Anthelmintic drugs   sam
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Anthelmintic drugs sam Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Presented by: Samya Sayantan (121-29-381) Batch: 7th Sec: A Department of Pharmacy Daffodil International University
  • 2.  Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic worms(helminths) from the body by either stunning or killing them.  They may also be called vermifuges (stunning) or vermicides (killing).  There has three major group of helminthes -the nematodes, trematodes and cestodes
  • 3. Mebendazole:  Mebendazole is a synthetic benzimidazole compound is effective against a wide spectrum of nematodes.  Mebendazole a medicine used to treat infections by worms.  This including pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms, and whipworms.
  • 4.  Binds with β-tubulin and inhibits microtubules polymerization.  Blocks glucose and other nutrients uptake.  Resulting in the gradual immobilization and eventual death of the helminthes.
  • 5.  In heavy infestation cases  Diarrhoea  Nausea  Abdominal pain  In high dose  Granulocytopenia  Allergic reaction
  • 6.  Pyrantel pamoate along with mebendazole is effective in the treatment caused by roundworm, pinworm & hookworm.  It is poorly absorbed orally in the intestinal tract.  It is inactive against trichuris and other worms
  • 7.  Causes the release of acetylcholine and inhibits cholinesterase,  Acts as a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker,  Paralyzing the helminthes,  This has the result of causing the worm to "lose its grip" on the intestinal wall and be passed out of the system by natural process.
  • 8.  CNS: dizziness, headache, insomnia  Dermatologic: rash  GIT: anorexia, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea  Neuromuscular & skeletal: weakness
  • 9.  First benzamidazole polyanthelmintics.  Chelating agents and form stable complexes with metals including iron but does not bind with calcium.  Completely metabolized in liver.
  • 10.  The precise mode of action of thiabendazole on the parasite is unknown, but it most likely inhibits the helminth-specific enzyme fumarate reductase.  Thereby inhibiting the citric acid cycle, mitochondrial respiration and subsequent production of ATP, ultimately leading to helminth's death.
  • 11.  GI disturbance  Irreversible liver failure  Fatal Stevens-Johnson syndrome  dizziness  anorexia
  • 12.  Potent semisynthetic derivative  Obtain from Streptomyces avermitils  Drugs of choice of strongyloidiasis, filariasis, ascariasis, enterobiasis and some parasitic skin diseases including scabies
  • 13.  Acts on the parasites glutamate-gated Cl- channel receptors.  Chloride influx increased,  hyper polarization occurs ,  resulting in paralysis of the worm.
  • 14.  Fatigue, dizziness, GI disturbance  Nausea  Abdominal pain  Pruritis
  • 15. Diethyl carbamazine is used as an anthelmintic drug in the treatment of filariasis because of its ability to immobilize microfilarae and render them susceptible to host defencse mechanism.
  • 16.  Immobilizes microfilariae and alters their surface structure  displacing them from tissues & making them susceptible to destruction by host defense mechanism  It has immunosuppressive effects
  • 17.  Fever, maliseheadache, GI disturbance, cough. Chest, muscle, joint pain  Leucocytosis  Retinal hemorrhage  It is not teratogenic
  • 18. Praziquantel:  Novel anthelmintic with wide range of action.  Praziquantel is a drug which effective against schistosomiasis and trematodes and cestodes.
  • 19.  Rapidly taken up by worms.  Leakage of intracellular Ca++ causing paralysis.  Worms lose grip on intestinal wall including tissues and veins.  Acts against all stages of worm including larvae.
  • 20.  Bitter in taste  Nausea  Abdominal pain  Headache  Dizziness and sedation  Rashes, fever, itching and body pain
  • 21. Niclosamide:  Niclosamide is the drug of choice for most cestode infections.  It safe during pregnancy.
  • 22.  Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria  Interference of anaerobic generation of ATP by tapeworm.  Injured worms are digested or expelled (purgation)
  • 23.  Well tolerated  No systemic toxicity  Minor abdominal symptoms  Malaise  Pruritis  Diarrhea
  • 24.  Congener of Mebendazole.  One dose treatment has cure rate in ascariasis, hookworm, enterobius.  It is also used in the treatment of cestodal infestations such as cysticercosis and hydatid disease.
  • 25.  Binds with β-tubulin and inhibits microtubules polymerization.  Blocks glucose and other nutrients uptake.  Intestinal parasites are immobilized and die slowly.
  • 26.  Well tolerated  GI side effects  Dizziness  Prolonged used in hydatid and cysticercosis- headache, fever, alopecia, neutropenia, jaundice.
  • 27. Pinworm disease:  Causative agent: Enterobius vermicularis  Pruritus ani occurs with white worms visible in stools or perianal region  Therapay: Mebedazole or Pyantel pamoate.
  • 28.  Causative agent: Ascaris lumbricoides  Ingested larvae grow in the intestine  Causing abdominal symptoms including intestinal obstraction  Roundworms may pass to blood and infect the lungs.  Therapy: Pyrantel pamoate or Mebendazole
  • 29.  Causative agents: Trichinella spiralis  Usually caused by consumption of insufficiently cooked meat, especially pork  Therapy: Thiabendazole (only in the early stages of disease
  • 30.  Causative agents: Ancylostoma duodenale (old world), Necator americanus (new world)  Worm attaches to the intestinal mucosa, causing anorexia and chronic intestinal blood loss that leads to anemia.  Therapy: Pyrantel pamoate or Mebendazole
  • 31. Paragonimiasis:  Causative agent: Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke).  The organisms move from the GI tract to the lung which is the primary site of damage  Paragonimiasis is transmitted by eating raw crab  Diagnosed by identifying eggs in the sputum & stool.  Therapy: Praziquantel
  • 32.  Causative agent: Clonorchis sinensis (oriental liver fluke)  The primary site of infection is the biliary tract where the resulting inflamatory response can cause fibrosis & hyperplasia  Transmitted by eating raw freshwater fish.  Diagnosed by indentifying eggs in the stool  Therapy: Praziquantel
  • 33. Echinococcosis:  Causative agent: Echinococcus granulosus  Infection produces large hydatid cysts in the liver, lung and brain.  Sheep often serve as an intermediate.  Diagnosed by CT scan or biopsy of infected tissue and is treated by surgical excision of cysts.  Therapy: Albendazole
  • 34.  Causative agent: Taenia solium larvae  Infection produces cysticerci in brain and eyes.  Cysticercosis is diagnosed by CT scan or biopsy.  Therapy: Praziquantel, Albendazole or Surgery