too small. They said that it would not be enough to satisfy the demand. Eighteen people said it was too small with just two saying it was the correct size. Conclusion From this research of size of the two models that I have made, I am able to design a mug that is suitably sized. I have learnt, as shown that the large mug I made was too large and the small one was too small. I will therefore design a mug that will be somewhere between the two of these mugs and therefore this should be the correct size for people to be able to use.
Final Proposal Tilt &Fill Introduction On this page I will be sketching and presenting a new design idea, which I have come up with after completing the development of the function. A handle suited for all hand sizes and how it reflects the curve of the mug Where the liquid will sit Fig. 2 The lid system Fig.1 A cad image of my model Conclusion This shows the mug as a whole. It is clear that the handle has been designed in order for it to be very comfortable to hold, combining this with a clever delivery system which shall be explained on the next page is the product that I shall proceed with to manufacture
Final Proposal Once the top lid is attached it will flow through this and into the reservoir Introduction On this page I will be sketching and presenting a new design idea, which I have come up with after completing the development of the function. Tilt &Fill The Liquid will flow through here when tilted like this Fig. 2 The lid system Liquid flows through this whole when tilted Conclusion This is the final design of what my product will look like. I will now present engineering drawings which will help to present the size of the mug should it need to be manufactured on a large scale
Final Proposal - 3 Introduction This page will show the dimensional drawings of the final CAD design of my project, especially the main body of the mug and I shall show dimensions of other parts of the mug in the following slides. Each drawing shows a scaled version of the different views of the design. This orthographic drawing is necessary as can now be referred to throughout the manufacturing stages of my project in order to in order to extract appropriate figures when needed. This drawing can now also be taken by a separate manufacture if needed, as this page will provide all of the needed information for the product to produced away from my supervision.
Final Proposal - 4 Introduction This page will show the dimensional drawings of the final CAD design of my project. This page will show the dimensions for the Handle.
Final Proposal - 5 Introduction This page will show the dimensional drawings of the final CAD design of my project. This page will show the dimensions for the Lid
Research – Materials and Finish Introduction On this slide I have researched different materials and finishes that may be suitable for my product. Materials and Finish The material I will be using to manufacture my product is modelling plaster as it is durable and easy to work with in the scopes of the school workshop. However, if my product was to be mass produced a plastic such as polypropylene might be used in a process such as injection moulding. Fig.2 This image shows a block of modelling plaster from the workshop that I will use to make my product. When finishing my product I will finish it with a coat of primer, and undercoat and a top coat of my chosen colours with a clear lacquer on top. This will give my product a glossy finish but the paint will also be hard and durable. Existing Products Fig.5 This image shows us a product that has been manufactured using the same material and consequently the same spray paint finish with a clear lacquer on top. It is clear that this product has been finished to a high standard and this type of finish looks very professional. Mass Production If my product was to be mass produced it could use a material called polypropylene as it is durable and is not affected by hot liquids. Fig.1 This is a screenshot from the materials database ‘Focus On Plastics’. Polypropylene shows properties that are required for my product and can also be used in a factory very well where large quantities may be needed to be produced. Conclusion Specifications – My product will be manufactured from modelling plaster and finished in spray paint, coated with lacquer. I will manufacture my product in the workshop using modelling plaster. I have chosen this material as it is easy to work with and can produce a high quality finish. I shall then spray the product with two coats of spray paint before applying a clear lacquer to make the paint extra hard and durable and able to withstand the hot water that will be contained inside. Fig 3 and 4 are cans of spray paint and lacquer I will use to finish my product
Research – Manufacturing and Construction Techniques Introduction On this slide I will research manufacture and construction techniques suitable for my product, both as a prototype and if it were to be mass produced The disadvantage of using the CNC miller however is that it cuts with a 6mm cutter therefore small details, such as the drinking holes will need to be designed to incorporate this fact before manufacture. The CNC miller though can also run a 3mm cutter in case I need to make any parts or holes that small yet this cutter can only cut approximately 10mm into material where as the 6mm cutter can cut 50mm down into the material. The CNC miller allows me to make many parts relatively quickly, that would be very hard and impractical to by hand. When the two main parts of the mug have been made separately (50mm each) they will be joined together using super glue. I will then use filler to make gaps between the parts smooth, aesthetically pleasing and also to prevent any loss of function in any part of the mug. CNC Milling To manufacture my product at school I will use the CNC miller, as it will allow me to manufacture the five parts of my product with great accuracy and quality. The CNC miller runs a 6mm drill bit cutter from a computer input allowing it to manufacture many complex 3D parts easily. Injection Moulding Injection moulding is relatively simple and has six main stages;
Mould fills via gates and runners
Mould packing operates under injection pressure
Injection moulding has the potential to mass produce large numbers of parts to a good quality in a short amount of time, while producing very little waste Conclusion I will manufacture my product at school using the CNC miller but if it were to be mass produced injection moulding would most likely be the process used. Fig.1 The CNC miller Fig.2 The CNC miller that has a three axis rotation Fig.3 Modelling plaster, an example of how my product will look
Research – Environmental impacts Extraction of materials –Plastics are very accessible and should not cause too much damage, however the energy required to extract the materials can be expensive End of Life – All materials used in the manufacture of this product will be recyclable, although these will need to be separated Processing of materials – Electrolysis uses vast amounts of energy, and blast furnaces run 24-7 releasing harmful contaminants into the atmosphere. Introduction This final page of my researchwill be looking at the environmental impact that my design will have and the methods that can be used for mass production. This is very important as environmental issues are becoming increasingly more of a concern within the global economy. Therefore it will be essential that these are kept to a minimum if my product was to be mass produced. The method used to assess the environmental impact of my product was though an Ecodesign web as this allowed a visual and clear presentation of the positive and negative factors. The first thing that was looked at was how my product could be produced on a large scale. If my mug were to be produced on a large scale, the most likely manufacturing technique would be thermoforming or injection moulding of the parts. They would then most likely have to be assembled separately. Although my product has a large client market, the particular design of the mug and how it operates, may limit this slightly. Optimal Life – The product will be relatively durable and long lasting Processing of materials – The amount of material needed will be kept to a minimum. Product use – The product will require no electricity or any other sort of input. Distribution – Distribution of the product will be fairly local to start off with. Specifications
When designing my product I should use as little material as possible without compromising the effectiveness of the product
The materials used to manufacture the product should come from a source with a small ‘carbon footprint’ and that recycles any waste material, this gives it a low environmental impact
The final product should be able to be recycle to reduce the environmental impact. Also waste material should be recycled at the source and during manufacture
When manufacturing the product an efficient process should be used, injection moulding therefore is a good process as little waste is produced and it uses minimal energy
- Good - Bad Key – Conclusion This page has shown how my product could be manufactured on a large scale, and what impact this will have on the environment. The eco-design web that has been presented on this page has been produced with regards to the environmental issues of my actual prototype, and the improved product that will be mass produced from polypropylene This project has been successful in the sense that an effective project has been produced that has solved nearly all of my original design specification and brief.
Manufacturing Plan next slide.. Introduction On this slide I have presented the manufacturing plan for my project. By planning the manufacture of my product it will reduce the likelihood of an error occurring during manufacture and therefore improve the quality of the final product. A plan also helps to make sure that time is managed correctly. Tools and Equipment - Pro-Desktop (CAD) software - Bandsaw - Planer/Thicknesser - VenierCalliper - MDX3P machining software - CNC miller - White Spirit and Filler Ensuring Quality On my plan I have highlighted in red where I will use quality control procedures. Conclusion The manufacturing plan will be used during manufacture to make sure I do not forget or leave out any stages. The decision cellswill help to ensure the product is completed to a high standard by making me question each stage if the product is being correctly manufactured. Using white spirit, clean the surface of each part, removing any glue so they will stick together easily at the next stage. S t a r t Open the file for one part on MDX3P setting it up to cut from the right side, to the right depth and using the right cutting tool. Next export the final Pro-Desktop files so they can be accessed on the MDX3P modelling software. Design the product on Pro-Desktop and export the file so it can be recognised by the CNC miller Yes Is each part machined correctly? Do they all fit together flush? No Repeat the modelling plaster preparation process for every part of the product. Is the modelling software set up correctly? No Model the product using styrofoam to check the product satisfies all the detailed specifications. Yes Yes Repeat the machining process for each part of the product. Clamp the modelling plaster in the vice making sure it is well stuck down to the board. Using the hot glue gun, glue the modelling plaster and the plywood board down onto the CNC miller base. Does the model satisfy all the detailed specifications? No When the machine has finished remove the part from the base using the scraper. Using double sided sticky tape, stick the modelling plaster down to a piece of plywood about 3mm bigger than the block. Yes Set up the CNC miller, zeroing the X, Y and Z axis in the corner of the block so the cutter begins to cut the modelling plaster from the right place. Select pieces of modelling plaster with 20mm added on to each dimension Start the CNC miller. Yes Yes No Is the CNC miller set up correctly? Using the bandsaw and then the planer cut the material to the right depth. Using the venier calliper check modelling plaster, is it planed to the right thickness? No
Manufacturing plan, list of all tools and equipment (continued) from previous slide… Introduction On this slide I have continued to present the manufacturing plan for my product. Tools and Equipment - 240 and 360 grade sandpaper - Wet and Dry sandpaper - Spray paint, White Primer and Coloured Gloss
Ensuring Quality On my plan I have highlighted in red where I will use quality control procedures. Yes Using super glue, glue the two parts of the main body of the mug together. Wipe the parts down with a wet paper towel to remove dust caused by sanding. Yes Do the parts still appear free from imperfections? No Glue the handle to the mug, and the top part of the lid onto the lid which includes the reservoir. Spray the parts with a coloured gloss top coat in the colour choice that suits the function and aesthetics of the product. No Have any layers of paint been totally removed? Yes Apply filler onto the product at the joints where the parts were glued, roughly filling any gaps. Use wet and dry paper to smooth the primer paint layer but be careful not to remove a full layer of paint. Does the colour suit the function and aesthetics of the product. No When the filler has dried, use 240 then 360 grade sand paper, to smooth the filler and remove any imperfections such as dents or cracks from the product. Conclusion This plan should read alongside the dimensional drawing and final design during manufacture. Next I will continue to present the manufacturing plan for my product. The manufacturing plan is not final if the need were to arise the plan could be changed to accommodate changes or modifications made to the design. Spray the parts with a thin coat of greyprimer paint making sure of an equal covering all over the part. Yes Apply another coat of the chosen colour paint allowing the last to dry before beginning the next coat. Wipe the parts down with a wet paper towel to remove dust caused by sanding before spray painting Is the product smooth and free from imperfections? Apply a coat of clear lacquer to finish the parts giving them a clear, hard shiny finish. No Finish Yes
Diary Of Manufacture – Preparation Introduction These next pages will go through step by step the stages of manufacture that were underwent when constructing my project. The relevant attempts that were made in order to ensure quality within the manufacturing stages, and any corrections that were made after making certain errors, will also be show be shown in each of these next pages. Most of my parts will be manufactured by the CNC miller, however I must accurately put these parts together and also ensure a high quality finish. Fig.5 This image shows me setting the X.Y and Z co-ordinates for the CNC miller in order for the machine to cut the shape into the correct part of the modelling plaster. Fig.3 This image shows me using a vernier calliper measuring the thickness of the modelling plaster to determine whether the material was the correct thickness Fig.1 This image shows myself using the band saw in order to cut the modelling plaster to the correct dimensions Fig.4 Modelling Plaster mounted on board. In order for the CNC miller to cut my shape into the modelling plaster it must be mounted onto board. This is achieved using double sided tape Fig.2 This image shows the modelling plaster being fed through the plainer in order to gain the correct depth for the modelling plaster Fig.6 This image shows the CNC miller cutting the fine cut into the modelling plaster of the top half of the mug.
Diary Of Manufacture – Machining Fig.3 This image shows the handle having been cut on the both sides and completed on the machine. It has a smooth edge that has been achieved very accurately and evenly on both sides by using the a machine as opposed to trying to do this round manually. Introduction This page will continue on explaining the manufacturing process used in order to make my product Fig.1 This image shows the CNC miller cutting the initial shape into the modelling plaster with the shape of the handle Fig.4 This image shows the shape being cut out for the first side of the lid. The machine at this time has only cut the draft outline before later moving onto the fine cut. Fig.2 This image shows the draft cut that has been cut into the plywood, allowing the handle to then be placed on accurately leaving the X and Y co-ordinates and therefore meaning that the exact same shape will be cut into the handle on the other side. Fig.5 This image shows the machine just starting the fine cut onto the first side of the lid. It is clearly visible where the much smoother finish of the fine cut has been left in comparison with the initial draft cut. Fig.6 This image shows the lid having been cut on both sides and the sanding of the machine marks has just begun. It is necessary to remove all of the machine marks before spraying to ensure the best possible finish and so that there is no uneven surfaces on the lid, where the liquid will need to flow smoothly through from the main mug.
Diary Of Manufacture – Joining Parts Fig.3 This image shows the lid, and the top part of the lid having been sprayed in its final colour, meant to look similar to a coffee colour. It is ready now to be glued together using ‘Vital’ super glue to ensure a secure seal. Introduction This page will continue on explaining the manufacturing process used in order to make my product Fig.4 This image shows the lid fully assembled. I used a light pencil mark on the outside of the two parts to ensure that, at that point, it was the smoothest and most secure fit as possible. I then glued it together at this point meaning that it was very secure. Fig.1 This image is to show the machine marks that needed to be removed from the inside of the lid. Fig.5 This image shows the product being filled where any joins have been made to ensure there are no gaps and also a more secure fit, which as a result, gives a much higher quality finish. This was repeated for all joins made in the product. Fig.2 This image shows the outside of the lid where the machine marks have been completely sanded to create a very smooth finish on the outside of the material. The lid was then sprayed with a primer and then with its final colour. Fig.6 This image shows the next stage in manufacturing which was to attach the handle to the main body of the mug. This was achieved again with super glue and a mark on both the handle and the mug to line up and achieve the best finish with the two together.
Diary Of Manufacture - Finishes Fig.3 This image shows the closing stages of the manufacturing of the product with the spraying. I chose a slightly off white as I believe that it will go very well with the colour chosen for the lid, and is also a very traditional colour for coffee mugs. Introduction This page will continue on explaining the manufacturing process used in order to make my product Fig.1 The next stage in manufacturing was to spray the mug and handle that had been attached with a coat of primer in order to show up any inconsistencies in the sanding of the mug and filler. Fig.4 The Spray paint I used for my final mug, a high gloss RAL 9001 Fig.2 This image shows a slight rough patch where the filler has been used to fill the gap between the handle and the main body of the mug. At this stage I must return to the sanding stage and using P1200 sand paper sand out any bumps or marks around the filling area. Fig.5 This image shows how the inside of the mug was hard to spray and there was a drip on the inside. I was able to sand this drop off using P1200 sand paper. Fig.6 This shows the mug and lid, both completed with their top coat of gloss. The main body of the mug is sprayed with RAL 9001 and the lid in RAL 2009.
It must be durable so to resists everyday wear and tear of being knocked around
It must have high impact strength, to hopefully avoid being smashed should it be dropped
The material must be suitable for current day lifestyles and the modern market
The size of the mug must be large enough to contain enough volume of liquid
The lid must be able to store enough liquid for the average drink
The product must be of a suitable size to be stored in cupboards and to fit in the cup rack in the dishwasher
When manufacturing the product, I must try to keep the use of materials to a minimum, and reduce wastage
For my models I will use Styrofoam, as it is a light, easy to shape, and quick material for use
For my final product I will use modelling plaster as it is strong and will seal the hot water safely
For mass production I would use polypropylene as it is a strong plastic displaying properties appropriate to my product
I will manufacture my final product using the CNC miller, I will then finish the product with spray paints and lacquer
If I were to mass produce the product I would use injection moulding to manufacture my coffee mug.
Conclusion Using this information I have collected I can now evaluate my product. Introduction On this page I have presented all the design specifications that my final product must satisfy. I have put them under headings from Pugh’s plates to split them up and will use this criteria to evaluate the final success of my product. Function
The product must safely keep hot water in both the lid and the main mug
The product must allow the liquid to flow from the mug to the lid with ease
The product must be water tight in order to hold its contents
The product must be easily held by the handle
The product must be easily held by the outside of the mug
The product must be easy to use by the consumer
The product must be modern in design, and appeal to a wide range of consumers
The product needs to be reasonably cheap to manufacture, so that consumers are not deterred as a result of high prices
The mug must be strong, especially around the joins of the handle as force will be put through that join
Evaluation – Design Brief Introduction The evaluation is the final stages of my project, and also the most crucial. From this the design process and manufacturing process shall be analysed to see if they were successful. The aim of evaluation is to ultimately test the product. To do this I shall check to see if I have fulfilled the design brief and whether I have met the specifications that I have gathered throughout the project. Also within evaluation I shall look at how it could be mass produced and the affects this could consequently have on the environment. Evaluating the Product against the Design Brief The Brief was starting point of the entire project and has been the back bone throughout. It is very easy to forget what your Brief is and you an get side tracked and not meet the criteria that you were set in the first instance. Evaluating the product against the design brief will show whether or not the brief was fulfilled and I met my clients request. I am going to start by going through the brief again. Design Brief To design and manufacture a prototype mug that is aesthetically appealing, ergonomically suitable and that will make people want to buy my product. However this mug must not just be different in terms of aesthetics it must also perform uniquely by combining modern technology in order for people to have a very safe drinking experience. Evaluating Against Design Brief Aesthetically Appealing – I believe that my mug is appealing to the eye. The colours I chose were to associate the mug instantly with the look of the liquids it is designed for, coffee, tea etc. I feel that the combination of this with the traditional white body, a universally recognised colour for mugs of this type, suits my product very well Ergonomically Suitable – I feel that my mug is very well designed and has considered the anthropometric data very well, which consequently has lead to the handle being suitable for all hand sizes by allowing those with slightly smaller hands to be able to use all four fingers on the handle, where as the people with the larger hands, who may use three, or even only two, yet having no connection with the handle at the bottom of the mug allows it to be much easier and more suitable than the handles that limit your choice by forcing you to place your fingers through the handle. Unique Function – I feel that the design of the mug, which includes the ‘tilt and fill’ technique, something that I believe is unique to this kind of product. This allows the contents of the main mug to remain very hot, yet, with the large drinking hole in the lid allows this too cool to a temperature that is more appropriate to drink. Safety – I believe that the mug is very safe to use. The thick walls of the main mug allow very little heat to reach the outside surface, and on the bottom there is a small indent to prevent conduction to another surface where it may rest, but also to prevent the bottom of the mug becoming too hot. Conclusion The product has met the original requirements of the design brief as I have outlined above, I now must evaluate the product against each specification from the project to see if I have met this criteria. Secondly what do the people who I first gave the questionnaires too, feel of the end product? In order to answer this question I shall give out a second questionnaire to see if the cliental are happy with the final product.
Evaluation – Specifications Evaluating the Product against the Design Specifications The design specifications were a list of criteria that I had determined through research. These were formed from the design Brief and expanded on what my product had to achieve to give me a clearer and narrower more structured design path by which to follow. Looking at whether my product has achieved these will show me how well thought out my design was and how well I considered these specifications during design. Below I have re-listed the design specifications and shall analyse them in detail against my product using images to help show my reasons. I have listed all the specifications bar two; the criteria of these can not be judged as it is to early to know. Major Specifications To design and manufacture a prototype mug for hot drinks. My product must :
Aesthetics; my product must be aesthetically pleasing so that it is desirable to the customer and sell
Size; my product must be comfortable to use so that all types of people are able to use my product
Cost; my product must be relatively inexpensive so that all types of social background are able to afford it
Function; my product must be easy to carry so that people are able to stand or walk with the mug
Performance; my product must be easy to use so that very little effort is required to be able to drink from the mug
Ergonomics; my product must be able to be used by all types of people with varying hand sizes
Manufacturing; my product must be easy to manufacture so that I am able to make my product in the scopes of the school workshop
Durability; my product must have a long product life span so that people are not required to spend lots of money when the mug is no longer able to be used
Fig.1 This image shows the product fully assembled with the mug and lid in place. I feel that the colour combination works well together and gives an appealing look. I feel that the way the handle curves away from the mug at a mirrored angle helps to improve the look, where as normal mugs would drop straight down. The off whiteis a traditional colour associated with mugs and this helps to keep it in character with others, even though the technology is much more complex. Fig.2 This image shows the mug being held by the handle, this enables us to see that even a fairly large hand can hold the handle with 4 fingers comfortably. This specification has clearly been met as the handle, by not being joined at the bottom of the mug enables a larger hand to use less fingers, and vice versa, a small hand to use more fingers
Evaluation – Specifications Evaluating the Product against the Design Specifications On this page I shall continue to evaluate my product against the specifications to see whether they have been met, which consequently should result in a much higher quality product. Fig.1 This image shows the ‘tilt and fill’ system in action. The liquid has already been tipped into the lid by allowing the mug to be flipped away from the user. This allows the contents in the main to remain very hot and the contents in the lid to be cooled to a suitable temperature Fig.2 This image shows me drinking from the mug. It was very successful and there were no leaks with the lid sealing against the outside of the mug very well, and not needing the ‘o’ ring seal that I had initially intended to use. Fig.3 This shows that the mug can hold a reasonable amount of water, and this hot water is having no affect on the modelling plaster, this therefore satisfies the performance specification Fig.4 This shows the lid on the mug but without being tipped. This is to show that the mug does not leak any liquid when it is sealed.
Evaluation – Specifications Evaluating the Product against the Design Specifications On this page I shall continue to evaluate my product against the specifications to see whether they have been met, which consequently should result in a much higher quality product. Fig.1 Fig.2 These two images show how the mug interacts with the user. The mug can be held by the outside of the mug as shown in fig.1 or by the handle. The outside of the mug will stay cool and the handle gives plenty of room in between the mug and the handle and allows you to choose how many fingers you hold the mug with meaning that it is very comfortable and ergonomically suitable. Mug stays cool Comfortable Handle Prevents heat loss Fig.3 This image shows how a rivet in the bottom of the mug prevents any heat loss through conduction from the bottom of the mug being in contact with a surface increasing its performance by retaining heat. Fig.5 Fig.4 Right Hand configuration Left Hand configuration These images show how, by placing the lid on opposite sides, it is possible for both people to use the mug with left or right hands not limiting its function.
Evaluation – Feedback Evaluating the Product against the Design Specifications On this page I shall present the results from the questionnaire I handed out to gain feedback on what people think of the final product. GCSE Design and Technology The manufacturing of the coffee mug is now complete and I would appreciate it if you could spend a couple of minutes of your time filling out this questionnaire to see whether my mug meets the design brief for my evaluation. Design Brief: To design and manufacture a prototype mug that is aesthetically appealing, ergonomically suitable and that will make people want to buy my product. However this mug must not just be different in terms of aesthetics it must also perform uniquely by combining modern technology in order for people to have a very safe drinking experience. 1. Do you feel the mug meets the design brief? (Please Circle) Yes No 2. What do you think to the size of the product? (Please Circle) Too big Correct Size Too small 3. Do you think the mug is of high quality? (Please Circle) Yes No 4. Do you feel the product is easy to use? (Please Circle) Yes No 5. Do you like the aesthetics of the product? (Please Circle) Yes, I like it No, I do not like it 6. Does this mug outperform other coffee mugs? (Please Circle) Yes No Graph 1 – A graph to show whether people believe it meets the design brief We can see from the graph that every person I have asked feel the mug I have designed and manufactured meets the design brief, a clear success Graph 2 – A graph to show peoples opinions of the size of the mug From the graph it is easy to see that people believe the mug is the correct size. This means that after conducting my research, and consequently developing my design as a result of this, I have produced a product that many people feel is suitable to their needs.
Evaluation – Feedback Evaluating the Product against the Design Specifications On this page I shall present some of the results from the questionnaire I handed out to gain feedback on what people think of the final product. Graph 5 – A graph to show peoples opinions of the aesthetics From the graph it is clear that nearly everybody likes the aesthetics of the mug, the one person who did not like it purely said that it was personal preference, but he respects that it is designed to a very high standard Graph 3 – A graph to show peoples thoughts of whether the mug was of high quality We can see that nearly everybody I asked believes that the mug is to a very high quality. The reason that a few people gave as to why they feel it is not is the fact that there is a slight paint drip down one side of the main mug, but they commented saying this was a very minor thing Graph 4 – A graph to show peoples opinions on whether the mug is easy to use At first very few people understood the technology of the mug, however once explained and demonstrated, they thought that it was very clever. However, some of the consumers thought that the fact that it is necessary to flip the mug away from you could be a little tiring and even lead to medical complications, something I must consider when designing a product. Graph 6 – A graph to show peoples opinions of the performance When asked possibly the most important question, ‘does the product outperform competing products?’ I was very happy with the response. A high number said yes, it does perform competing products and they were very impressed with the overall project.
Evaluation – Conclusion Tilt &Fill The Conclusion Success. When we talk about success, what exactly do we mean? Google defines success as ‘an event that accomplishes its intended purpose’. An objective such as this one to re-design something that is so well known and widely used was never going to be easy. The goal intended to be attained was not to make this the new mug, although that would have been brilliant. The aim of this project was to design and manufacture a product that was not limited by skill, nor by talent, and produce something to the highest quality achievable. To put it into context, I feel that the event mentioned in the definition, was the moment when the mug worked without any problems, and was able to carry out its function to the full potential it had been designed for. The liquid was able to flow through the hole in the bottom of the lid, smoothly into the top by a simple flick away from the user. The liquid then remained in the lid, being allowed to cool with a large drinking hole. However the contents in the main body of the mug were not being affected as the curve on the inside of the reservoir had been designed with a lip to prevent air flowing down to the main mug. No product will ever be perfect, and of course I have learnt this over the project. But what evaluation has taught me to do is look at the product and note the changes, it is all very well looking at a product and saying I could have done that. One has to makeuse of the idea and move forward with it to make progress, which is what design is all about. You can change any design but the change must be justified and must move to better the product, otherwise you end up going backwards.