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Part4 v8 Part4 v8 Presentation Transcript

  • 4 Rules and responsibilities • Alcohol • Turning • Drugs, medicine • Freeways and driving • Sharing the road safely • The law about seat belts • Parking • Speed limits • Penalties • Road signs • Legal responsibilities • Road markings • Crash responsibilities • Traffic controls • First aid after a crash at intersections • Test yourself questions • Give Way rules 63
  • 4 Rules and responsibilitiesSo what are the rules of driving? The rules listed here are only aThere is more to driving than summary of some of the road rulesjust knowing the road rules. motorists must know. For moreHowever, knowing the basic road information visit our homepage:rules is essential. at You can also purchase a copyAs a car passenger, you should be of Road Rules – Victoria, or thewatching drivers and traffic relevant Acts and Regulationspatterns, noticing mistakes other (see Resources to help you,road users make. page 175). Road law,In the diagrams shown in this it’s more thansection, the vehicles are coloured what yougreen and red. In all cases, the know…it’sred vehicle B must wait for the how you usegreen vehicle A. it that is so important 65
  • ALCOHOL The effects of BLOOD ALCOHOL alcohol on driving Learner and probationary CONCENTRATION (BAC) is a measure of the Alcohol affected drivers: drivers must not drive with amount of alcohol you • feel overconfident resulting any alcohol in their blood. have in your blood. It is measured by the in risk taking on the road This zero BAC also applies number of grams of • are often unaware of the level to all restricted motorcycle alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. of their driving impairment licence holders, drivers of For example, a BAC • have slower reflexes and taxis, buses and other of .05 means .05 grams muscle co-ordination making large vehicles, professional or 50 milligrams of it less likely that the driver alcohol in every will be able to stop or swerve driving instructors and 100 millilitres of blood. in an emergency some full licence holders • are less able to process who have previously had information and make a drink driving conviction. appropriate decisions as their vision, hearing and brain are All other full licence all adversely affected. holders must be less than A driver who has been drinking .05 BAC. struggles to accurately judge speeds and distances and will often fail to respond to potential66
  • dangers in the traffic The risk of being involved in a Some of the factors that lead to environment. The ability to crash increases dramatically if a different BAC include: cope with more than one thing the driver has been drinking • gender – a woman drinking at a time is greatly reduced (for alcohol. The graph shows the the same amount of alcohol example, steer a course within a average relationship between as a man of a similar size will lane, respond to traffic signals the risk of having an accident have a higher BAC and avoid a pedestrian who and the amount of alcohol in suddenly steps onto the road). the blood. For inexperienced • body size – a person of small drivers the risk at any BAC build will have a higher BAC What are the risks level will be even higher. than a larger person drinking the same amount of alcoholRISK OF ACCIDENTS 30 Factors affecting BAC • food consumption – food 25 Alcohol affects different people slows down the absorption of 20 in different ways and can even alcohol so, if you have not 15 affect the same person on had a substantial meal before 10 different occasions in different drinking, you will reach a 5 0 ways. You can drink the same higher BAC more quickly .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 amount of alcohol on different BAC (BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION) • rate of drinking and the types days and have different BAC RELATIVE CHANCE OF of alcohol consumed – the readings each time. CRASHING AT VARIOUS BACS quicker you drink and the greater the alcoholic content of the drink, the sooner you will reach a higher BAC 67
  • • general health – if you are in amount of alcohol in your So work out your travel poor health, your liver is less bloodstream or speed up the arrangements before you effective in dealing with the processing of the alcohol by start drinking. alcohol you drink your liver. The liver does this in • Share a taxi with friends. its own time. • use of other drugs – • Take public transport. combining alcohol with It is important to drugs increases the risk of remember that if you • Organise with a friend to take motor vehicle crashes even HOT TIP have a lot to drink the turns driving. You and your if the alcohol is consumed in night before, you are likely to still friend will need to agree not small doses. have alcohol in your blood the to drink when driving. next morning. The effect of alcohol can also • Organise to stay the night. exaggerate the mood you are If you are having a party, help • Arrange to be picked up by a in, and make you feel more your guests to avoid drinking relative or friend who hasn’t tired if you are already tired. and driving. been drinking. Only time reduces your Public breath tester BAC level How to avoid drinking and driving You can measure your BAC Your body takes time to get rid level by using a public breath of alcohol. No amount of coffee, • Plan ahead. It is more tester. These are located in exercise, cold showers, fresh difficult to plan how to get some hotels and are useful to air or vomiting will help. Whilst home if you have had alcohol determine your BAC level. these may make you feel more to drink – remember, your You would need to do this a alert, they don’t change the judgement will be impaired. number of times to get an idea68
  • of what BAC your usual pattern You will be asked to blow into a permit driver or a full driver.of drinking leads to, and how small device. It will immediately Learner and probationarylong it takes for your BAC to give an indication of the alcohol drivers who record a BACreturn to zero. Do not attempt in your blood – if any. If you reading between zero and .05to do this if you are intending haven’t been drinking there is will have their permit or licenceto drive. no problem. If you have a suspended for at least one month. positive result, you will be If you record a BAC of .05 or If you drive after drinking asked to do a second test on over you will lose your licence your driving will suffer – HOT TIP so remember, the safest another breath testing for at least 6 months for a first instrument. This reading will be offence. For a BAC higher thanBAC is zero even when you have a used as evidence if you are over .10 the periods are longer. Heavyfull licence. the legal limit. fines can also be imposed.Breath testing procedures Drivers admitted to hospitalPolice can request the driver of after any kind of road crash area vehicle to undergo a breath required to provide a breath REFUSING A BREATHtest at any time. There are test or allow a blood sample to TEST IS AN OFFENCE.many breath testing stations or be taken. Your licence will be cancelled and you willbooze buses patrolling Victorian be disqualified fromroads. You may also be stopped driving for at leastby police in other vehicles and Penalties 2 years if convicted.asked to undergo a breath test. The penalties for exceeding theThousands of drivers are BAC laws are tough - regardlessrandomly tested every week. of whether you are a learner 69
  • DRUGS, MEDICINE Illegal drugs consequences – for instance, having to stop suddenly or to AND DRIVING Illegal drugs such as ecstasy, respond to the actions of other cannabis (marijuana) and vehicles or pedestrians. Your Medicines and illegal drugs that can affect safe driving heroin can affect your ability to ability to concentrate and are detected in over 25% of safely control a vehicle. maintain attention, make Victorian driver fatalities. Drugs like speed or ecstasy can decisions and to react to In Victoria it is an offence make you feel as if you are a unexpected events is greatly to drive a motor vehicle better driver. Unfortunately, as reduced. Important road signs while impaired by a drug. In your confidence goes up, your may be missed. 2003, the law was driving skills go down, making changed to also allow In an emergency situation, the you a danger to yourself and risk of a crash is increased, and police to undertake everyone else on the road. your ability to avoid the crash is roadside saliva testing of It is extremely dangerous when reduced. Combining even small drivers and riders, to the effect wears off, as you are amounts of cannabis and detect the presence of speed (methamphetamine) likely to experience sudden, alcohol causes much greater and THC, the active uncontrollable sleep. impairment than either one on ingredient of cannabis, Some illegal drugs present its own. which indicates recent special problems. Cannabis, for cannabis use. Driving with example, can make you unable these drugs in the blood or to respond quickly enough to saliva is an offence and what other drivers are doing. penalties (including licence This can have serious loss) will apply.70
  • Medicines • some strong painkillers. How to reduce the risk of a crash when on medication Not everyone will experience If you’re out ofMany prescription medicinesand some medicines bought the effects of a drug in the • Do not use alcohol with shape, yourover the counter from a same way. When you start your medicines. using a new medicine which driving will bepharmacist can impair your • Keep to the prescribeddriving and increase the risk of may affect your driving, it is as well doses.crashes by affecting your: best not to drive until you understand and have • Do not treat yourself with• mood experienced what effect it additional medicines or other• concentration actually has on you. Most remedies. Always check with medicines have no effect on your doctor or pharmacist.• coordination, and safe driving. Your doctor or • Do not use other people’s• reaction time. pharmacist will be able to give medicines. you advice about this.Some examples of prescription • Read the labels on all yourmedications that can affect medicines and heed theirdriving are: advice. Check with your• sleeping tablets doctor or pharmacist if the label on your medicine states• muscle relaxants that the medicine may cause• sedatives drowsiness.• antihistamines (such as in hay fever or cold and flu medicines) 71
  • If you are worried about THE LAW ABOUT are to do their job in a the effect that your HOT TIP medicine has on your SEAT BELTS crash. You should never driving, stop your driving – not put more than one person Wearing a seat belt is the your medicine! in a restraint. most effective measure for Stop driving and contact your reducing serious injury in a Adult seat belts are not doctor or pharmacist if your medicine: crash. It is because seat designed to protect small • affects your reflexes belts are so effective that bodies in a crash. Children all drivers and passengers need restraints that • affects your ability to concentrate should wear a seat belt specifically fit their size • makes you sleepy or drowsy or appropriate restraint and weight. • gives you blurred or regardless of where they It is illegal to travel in the double vision. sit in the vehicle. This load area of any vehicle If you have to continue to use includes children and (for example a van or station medication that affects your pregnant women. driving in some way, plan ahead wagon) unless using a before you drive, or use Seat belts must be properly constructed seat alternative transport such as and correctly fitting seat securely fastened and taxis or public transport, or call on a friend to drive you. properly adjusted if they belt or child restraint.72
  • Children children weigh 32 kg and are away from the dashboard as recommended if children are possible.Drivers must ensure that: using a lap only seat belt. If a vehicle has air bags in other• babies under one year old are positions, consult the vehicle carried in an approved child Restraint Fitting owner’s manual for advice on restraint, correctly installed Stations can help you positioning restraints. and adjusted to fit the baby HOT TIP fit a child restraint. More information about• passengers under 16 years Phone 1300 360 745 choosing and using restraints are properly restrained by for the nearest location. and Restraint Fitting Stations a seat belt or by a child is available from VicRoads restraint suitable for their Customer Service Centres size and weight. Restraints and and the VicRoads web site:Child restraint guidelines: air bags• infant restraints are suitable A rearward facing restraint for babies up to 9 or 12 kgs should not be used if the restraint is in a position where• child car seats are suitable it will be hit by an exploding for children 8 to 18 kgs air bag.• booster seats are suitable for Children using forward facing children between 14 to 26 kgs car seats or boosters in the• child harnesses can be used front seat of a vehicle should do without a booster until so with the seat pushed as far 73
  • Pregnant women SPEED LIMITS Built-up areas Seat belts protect both pregnant The speed limit in a built-up Speed limit signs tell you area is 50 kilometres per hour women and their unborn babies. The belt will not harm the maximum speed you (km/h) unless signed the baby if the lap part of the can drive in normal otherwise. belt is below the bulge, the sash conditions. You must passes between the breasts and the buckle is fastened down by always obey them by not the hips. An unborn baby is exceeding the speed shown. more at risk in a crash if a seat belt is not worn. Buckling up takes seconds – serious A BUILT-UP AREA is crashes take lives. where there are buildings and/or houses next to the road or there is street lighting at intervals not over 100 metres apart for a distance of 500 metres or more.74
  • Speed limited areas School speed zones On roads where theThere are other signs which Lower speed zones are being speed limit isdesignate speed limits for whole introduced outside all Victorian 80 km/h orareas (networks of roads) schools. above,which have a sign on each road 40 km/h andinto the area. Permanent 60 km/h 40 km/h static or electronic variable signs zones outside will be used to alert drivers to the schools on lower speed limit. most 50 km/h Shared zones roads. Shared zones have a speed limit of 10 km/h or as indicated on the Shared Zone sign. In a Time based shared zone, drivers must giveFreeways and 40 km/h way to roads zones outside schools onThe speed limit on freeways and 60 km/houtside built-up areas in Victoria and 70 km/his 100 km/h unless signs tell otherwise. Some mainstreets in rural town centreshave 50 km/h speed limits. 75
  • Safe speeds for Light or heavy traffic Green lights can change to red different needs If there is a lot of traffic, slow down to the average speed of A green light may turn red There is no one best speed. everyone else and watch out for before you enter an intersection, Speed limit signs tell you the hazards. Pedestrians often weave so drive at a speed that will allow maximum speed you must not through cars stuck in peak hour you to stop. drive beyond. You have to decide ‘crawls’. what is a safe speed within the Country roads specified limit. and animals Here are some factors you Shops, parked cars and people When you see animals – should consider. Where there are shops, there beware. They are unpredictable are people and cars. Electronic and can wander or dart onto the Unpredictable surfaces variable signs at selected strip road. Farmers often move sheep The risk of losing control of a shopping centres indicate or cattle and you need to slow vehicle can increase as a result reduced speed limits at high risk down while you are passing (see of deterioration in the road such times. Be alert. Children can run Sharing the road with animals, as potholes, wheel ruts or out from between parked cars, page 133). grooves, slippery surfaces and and parked cars can pull out The time of the day loose gravel. Always try to be from the kerb suddenly. Watch aware of the road surface your speed, slow down and try It can be difficult to see the road conditions and if necessary to anticipate what others may do. ahead when you are driving into adjust your driving technique bright sunlight at dawn or dusk. and speed according to the You will need to slow down. conditions.76
  • Wear sunglasses and use the sun Slippery roads Dirt roadsvisor in your car. Slippery roads can be caused by Dust from oncoming vehicles If the vehicle in rain, mud, frost or ice. Not all may conceal unexpectedWeather conditions areas that are slippery when wet hazards, such as other vehicles, front of yoursDriving in heavy rain, frost or are signposted – watch out for a dip or corner. Dirt roads can stops suddenly,snow can be very dangerous – it others. Rain makes all roads become very slippery when wetmay be difficult to see and roads slippery. When rain first begins, or corrugated. Mud thrown onto and you aremay be slippery. You need to oil and dirt are washed to the windows can reduce visibility.slow right down, or in some surface. Until further rain Slow down and drive at a speed travelling too fastcases, pull over off the road and washes these away, skidding can appropriate for conditions or too close –wait for the conditions to occur. Slow down and always because road holding is reducedimprove. Take care when mist or keep your distance from the and stopping distances are you will not befog affects visibility. vehicle in front in poor greater. conditions of any sort. able to avoidYou may need to use hazard Road edgewarning lights or rear fog lights a crash!(see Driving in dangerous Road works If you need to move a wheel offconditions or situations, page 119). the bitumen, such as when At roadwork sites the number of passing an oncoming vehicle on lanes is often reduced to protectCurving roads a narrow road, don’t panic, road workers. Temporary speed pulling the wheel quickly to getSlow down before entering a limit signs are erected to guide back on the road may lead tocurve or bend, then accelerate traffic through the work site at over correction and potential lossa little to drive out. It can be safe speeds. All drivers must of control. Slow down, brakedangerous to brake in a curve or obey the speed limits. gently if needed, take your timebend; you may lose control of and steer normally back onto theyour vehicle. bitumen when safe to do so. 77
  • How quickly do you ROAD SIGNS Regulatory signs think you can stop? These signs tell you what you Road signs are there to Speed makes a big difference must or must not do. You are to your ability to stop. If you provide information to help committing an offence if you double your speed, you cover keep you and others safe disobey these signs. They are almost 4 times the distance usually black and white, on the road. before you stop. sometimes with red indicating danger or a restriction. At 60 km/h you may cover up to 67 metres before you can stop. At 100 km/h you may cover up to 142 metres before you can stop. You must keep left However, some regulatory This makes a significant signs are black and yellow: difference to your chance of being involved in an accident. Beware – pedestrians crossing78
  • Follow these traffic signs Stop and Give Way signs Keep left unless overtakingThese are signs showing which These signs enable drivers to Where this sign is shown, or ondirection you must, or must get through intersections and multi-lane roads where thenot take. other places safely (see Giving speed limit is over 80 km/h, way to vehicles at intersections, you must not drive in the right page 95). lane unless overtaking another vehicle, turning right, making a U-turn, avoiding an obstruction, or when traffic is congested.You must not turn left Hand held signs Hand held signs are often used at work sites. They may also be found at school crossings.You must not enter this road Be prepared to obey the sign.You must turn left You must stop 79
  • Warning signs Intersection Warning signs These signs alert you of Intersection Warning signs are possible danger ahead. They used to warn you of the type of are usually yellow diamond intersection ahead, particularly shapes with black words or when the intersection is symbols. Take notice of the dangerous or difficult to see. Sharp bends advice these signs give. It usually means slowing down. An INTERSECTION is Curves and bends signs where two or more roads meet and where vehicles Curves and bends signs tell you travelling on different what to expect – from simple roads might collide. curves, to winding sections and A winding section of road sharp bends. A normal bend80
  • There are many types of Intersection control Changing road layoutintersections. warning signs End of divided roadCross-road intersection Traffic lights ahead Two lanes are for oncoming trafficT-intersection Stop sign aheadStaggered side road junction Roundabout ahead 81
  • Advisory speed signs Changing conditions Railway level crossings Advisory speed signs are When approaching railway level sometimes used with other crossings – slow down and be warning signs. prepared to stop. The advisory speed sign shows the maximum speed that is safe to drive in good conditions. Hollow/dip in the road Rail crossing ahead Uncontrolled crossings ahead Slippery when wet Advisory speed sign used with curve warning sign Uncontrolled rail crossing on Gravel road side road82
  • Pedestrian signs Road work signsThese signs warn drivers of These are usually temporarypedestrians crossing the road. signs warning drivers to slow down and drive carefully because there are road works Workers on the road ahead ahead. Consider the safety of road workers when approaching road works.Pedestrians crossing Left lane ends, prepare to move You may proceed slowly (merge) into another laneChildren crossing Slow down and be prepared to stop 83
  • Direction signs ROAD MARKINGS Centre of the These standard green signs road lines It is important to be able with white lettering are Many roads are painted with common throughout the state. to ‘read’ the white or broken white lines and single They give information such as yellow markings on the continuous lines in the centre of road names, destinations along road. Road markings can the road. a route and distances to the destinations. create regulatory requirements which you must obey and are there to provide a safer driving environment. FIGURE 6 Single continuous lines84
  • FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9Broken white lines Double continuous white lines Double white lines with a broken line closer to youIn Figures 6 and 7 you must You must always keep left ofkeep left of the lines and drive these lines. Do not cross them You may cross these lines toas close to the left side of the to overtake or to do any turn. overtake, or to enter or leaveroad as you can. You may cross You must not park opposite the road, but only overtake ifthese lines to enter or leave the double continuous lines. the road ahead is clear.road, but only overtake if theroad ahead is clear. 85
  • Lane markings Broken white lines separate lanes of traffic going in the same direction. You may change lanes if you signal, and if it is safe to do so. Remember, you must give way to any vehicle already in that lane. You must drive with your vehicle completely within a lane. FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 Double white lines with a continuous line closer to you Broken white lines separating lanes You must always keep to the left of these lines. Do not cross them to overtake or do any turn. You must not park opposite the continuous line side.86
  • Roads without Special purpose marked lanes lanes Where there are no lane Special purpose lanes include markings, if there are two or bicycle lanes, bus lanes, transit more lines of traffic travelling in lanes and tram lanes. Signs the same direction, you may and/or road markings are used change from one line of traffic to set aside lanes for special to another if you signal, and if it vehicles. If specified on the is safe to do so. However, you signs other vehicles may use may only pass another vehicle these lanes. Drivers must keep on the left side when it is out of these lanes during the turning right. times marked on the signs or, if FIGURE 12 no time is specified, at all times.Overhead lane signals However, you may travel in these lanes for up to 100 metresIf overhead lane signals are in (up to 50 metres in a bicycleuse, travel in the lanes over lane), only when necessary towhich there is a green or white do so, to enter or leave thearrow. You must stay out of road, or to avoid an obstructionlanes with a red X. or turning vehicle. Some examples of special purpose lanes are shown FIGURE 13 on page 88. 87
  • Tram lanes Bicycle lanes Transit lanes For trams and public buses only. For cyclists only, and for During times specified on (See Sharing the road with parking unless prohibited by the signs, transit lanes are trams, page 127). signs. If you need to turn left for buses, taxis, motorcycles, Bus lanes from the road, you may drive trams and vehicles carrying along the bicycle lane for not For buses and other vehicles two or more people (T2 sign), more than 50 metres only if it is as specified on a sign. or three or more people (T3 sign). necessary to do so. You should (See Sharing the road with be courteous to cyclists. You buses, page 130). must give way to cyclists in a bicycle lane, and only move into a bicycle lane when it is safe to do so. You may drive in a transit lane for no more HOT TIP than 100 metres if it is necessary to make a turn.88
  • Traffic lane arrows Painted traffic islandsArrows are painted on the roadat some intersections. They tell Traffic islands are sometimesyou the direction traffic in each painted on the road before alane must go. If two directions right turning lane. You canare shown, you may go either drive over the painted islandway. You must not go in a or stop to wait on it, as long asdirection other than that there are no double linesindicated by the arrows. outlining the island on the left, but you must give way to anyArrows may also be applied to vehicle in a turning lane orbicycle lanes. Sometimes a entering a turning lane from a‘head start’ area is provided so marked lane (see Figure 15 onthat cyclists can be seen by page 90).drivers when stopped at redtraffic lights. FIGURE 14 89
  • Give Way line Stop line markings – markings – with or without with or without Stop signs Give Way signs FIGURE 15 Red vehicle B must give way to FIGURE 17 green vehicle A FIGURE 16 Red vehicle B must give way to Red vehicle B must give way to green vehicle A green vehicle A (See Giving way to vehicles at (See Giving way to vehicles at intersections, page 95). intersections, page 95).90
  • TRAFFIC Traffic lightsCONTROLS ATINTERSECTIONS Half of all crashes happen at intersections. Green means you may enter Stay alert and obey the the intersection, but only if you intersection rules. do not block the intersection. Red means you must STOP. Do not enter the intersection. Yellow means STOP unless you are unable to do so safely. 91
  • Traffic lights with arrows Traffic lights for trams, Traffic lights with arrows make buses and bicycles turns easier. If the arrow Some traffic lights signal a pointing in the direction you white T or B on a black want to go is red, you must background. These are used stop; if the arrow is green you for trams and buses at some may proceed in the direction it intersections. Some traffic is pointing if it is safe to do so. lights may have red, yellow You may turn right and green bicycle lights for use by bicycles. Other road users must wait for the normal green light. You must not turn right You may turn left Tram may go. Bicycle may go. You must wait. You must wait.92
  • Pedestrian signals GIVE WAY RULESTurning vehicles must always To GIVE WAY means There will be many times that if there is a dangergive way to pedestrians who are when you are driving that that your vehicle couldcrossing the road they are collide with anotherturning into (whether or not your path crosses that of vehicle, person or animalthere is a green ‘walking figure’ you must slow down and, other road users. When this if necessary, stop tofacing the pedestrian). happens, one or more of avoid a collision. If you are stationary, you must the people involved must remain stationary until give way in order to avoid it is safe to proceed. a collision.Traffic control signs Here are some everydayStop and Give Way signs are driving situations whenused for safety control at manyintersections and other places. you will be required to give way.(See Giving way to vehicles atintersections, page 95). 93
  • Giving Way to In slip lanes At children’s crossings Pedestrians You must give way to any (See Sharing the road with There are a number of driving pedestrians in a slip lane. pedestrians, page 121). situations when you must give way to pedestrians. On the footpath A SLIP LANE is an area When entering the road from a At pedestrian crossings of road for vehicles driveway or adjacent land, you turning left that is You must give way to any separated, at some point, must give way to pedestrians pedestrian on a pedestrian from other parts of the on any footpath, path or nature crossing, and you must not road by a painted island strip you cross to enter the or traffic island. road. You must also give way to overtake another vehicle which has stopped at a bicycles or other vehicles on the pedestrian crossing. footpath, path or nature strip. This also applies when leaving At intersections the road to enter a driveway or When turning left or right at adjacent land. any intersection (except a roundabout), you must give way to any pedestrians crossing the road you are turning into. FIGURE 1894
  • In shared zones When making a U-turn Giving way toIn a shared zone shared by both You must give way to all vehicles atvehicles and pedestrians, you pedestrians as well as vehicles intersectionsmust give way to pedestrians when making a U-turn.(see Speed limits, page 74). Stop or Give Way signs or At tram stops lines at an intersectionAt Stop or Give Way signs or After stopping at a Stop sign orlines not at intersections When passing a stopped tram line, or when facing a Give Way you must give way to anyYou must give way not only sign or line at an intersection, pedestrians crossing betweento vehicles, but also to any you must give way to any the tram and the left side ofpedestrian at or near the sign vehicle in, entering or the road.or line. This would include approaching the intersectionpedestrians as well as bicycles except:crossing in front of you on a • a vehicle making a U-turnshared path. • a vehicle turning left using a slip lane • an oncoming vehicle turning right if that vehicle is also facing a Stop or Give Way sign or line. 95
  • Giving way at When the law refers intersections (except to VEHICLES, this T-intersections or includes not only roundabouts) motor vehicles but also horses and If there are no traffic lights or bicycles. signs or lines at an intersection, The Give Way rules apply you must give way to any equally for these smaller vehicle on your right. vehicles. You could be charged just the same for In Figures 20 to 23, failing to give way to red vehicle B must give way a horse or a bicycle FIGURE 19 to green vehicle A as for failing to give way to a truck! Red vehicle B must stop and give way to green vehicle A, which is not facing a Stop or Give Way sign96
  • If you are turning right at an intersection without traffic lights or signs or lines, you must also give way to oncoming vehicles going straight ahead or turning left (except if they are turning in a slip lane) as well as any vehicle on your right.FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 23 Red vehicle B must give way toFIGURE 21 green vehicle A 97
  • Giving way at These diagrams show how to T-intersections give way at T-intersections without lights or signs, or when traffic lights have failed or are flashing yellow. A T-INTERSECTION is where two roads meet and one of them ends. FIGURE 27 T-intersections may not In Figures 25, 26 and 27, always form a regular T the red vehicle B must give way to green vehicle A FIGURE 25 The Give Way rule is the same for all T-intersections. When you enter the continuing road from the road that ends, you must give way to vehicles travelling along the continuing road. FIGURE 2698
  • FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30When you turn right The red vehicle must give Some T-intersections arefrom the continuing road way to the pedestrian modified so that the continuinginto the road that ends, road goes round a must give way to The road that ends is markedoncoming vehicles by a continuity line and Give Way or Stop lines or signs. In Figure 30, the red vehicle B is leaving the continuing road to enter the road that ends at the intersection. The red vehicle B must give way to the green vehicle A. 99
  • Giving way at roundabouts When entering a roundabout, you must give way to: • all vehicles already in the roundabout • all trams entering, or approaching the roundabout. Take care to look out for motorcyclists and cyclists already in the roundabout who may be harder to see. FIGURE 31 A roundabout sign Always give way to vehicles already in the roundabout. In this diagram, the red B vehicles must give way to the green A vehicles. Enter only when there is a safe gap in the traffic.100
  • Giving way on A ROUNDABOUT is divided roads an intersection with When a two-way road is divided a roundabout sign at each entrance, a by a median strip, a Give Way central island and or Stop sign applies to the one or more marked whole of the intersection. lanes, or lines of traffic, all of which have vehicles travelling in the same direction. A MEDIAN STRIP is a You must always keep dividing strip on the to the left of the road designed to central island. separate vehicles travelling in opposite directions. FIGURE 32Cyclists and animal riders The red vehicle B must give way to the green vehicle A.In a roundabout, cyclists andanimal riders have the option ofturning right from the left lane,but they must give way todrivers exiting the roundabout. 101
  • Turning from a Other driving divided road situations when When turning from a divided you are required road, you must obey the signs to give way on the road you are turning from. Normally a vehicle in U-turn the same position as the red When making a U-turn you vehicle B could continue if it is must give way to all other safe to do so. However in vehicles and pedestrians. Figure 33 the red vehicle B is facing a Stop Here On Red Entering the road Signal sign, therefore it must stop until that signal is green. Whenever you enter the road If there is no sign, you must FIGURE 33 from a driveway or adjacent give way to traffic when entering land, you must give way to all a road from a break in the vehicles and pedestrians. median strip after turning. Entering the traffic stream Whenever you enter the traffic stream from a parked position, or through a break in a median strip, you must give way to all vehicles travelling on the road.102
  • Changing lanes Zip mergingWhenever you change lanes If you are on a road wherefrom one marked lane or line of there are no lines marked andtraffic to another, you must the road is such that two rowsgive way to vehicles already in of vehicles must merge intothat lane or line of traffic. This one, you must give way to anyincludes whenever you cross vehicle which has any part of itsover any broken line marked on vehicle ahead of yours. This isthe road which indicates that a called zip merging. Note: iflane ends, for example when you cross any lines marked onmerging into freeway traffic. the road, then you are not zip Make a headcheck merging but changing lanes, whenever you are and must give way accordingly. FIGURE 34 HOT TIP changing lanes or pullingout from the kerb, but don’t take Red vehicle B must give wayyour eyes off the road ahead for When two lanes of to the green vehicle A traffic merge into onemore than a second. and there are no lane markings, this is sometimes called ZIP MERGING. 103
  • Police directions TURNING Making turns You must always follow instructions from a member of Plan your turns well in Signalling your moves the Police Force or authorised advance. Move into the Always use your indicators to person rather than any other let others know you are about correct lane long before traffic control signal or rule. to turn or change lanes. you need to turn. Remember, road users The signal must be given for can make mistakes about Use the indicators to long enough to warn others HOT TIP who should give way. give other road users that you are about to change Never assume the other driver has plenty of warning. lanes or direction. You must seen you or will give way to you. signal for at least 5 seconds Always make eye contact, and when moving from a stationary proceed carefully. position at the side of the road or from a median strip parking area.104
  • Making right turns Making left turns FIGURE 36 FIGURE 35 Right turns on multi-lane roads FIGURE 37 On some multi-lane roads,To make a right turn you must: arrows painted on the road will To make a left turn you must show you if right turns may also approach the intersection as• approach the intersection as close to the left side of the road be made from other lanes. close to the centre of the as possible, but keep clear of road as possible If road markings indicate how a any bicycle lane. turn is to be made, you must• turn just right of the centre Where there is a slip lane, you make a turn as indicated by the of the intersection. must turn using the slip lane road markings. (see slip lane definition, page 94). 105
  • advisable that you stay in the Hook turns same lane as you go from one road to the other. Hook Turn signs are Exception to the found at some turning rules intersections in Central Melbourne. The signs Trucks or vehicles over may be at the side of the 7.5 metres long displaying a road or hung from tram Do Not Overtake Turning Vehicle wires, so be alert in sign may use more than one checking for these signs. lane to turn (see Sharing the FIGURE 38 road with trucks, page 131). Left turns on multi-lane roads For a multi-lane road, arrows painted on the road will show you if left turns may also be made from other lanes. But look out for cyclists on your Hook Turn sign left who may be going A driver turning right at an straight ahead. intersection with traffic lights If road markings allow turns and a Hook Turn sign must from more than one lane, it is FIGURE 39 turn right by making a hook turn as shown in Figure 40.106
  • To make a hook turn, you must: 1 Approach and enter the intersection from as near as possible to the left. Turn and continue 2 Move forward, keeping Wait here until straight ahead clear of any marked foot the lights in the street you crossing, until your vehicle are entering is as near as possible to the have changed far side of the road that you to green are entering. 3 Remain at the position reached under Step 2 until You must be in the the traffic lights on the left lane to make a hook turn. road you are entering Indicate that you have changed to green. are turning right 4 Turn right into the road and continue straight ahead.FIGURE 40Doing a hook turn – turning right from the left lane 107
  • A cyclist may make a hook turn at any intersection – not just at hook turn intersections. No U-turn sign • at an intersection where there is a No U-turn sign U-turns FIGURE 41 When making a U-turn Where there is no median, it you must: is advisable that the U-turn be made from the left side of the • have a clear view of traffic in road. Remember to watch out either direction for traffic approaching from No Right Turn sign • complete your U-turn without behind you. disrupting other traffic • at a No Right Turn sign You must not make a U-turn: unless there is a U-turn • signal your intention for a • over double lines or where Permitted sign. reasonable time there is a No U-turn sign, • give way to all other vehicles (if the sign is not at an and pedestrians. intersection continue on until you reach an intersection before you make a U-turn)108
  • Turning and one way roads FIGURE 42 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 43Where there is a median, the Turning into one-way roadsturn must be made from the Turning from one-way roadsright lane. When turning left or right from When turning left or right from a two-way road into a one-way a one-way road into a two-way road, it is advisable to turn into road, you must turn from a the nearest lane. position close to the side you are turning towards. 109
  • Making turns at Turning left Turning right roundabouts Approach in the left lane and Always approach the A roundabout is considered to stay in that lane. roundabout in the right lane. be a special type of intersection, Signal a left turn on your Drive close to the centre of the so different rules apply. The approach to the roundabout and roundabout and follow the right Give Way rules on page 100 keep the signal on until you lane as you leave. explain what you must do when have left the roundabout. entering the roundabout and Signal a right turn on your who should give way. approach, and signal left, if Going straight ahead practical, just before the exit Sometimes, roundabouts have Approach the roundabout in the you are turning into, keeping more than one lane. You need left or right lane. the signal on until you have left to follow these rules about the roundabout. turning left or right or going Drive in the same lane through straight ahead. the roundabout. Decide before you enter Do not signal on your approach the roundabout if you are to the roundabout, but if HOT TIP going to turn right, left or practical, signal left as you exit. go straight ahead. Cyclists and animal riders may make a right turn from a left lane.110
  • Where arrow(s) are marked on the road before or in a roundabout you must drive in the direction of the arrow(s). Make sure you obey them.FIGURE 45 111
  • FREEWAYS Entering a freeway Exiting a freeway As freeway speeds are • Adjust your speed as you • Watch for signs that tell you drive along the entry ramp that you are approaching an often high and the traffic to match that of the exit ramp. Exit lanes are is heavy, there are special freeway traffic. usually on the left. rules that apply when • Clearly indicate your • Maintain your speed and driving on a freeway. intentions. signal your intention to exit well in advance. • Where there is a large enough gap, merge smoothly • Adjust your speed once you with the freeway traffic. have entered the exit ramp. If you miss your exit, continue travelling on the freeway until you reach the next exit. You should not reverse on a freeway.112
  • Overtaking lane Stopping TollwaysBe extra alert on freeways as You must not stop on a freewaytraffic travels at high speed. except in an emergency. If you TOLLWAYS are sectionsYou must not drive in the must stop, move to the of road where the driverright lane unless overtaking or emergency lane or shoulder must pay to use it.unless all lanes are congested. of the road and put on your Signs are displayed toThis rule also applies to the hazard warning lights. advise drivers that they will soon be enteringright lane used by all traffic, if Variable speed zones the tollway.the lane to the right of that is atransit lane. Electronic variable signs on freeways indicate reduced speed limits at high risk times. A TRANSIT LANE is marked by a Transit Lane sign, and may only be used by public buses, motorcycles, taxis or Start tollway sign where applicable, vehicles carrying at least one You are entering a tolled section or two other people. of road. 113
  • SHARING THE Co-operative driving ROAD SAFELY We all have places to get to and want to arrive there safely. The As a driver you share the best way to make this happen is road with many other to co-operate and help each other. It doesn’t really hurt or people: waste any time to let somebody in from a side street, when the • other drivers of cars, traffic is crawling along. vans, trucks, buses Other simple strategies include: Advance warning tollway and trams • not blocking intersections entrance sign • pedestrians • always using your signals You are about to enter the when turning or changing tollway from a non-tollway road. lanes If you do not want to enter the • motorcyclists • not following too closely tollway, take the next exit. • cyclists. behind • smoothly controlling your speed rather than driving in a fast start/stop manner • changing lanes correctly • slowing down when approaching road work sites.114
  • Remember that co-operation is Co-operative driving Keeping your coolnot just limited to other car helps you to be a when drivingdrivers. You are also sharing HOT TIP ‘green driver’. There Road rage is dangerous and Co-operate tothe road with pedestrians, is a relationship between driving illegal. It involves people losingcyclists, motorcyclists, trucks, style and the impact your keep your cool their cool, perhaps in responsebuses and trams. driving has on the environment. to a mistake or action of and you’ll be Drive smoothly and avoid fastThere are times and places another driver. You can avoid start/stop driving – you’ll save a winnerwhen co-operation is essential. road rage easily. fuel and pollute less (and saveThese include places where: money as well!). Even better leave • The fundamental rule is don’t• two lanes have to merge the car at home and walk, ride retaliate – it’s never worth it! your bike or use public transport!• the left lane ends • If you make a mistake while driving, acknowledge it.• extra lanes exist just before and after intersections • Don’t take the mistakes of other drivers personally -• overtaking lanes or divided remember it’s a mistake not a roads end personal attack.• cars are parked and there is • Keep your cool and keep not enough room for two your distance! vehicles to pass. • Drive cooperatively andIn these places, the need consider the other people onfor co-operative driving is at the road!its greatest. 115
  • Sharing the road with Signalling your moves Here are some of the ways you other motorists Before turning or changing can signal your intentions. lanes you must signal for 1 Using your indicators Keeping to the left long enough to give sufficient warning to other drivers and You must use your indicators On multi-lane roads with a pedestrians. In 60 km/h zones, when: speed limit over 80 km/h, you must keep out of the right lane it is best to signal for at least • turning to the right or left unless you are: 30 metres or about the length of two houses and driveways • changing lanes or line • overtaking before turning or changing of traffic • turning right lanes. • overtaking • making a U-turn Check that your indicator • making U-turns is off after you have made • avoiding an obstruction, or HOT TIP your turn or lane change • pulling into and out of – it may not have turned off by parking spots • traffic is congested. itself. If it is left on, other drivers • leaving a continuing road You must also keep out of the will think you intend to turn. which curves to the left right lane where a Keep Left Before moving from a stationary or right Unless Overtaking sign applies. position at the side of the road • leaving a roundabout or a parking area in the middle (if practical) of the road, you must signal for at least five seconds. • moving to the left or right from a stationary position.116
  • Watch other vehicles’ indicators 2 Using your brake lightsand make sure they are doingwhat is indicated. Sometimes an Every time your foot touches The ability toindicator has not cancelled from the brake pedal, your brakethe last turn, or has been put on lights glow, warning other blend in withtoo early. Make sure you drivers you are slowing down. traffic comesindicate in such a way that your Likewise, you will need to slowsignal cannot be misleading. down when the brake lights on with experience the vehicle in front of you are and reflects glowing red. So give lots of warning by braking early and an awareness Use indicators even slowing gradually. if there is no-one else of what around – it’s the 3 Making eye contact person you cannot other drivers see who can be the As well as watching out for most dangerous. reasonably indicators, you can get an idea of what another person might expect do by making eye contact. FIGURE 46 To make sure another driver knows you are there, try and These vehicles are signalling make eye contact, especially at their moves, but could be heading intersections. Look at other for trouble as vehicle A’s signal drivers, they may well be could be misleading. looking at you to see that you know they are there! 117
  • 4 Using your headlights High-beam headlights Don’t be dazzled by high-beam and tail lights Headlights on high-beam Look to the left side of the road Headlights help you to see at enable you to see further. and drive towards the left of night. Headlights and tail lights Because headlights on high your lane if a car with high- help others to see you in poor beam may dazzle the oncoming beams on is approaching. If light conditions. Your headlights driver’s eyes, you must ‘dip’ dazzled by the lights, slow and tail lights must be on them to low-beam when another down and pull over until your between sunset and sunrise. vehicle is within 200 metres. eyes recover. They must also be on in You must also dip your head- hazardous weather conditions lights when driving 200 metres where there is reduced or less behind another vehicle. visibility. If the street lights are on, your lights should HOT TIP also be on. FIGURE 47118
  • Using emergency signals Driving in dangerous conditions How to overtake safely or situationsIf your vehicle breaks down If someone is overtaking you,on the road You may use hazard warning you must not increase your Always make a lights if you are driving in vehicle’s speed. final headcheckMake sure other drivers can dangerous weather conditions,see your vehicle and stop in Here are some tips to reduce before changing such as fog, or smoke, or if youtime. If possible, pull right out your risk when overtaking: are driving slowly and likely to lanes orof the traffic flow. If you can’t obstruct other vehicles orget completely off the road, try Overtaking on a two way road overtaking pedestrians. You must notto stop where people have a operate rear fog lights unless • Check the centre of the roadclear view of you and your driving in fog or hazardous markings (see Road markings,vehicle. Don’t stop just over a weather conditions. page 84). If there are doublehill or just around a curve. continuous white lines or Turn on your hazard Warning others of your approach double white lines with a warning lights to warn continuous line closest to you, You must only use your horn if HOT TIP other drivers. If your you must not overtake. it is necessary to warn othervehicle doesn’t have hazard road users of the approach or • Make sure you have a clearwarning lights use your left position of your vehicle. view of any approachingindicator instead. Lift your bonnet traffic and that there isor boot lid to show other drivers enough space to overtakeyou are in trouble. safely. Remember that it is hard to estimate the speed of approaching vehicles. 119
  • • Check that the vehicle in • You must keep a safe Overtaking where lanes front or behind is not also distance when overtaking are marked about to pull out to overtake. and not return into the line When a road has lane markings, of traffic until you are a • Use your right indicator to let you may overtake in the left sufficient distance past the others know you are about to lane but remember you are vehicle you are overtaking. overtake. A vehicle behind less visible to the driver of the may want to overtake both One way to know if it vehicle you are going past if you and the vehicle in front. is safe to return to you overtake on the left. HOT TIP your lane is when you • If you are not sure you have see both headlights of Overtaking where there are enough time, just wait. A few the vehicle you have overtaken in oncoming vehicles seconds or minutes could your rear view mirror. save your life. Never underestimate the space Overtaking where there are no and time you will need to safely • Never overtake if the road is lane markings overtake when there are not wide enough for you to oncoming vehicles. It is hard to stay completely on the sealed When a road has no lane judge the speed at which they part of the road, unless you markings, you must overtake are travelling. Be careful. If in can do so at a low speed. a vehicle on its right side. doubt – don’t pull out. You must not overtake either • When safe, accelerate and a moving or stationary vehicle overtake the vehicle, then on the left, unless the vehicle is indicate left when safe to turning right, or making a U-turn return to your lane. You from the centre of the road, and must not exceed the speed has its right indicator flashing. limit at any time.120
  • Overtaking where there are hills Sharing the road At children’s crossingsand curves with pedestriansIf your view is blocked, don’t Pedestrians don’t always dopull out. Remember, you must what you expect. You shouldnot overtake when there are watch out for them at all times.double unbroken white lines, or Here are some places wheredouble white lines with a you should take extra care.continuous line closest to you. More information on giving way to pedestrians can be found onOvertaking at intersections, page 94.rail crossings, shopping centreentrances and pedestriancrossings PEDESTRIANS include not only people onThese are never good places to foot but also thoseovertake. Wait until you are on on wheeled devicesa clearer section of road. You such as skateboards,must not overtake another rollerblades and wheelchairs.vehicle stopped at a pedestrian FIGURE 48or children’s crossing. A person pushing a bicycle is also considered to be Always approach a children’s a pedestrian. crossing at a speed which will let you stop. You must stop at flagged children’s crossings if a 121
  • pedestrian is on or entering the lights at intersections. However, At pedestrian crossings crossing, even if there is no at some locations, drivers may Always approach pedestrian crossing supervisor present. proceed when the yellow light crossings at a speed which will You must not proceed until the starts flashing, provided they let you stop. Not all pedestrians pedestrian has left the crossing. give way to any pedestrian still look before they step onto You must also stop if a hand on the crossing. These crossings, so take care. You held Stop sign is displayed. crossings have When Flashing must give way to any pedestrian Give Way To Pedestrians signs. on a pedestrian crossing. At intersections and traffic lights When turning, you must give way to pedestrians crossing the road you are entering. Elderly people may not cross the road in the time allowed by the lights. Be patient and wait for them. Pedestrian traffic lights are often located away from intersections to enable pedestrians to cross roads FIGURE 49 safely. These traffic lights generally operate the same as122
  • At safety zones, tram stopsand bus stops A SAFETY ZONE is theSlow down when approaching area of the road at orsafety zones, tram stops and near a tram stop withbus stops. There is always the safety zone signs, and a traffic island orrisk of pedestrians getting off a dividing strip.tram or bus and crossing theroad without looking.Pedestrians are often hard tosee when stepping out suddenlyfrom behind or in front of a busor tram. It is also a good ideawhen you are waiting to pick up FIGURE 50a bus passenger to park on thesame side of the road that the Slow down when approachingbus will be travelling. safety zones, tram stops and bus stops. There is always the risk ofMore information on Sharing pedestrians getting off a tram orthe road with trams can be bus and crossing the roadfound on pages 95 and 127. without looking. 123
  • When coming out On paths of driveways You must give way to any vehicles or pedestrians on a path which crosses the road if you are facing a Give Way or Stop sign. At shopping centres and car parks At shopping centres, car parks and other busy places there is a greater chance of pedestrians crossing the road unexpectedly FIGURE 52 or stepping out from behind or between vehicles without looking. Slow down and be alert. You must give way to any vehicles or pedestrians when Near schools FIGURE 51 leaving any private property. At tram stops where there is no If you cannot see if anyone is Take care when driving near safety zone between you and the coming, sound your horn and schools especially at times tram, you must stop and give then drive out very slowly. when children are arriving way to all pedestrians walking to Watch out for children riding on or leaving. Watch out for and from the kerb. bicycles or skateboards. 40 km/h or 60 km/h speed zones outside schools.124
  • Beware of children Vision impaired Sharing the road coming out from with cyclists and Be aware of pedestrians with HOT TIP between parked cars –they are often hard to see over poor or impaired vision who motorcycliststhe top of cars. may be using a white cane or white walking stick. They may You need to be especially alert not see your vehicle clearly or for cyclists and motorcyclists,Where children are walking be able to judge the speed of as they are more at risk thanor playing your vehicle. drivers. Cyclists and motor- cyclists have the same rightsBeware of children darting out and responsibilities as you. Sosuddenly from between parked Near hotels or nightclubs give them space. They need tocars near playgrounds or Pedestrians who have been keep well clear of parked carsanywhere you see children drinking may be impaired by in case doors are openedwalking or playing. alcohol. They may not pay carelessly – so give them room. attention to the traffic before They are entitled to ride twoNear libraries and senior crossing the road. abreast (up to 1.5 metrescitizens’ clubs apart); this makes them easierBe alert and take extra care in Wet weather to see.areas where elderly people Pedestrians may hurry and take Give cyclists and motorcyclistsfrequent, such as libraries, risks in the wet. Slow down and their own space. You shouldsenior citizens’ clubs and take extra care in these overtake cyclists or motor-homes for the elderly. conditions. cyclists only if you can safely move to the right, leaving at least one metre clearance. 125
  • Never share the lane with large vehicles which are cyclists or motorcyclists if you overtaking them, such as Motorcycles accelerate cannot leave this clearance. faster than cars. What trucks and buses. Only move looks like a safe gap in left or turn left from behind a traffic, may not be if large vehicle when you have there is a motorcycle a clear view and are sure that among the cars. the road is clear. more than Watch out for cyclists 1 metre and motorcyclists Bicycles and motorcycles are smaller than cars and therefore harder to see and are more FIGURE 53 likely to be hidden in your blind Allow at least one metre spot. Keep a good lookout for clearance between your vehicle them, particularly before FIGURE 54 and cyclists or motorcyclists turning or entering an intersection or changing lanes. Intersections are where most Seven out of ten motorcycle crashes motorcycle accidents happen happen at intersections. because vehicles turning left or Remember: right cut across in front of the Always ‘Look Bike’. rider. Riders can be hidden by126
  • Sharing the road • You must not pass on thewith trams right of a tram unless tram tracks are at or near the farRemember these general rules left side of the road.about sharing the road with • Buses travelling alongtrams: tram tracks must be treated• Do not overtake a stopped as trams. tram. You must stop level with the rear of the tram and Broken yellow lines next to wait for people to get on and tram lines off. You may only overtake a These lines on roads give trams stopped tram if there are no priority at all times. You can pedestrians on the road and FIGURE 55 cross a broken yellow line and you are facing a green traffic drive on tram tracks at any Broken yellow lines next to light or if a uniformed tram time, however you must not tram lines means the tram has employee signals you through. delay a tram. If you want to turn priority at all times However, you must not right, allow the tram to pass you exceed 10 km/h while passing or keep going and turn right the tram. further on. Do not pull out in• You must give way to a tram front of a tram and do not delay moving into or across a a tram. roundabout. 127
  • Full time tram lanes These tram lanes are in road, to avoid an obstruction, operation at all times and the make a right turn or a U-turn, tram lane sign will not show any as long as you do not delay a times of operation. The same tram or travel in the lane for rules apply to these tram lanes more than 100 metres. You as to those with only a must not delay trams even continuous yellow line. You may during the times when the tram enter the lane to drive across an lane is not operating. intersection, make a right hand turn or a U-turn, however you must not delay a tram. A TRAM LANE is a part of the road with Part time tram lanes tram tracks that is marked along the left Part time tram lanes have tram side of the tracks by a FIGURE 56 lane signs over the lane which continuous yellow line, indicate the hours of operation and is indicated by a Full time tram lanes have Tram Lane sign. and a continuous yellow line to continuous yellow lines next the left of the tracks. You are to the tram lines. Reflective not allowed to travel in a tram markers are used to show lane during the times it is in that the tram lane operates operation (as shown on the at all times. tram lane signs). You may use a tram lane to enter or leave the128
  • Fairway signs Fairway and common sense A Fairway sign may be used If a parked or double parked in addition to the Tram Lane vehicle blocks your lane, you signs and yellow lines, to warn may not be able to avoid driving of a section of road where trams in the tram lane. You won’t be have priority at the times marked breaking the law, but move on the Tram Lane signs. to your own lane as soon as possible to avoid delaying a tram. Trams are longer and heavier than cars and it takes them longer to safely stop. So, when FIGURE 57 you are overtaking a tram orPart time tram lanes have changing lanes, don’t pull in tocontinuous yellow lines next to the empty space immediately inthe tram lane lines. Fairway sign Tram lane sign front of a tram. This is their ‘safety margin’. Be careful and leave plenty of room. 129
  • Sharing the road Sharing the road with buses with police and emergency vehicles On some roads, buses are given special lanes. Only public buses You must get out of the way of or other vehicles as specified on a police or emergency vehicle the sign may use these lanes. when its siren is on or it is However, you may drive in a displaying red or blue flashing Watch out for buses pulling out bus lane for no more than 100 lights. Give way and stop if from the kerb metres if it is necessary to: necessary (despite any other In a built-up area you must rules), even if you have a green • turn left give way to a bus displaying a traffic light. These vehicles • to overtake a vehicle that is Give Way To Buses sign and have exemptions to break rules turning right or making a signalling that it is about to in the case of emergencies and U-turn from the centre of pull out from the kerb into the may act unpredictably. You the road left lane. More information on must also stop if the twin red built-up areas can be found on lights outside a Fire Station or • when first entering or leaving page 74. Ambulance Station are flashing. the road.130
  • Sharing the road Don’t cut in Trucks pick up andwith trucks and other deliver goods Trucks are longer and heavierheavy vehicles than cars and it takes them Be prepared for trucks that are If you cannot longer to safely stop. So, when entering or leaving driveways, see the driverHere are some tips about you are overtaking a truck or roads or loading docks to picksharing the road with trucks of changing lanes, don’t pull in to up and deliver goods. in the truck’sany size. the empty space immediately in Sometimes this will require rear vision front of a truck. This is theirBlind spots – extra patience and courtesy on mirror, ‘safety margin’.be seen, be safe your part to let them do so If you can’t see the safely. Always be prepared to the truckAll vehicles have blind spots whole front of the truck allow extra room for a truck towhere the driver loses sight of driver cannot HOT TIP in your rear vision mirror swing in or out of deliveryvehicles around them. The before you pull into the same points. If possible make eye see youblind spot is greater for truck lane, there may not be enough contact with the driver to letdrivers. If you cannot see the room for the truck to stop safely them know you have seen them.driver in the truck’s rear vision behind you if the traffic suddenlymirror, the truck driver cannot stops; it may hit you or anothersee you. This should be a ‘no vehicle. Be careful and leavestay spot’. Either accelerate to yourself plenty of room when turningovertake if safe to do so, or in front of an oncoming truck.decrease speed and pull back towhere you can be seen. Moreinformation on blind spots canbe found on page 36. 131
  • The nature of trucks A Long Vehicle sign is displayed on a truck that is Trucks are bigger and heavier much longer than normal. than cars and slower to It will take longer to overtake, accelerate especially when and will need extra room to starting, merging into traffic or safely stop behind you. Make going uphill. You need to allow Some oversized trucks are sure you can see the entire for this if you see a truck supported by pilot vehicles front of the truck and a little pulling into traffic up ahead of and VicRoads Transport Safety space around it in your rear you. Be prepared to overtake Services vehicles. Pilot vehicles vision mirror before you pull if it’s safe, or to reduce speed provide advance warning to in after you overtake. if necessary. other road users of the presence of OVERSIZE A Do Not Overtake Turning Signs on trucks vehicles and VicRoads vehicles Vehicle sign tells you that the manage traffic. truck is at least 7.5 metres long An Oversize sign, sometimes and requires more turning accompanied by flashing amber room to negotiate corners, lights, is displayed on a truck intersections or roundabouts. which is longer or wider than Pilot Vehicle Trucks displaying this sign may usual. The load may even need part or all of two lanes to overhang into your lane. Take turn and can legally do so (see notice and watch what is page 106 for more information). different about it and adjust VicRoads This sign tells you that you your driving to suit. Remember, Transport Safety must not overtake alongside amber flashing lights always Vehicle a turning truck. indicate caution is necessary.132
  • Sharing the road Farm animals on roads with animals A Give Way To Stock sign may be displayed on country roads Each year there are a number to enable stock such as cows or of serious crashes involving sheep to move across or along horses and other farm animals. the road. Horses Slow down and watch out for horses being led or driven Blind spots are increased on the road – leave as much when the truck is turning space as possible to allow for HOT TIP and the chances of unexpected movements bydamage to your vehicle, injury or the horse.death is increased. Stay where youcan be seen so you can be safe. Never use your car horn around horses – it may startle even the most placid horse and could cause it to bolt and cause an accident. 133
  • Warning signs are also displayed Railway level on the approaches to permanent crossings stock crossings. Look and listen for trains when there is a crossing ahead. Drive slowly, at a speed which will allow you to stop if necessary. The following information also applies to tram level crossings. When a Give Way To Stock sign Obey the tram level crossing signs. is displayed, you must travel at a safe speed that will enable you Gates, booms and to slow down or stop to avoid a flashing lights collision with any animal either at or near the sign or within the distance shown on the sign. When a Stop sign is displayed at a stock crossing, you must stop before reaching the crossing and must not proceed until all animals have crossed the road.134
  • Where there are gates, booms, booms or flashing lights, take Look both ways for trainsor flashing lights at railway extra care. Slow down. Look If you have stopped for a train,level crossings, you must not and listen for trains in both don’t move off until you havecross until signals have stopped directions. Usually there are checked that another train isflashing and the gates or booms warning signs placed well in not following or coming theare fully open. advance of these crossings. other way.Keep clear of the Following other signstrain tracks or directionsIf there is traffic stopped on theother side of the railwaycrossing, you must not crossunless there is room for yourvehicle on the other side –otherwise you could be stuckon the tracks in the path of anoncoming train. There may be other signs youWhere there are no gates, must obey at railway levelbooms or flashing lights crossings. These are usuallyAt some railway level crossings, either Give Way or Stop signs.particularly in the country, You should also stop if a railwaywhere there are no gates, employee signals you to stop. 135
  • PARKING There are three Stopping or parking types of parking: Parking is not as easy regulations apply even if you have stopped or 1 Parallel parking as it seems. So that you parked your car and don’t cause problems for have your hazard This is the usual way to park warning lights on. unless signs tell you otherwise. others or risk parking fines, If signs say it is illegal You must park completely you need to observe and for you to be stopping within the parking bay, in line interpret many types of or parking at a place, with and close to the kerb. having your hazard parking signs. warning lights on will not change this. less than 3 metres A person must not cause a hazard to any person When you park beside or vehicle by opening a the road look out for door of a vehicle, leaving cyclists before opening a door of a vehicle open, your car door. Look out for cyclists before you more or exiting a vehicle. than drive out of your 1 metre parking space. more than 3 metres FIGURE 58136
  • If parking bays are not marked, 2 Angle parking 3 Centre of road parkingyou must:• leave one metre between you and the vehicles in front and behind• park with your vehicle facing the direction of travel of vehicles next to where your vehicle is parked• not unreasonably obstruct the path of other vehicles or pedestrians. FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 You must park at the angle You must drive in forwards indicated by the signs or marked and drive out forwards. bays. Where no angle is indicated Do not reverse out of these by signs or marked bays, you spots, unless a sign indicates must park at a 45°angle. you may do so. 137
  • Parking control signs A sign with the letter ‘P’ only hours of 9am and 4pm from means you can park without a Monday to Friday. Outside that Parking signs time limit. time period parking is allowed with no restrictions. Parking signs tell you whether or not you can park, for how long, The 1P sign on the right during which hours, and if you indicates a one hour time limit have to pay. Some parking signs during the hours of 9am to provide more details than others. 12noon on Saturdays. Any other time you are free to park in that area with no restrictions. Any number next to the ‘P’ indicates the amount of time Meter Parking you can park. For example, the An individual parking meter sign above left indicates a five next to your vehicle means you minute parking limit, whilst the must pay as instructed on the sign on the right shows a one parking sign or meter. 2 2 hour limit. The parking limits apply during A group meter for the parking area nearby means you must the periods shown on the sign. purchase a ticket. Follow the For example, the five minute instructions on the meter or parking sign on the left means sign. Some group meters print General parking signs that parking is allowed for a five out a ticket you must display on minute period between the your dashboard.138
  • Other group meters require reserved parking spots without No Stopping signsyour parking bay number a valid disabled permit. These tell you that you must not(marked on the road) and Where not to park stop at the kerb for any reason.electronically record your feepaid and time allowed. No Parking signsAll meters are checkedregularly by parking inspectors.Parking for disabled You are allowed two minutes in a No Parking area only if you remain within three metres of the vehicle and you are pickingParking bays with this sign or up or dropping off passengers;that are indicated by a road otherwise if you stop, you aremarking have been set aside to considered to have parked,allow disabled persons easy even if you stay in the vehicle.access to places such as shops,libraries or community centres.You must not park in these 139
  • Clearways On the signs the letter ‘C’ goods and public passenger means clearway – you must vehicles or taxis that are Clearways help traffic move not stop here for any reason dropping off or picking up faster during peak times. during the hours and days passengers (30 minute limit or noted on the sign. as shown on the sign). Zone signs Clearway sign used at start of clearway Truck Zone sign Only for trucks with a gross Loading Zone sign vehicle mass over 4.5 tonnes. No time limit is applied for a Unless another limit is specified truck loading or unloading on the sign, a loading zone is goods. only for goods carrying vehicles with a ‘G’ code included on their registration labels, signed delivery and courier vehicles, trucks while This sign is used within dropping off or picking up the clearway140
  • Tow away zonesBus Zone sign Taxi Zone signOnly for public buses. Only for taxis.Permit Zone sign Works signOnly for vehicles displaying a Only for vehicles engaged invalid permit for that zone issued construction work in or nearby the relevant authority. the zone. Typical use of Tow Away Zone signs 141
  • A Tow Away zone means your General stopping and • on the wrong side of the vehicle will be towed away if parking rules road, ie. on the far right side you park at this spot during the of a two-way road You must not leave a vehicle times specified. Not only do you stationary: • on a footpath or reservation pay a parking fine, you also need (unless the vehicle is a to pay a fee to reclaim your car. • double parked motorcycle or bicycle) • where there is a Keep Clear • in a bus lane road marking • half in, half out of a • within an intersection No Parking or (except on the continuous No Stopping area side of a continuing road of a T-intersection) • opposite continuous double white lines • on freeways (except in an emergency stopping lane) • opposite a continuous white line next to a broken white • across a lane or private line with the continuous line driveway closer to you • where you would leave less than three metres of road clear for traffic142
  • • within 20 metres of: • within 10 metres of: • within three metres of an Australia Post mail box – both sides of an intersection – an intersection without with traffic lights traffic lights • within three metres of the departure side of a crossing – the approach side of a – the approach side of a with traffic lights not at an bus stop tram stop sign intersection – the approach side of a – the departure side of a • within one metre of a fire children’s crossing bus stop sign hydrant – both sides of a level crossing – both sides of a safety zone • on a curve or crest outside a – the approach side of a – the approach side of built-up area unless visible pedestrian crossing that is traffic lights not at an for 100 metres from behind, not at an intersection intersection or unless signs allow – the departure side of a • next to a continuous yellow pedestrian crossing that is edge line. not at an intersection – the departure side of a children’s crossing 143
  • PENALTIES A licence or learner permit may or four months imprisonment be suspended or cancelled as a for a first offence and All traffic offences result of: mandatory imprisonment for up • a Court conviction to two years for a second will result in some type offence). of penalty. • a Traffic Infringement Notice The following provides a • accumulation of demerit points summary of the actions that These include monetary • action taken by the Sheriff’s may arise from a traffic offence. fines, loss of your learner Office Contact VicRoads for further permit or licence, or you • action taken by VicRoads. information. may be taken to court. If a licence or learner permit is Suspend not held, a person may be Many offences also disqualified from obtaining a The licence or learner permit is licence or a learner permit for a withdrawn for a specified attract demerit points. specified period. period. You can not drive during In most serious cases A person who has their licence this period. In most cases the or learner permit suspended or original licence or learner prison sentences may permit is returned. However, if cancelled by a Court, a Traffic be imposed. Infringement Notice, the the suspension has resulted in a Sheriff’s Office or by VicRoads change to the conditions of the is not permitted to drive. Severe licence, a new licence will need penalties exist if driving while to be issued (see Penalties for suspended, unlicenced, or probationary licences holders, whilst disqualified (up to $3,000 page 146).144
  • Cancel Disqualify Sheriff’s OfficeA licence or learner permit that Permission to apply for a The role of the Sheriff’s Office You needis cancelled is no longer valid. licence or learner permit is is to enforce court orders,You can not drive. Once the withdrawn (if one is not held) collect fines and civil debts. never knowperiod of cancellation is over, as a result of a cancellation or This may include the seizure about theseyou will need to apply to have suspension. and sale of assets, licenceyour licence or learner permit suspension or, as a final option, things…reissued before you can start Imprisonment imprisonment. but that’sdriving again. In some cases, a Court may Demerit points up to youReissue of the licence or impose a jail term as well as alearner permit may require one monetary fine. Demerit points are one type of and the wayor more of the following actions penalty that will be recorded against your driver licence or you decideto be completed: PERIN Court learner permit when you to drive• knowledge of road law and/ The role of the PERIN Court is commit certain traffic offences or practical driving test to administratively resolve anywhere in Australia. unpaid infringement notices.• an order from a Court to Demerit points range from These offences generally have be relicensed one to ten depending on the fixed penalties and include• an education course to parking offences and driving severity of the offence. be completed offences.• other requirements as specified by VicRoads. 145
  • Learner and probationary Penalties for learner Penalties for drivers who incur 5 or more permit holders probationary licence demerit points in any 12 month holders If a learner permit is cancelled period may have their licence or suspended, it may affect the If your first probationary licence suspended for at least 3 months. permit holder’s eligibility to is suspended or cancelled in the This gives novice drivers the apply for a licence, as a learner first 12 months, your licence opportunity to learn from their permit must be held for a will be restricted, preventing mistake, but makes licence loss continuous period in the three you from carrying more than a reality for persistent or six months immediately one passenger in your vehicle offenders. before applying for a licence. for 12 months after you get Any break within this three or your licence back. If you get 12 or more demerit six month period means that points in a 3 year period, you If your probationary licence is the permit has not been held may have your licence or cancelled, your licence will be for the required time period learner permit suspended for at reissued as a probationary prior to licence application. least 3 months. licence for a further full three year term. Further information and a full list of offences and demerit points can be found at VicRoads web site:
  • Penalties for full LEGAL Carry your licencelicence holders RESPONSIBILITIES You must carry yourWhen a full licence is cancelled, probationary licence whenevera full licence will be reissued As the holder of a licence you drive.when all relicensing or learner permit, thererequirements have been met. Change of name are a number of additionalIf a Court Order is required to You must notify VicRoads legal responsibilities you within 14 days when your namebe produced due to an alcoholor drug driving related offence, must fulfil. has changed.then a three year zero blood This can only be done in personalcohol restriction will be at any VicRoads Customerimposed on the licence when it Service Centre. It must beis reissued. supported by original documents along with either a photo licence or documents that prove your identity. The following documents are acceptable for a change of name: • Marriage Certificate (issued by the Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages in Australia) 147
  • • Divorce Papers Change of address Notification of a • Deed Poll (pre 1 November disability You must notify VicRoads 1986 in Victoria) within 14 days when your You must notify VicRoads if residential or postal address you have an illness or disability • Change of Name Registration has changed. You may change that may impair your ability to (after 1 November 1986 in your address in one of the drive safely. Victoria) following ways: You will need to provide a • Guardianship Order current medical certificate from • Adoption Paper 1 By calling VicRoads your treating medical Telephone numbers can be practitioner that states your • Birth Certificate found on pages 8 – 9. fitness to drive and provides (issued after 26 June 2000 in details of your illness and Victoria shows the change of 2 By attending in person at disability. Standard medical or name details on the back of any VicRoads Customer eyesight report forms are the certificate). Service Centre available from any VicRoads See the list on the inside Customer Service Centre or by back cover. calling VicRoads. These forms 3 On the VicRoads are also available on the homepage VicRoads website.
  • Air and noise CRASH What you must dopollution RESPONSIBILITIES after a crashYou must ensure any vehicle • Stop drive meets relevant air If you are involved in a • Give assistance to anyand noise emmission standards. crash causing death or injured person.Drivers of offending vehicles injury and do not stop and • Provide name, address,may be fined or taken to court give assistance, you can be registration number detailsand the owner may be issued and the vehicle owner’s namewith a notice to repair the fined up to $8000 and/or to the other parties involvedvehicle. be imprisoned for up to two in the crash, or their years. You will also lose representative, and to the police (if in attendance). your licence for at least • If anyone is injured and the two years. police are not in attendance, you must report the crash If you are involved in a to the nearest open police crash there are certain station. • If there is any property things you must do damage and the owner (or immediately after police) are not present, you the crash. must report the crash to the nearest open police station. 149
  • There are other things you FIRST AID should do at a crash scene to prevent other people To call an ambulance, AFTER A CRASH police or fire brigade, getting hurt, and to help those phone 000. The following first aid people involved in the crash To call a tow truck, (see First aid after a crash on phone 13 1176. information is based on this page). current Red Cross teaching There are emergency phones on in line with Australian the side of the road on most Resuscitation Council freeways throughout Victoria. These are called VicRoads guidelines. ‘Help Phones’ and can be used 24 hours a day for vehicle These guidelines are breakdowns or any other kind intended to provide the of emergency. The phones are directly linked to the basic principles for an VicRoads Traffic Control and untrained person to assist Communications Centre. at a crash site and/or attempt resuscitation.150
  • To learn basic first aid such Applying first aid Read these simple instructionsas EAR (Expired Airways after a crash now and keep this handbook in your car. Someone else may useResuscitation) and CPR Many of us may need treatment it to help you in an accident.(Cardio Pulmonary after a road crash at some stageResuscitation) you will of our lives. Whether or not we survive until trained help If you are at a crashneed to undertake an site, try to remain arrives may well depend onappropriate course. somebody’s willingness to give calm and... first aid. • remember that acting quickly is important 3 things that could • if necessary, call for an save a life... ambulance, or send someone to call them 1. Keeping a person’s • ask if there is anybody airway open and clear trained in first aid at the 2. Making sure that they crash site and if not, and you are breathing are first on the crash scene, 3. Stopping heavy bleeding follow the following steps. 151
  • 1. Survey the scene 3. Check the victims Four ways you can help victims • is the area safe for you to check airway after a crash: approach? - open the victim’s mouth and 1. Survey the scene • ask bystanders to help make check for any loose or area safe obstructive objects eg loose 2. Make the crash scene safe and protect the area • count the number of people dentures, vomit, blood etc., who are injured clear from airway 3. Check the victims - check • call an ambulance (dial 000) - if airway is clear, tilt the head airway, breathing and back, and check for breathing circulation or send someone to call them • ask if there is anybody check breathing 4. Stop the heavy bleeding trained in first aid at the - look for the rise and fall of the crash site. chest - listen for breathing 2. Make the crash - feel for the victim’s breath on scene safe and your cheek protect the area - continue to maintain an open • position your car with its airway hazard lights flashing, to - if the victim is not breathing warn other motorists, or use begin mouth to mouth headlights to light up the resuscitation (see page 154). scene if necessary. check circulation • send someone down the road - feel for the victim’s pulse by to warn approaching traffic, placing two fingers on their and turn off the ignition in neck (below the jawbone) or damaged vehicles inside the wrist.152
  • For conscious victims: For conscious, breathing For unconscious, breathing victims still in the vehicle: victims outside the vehicle:• talk to the victim, tell them your name and reassure • if you are certain that the • keep a close eye on them to them vehicle and surrounds are make sure their airway is safe, and the victim is either clear and they are still• if there is no response, conscious and/or breathing, breathing, whilst waiting for gently touch the victim on they do not have to be the ambulance to arrive the shoulders, give a simple unnecessarily removed until command eg. “squeeze my • if the victim is lying on the specialist help arrives, hands” to see if they can ground, it is vital to keep unless circumstances respond them on their side in a stable arise, ie:• check for and control any position heavy bleeding (see Stop - they stop breathing • with their head tilted back heavy bleeding, page 155) - their condition worsens and face pointed down in - it is no longer safe for them order to maintain an open to stay in the vehicle. airway. If a victim inside or outside a For victims unconscious vehicle, must be moved to escape danger, or for you to and NOT breathing: give mouth to mouth, do so Even if the victim is injured, carefully and gently because of the risk of spinal injury or you will need to remove them increased bleeding from the vehicle to perform the following steps on next page: 153
  • Mouth to Mouth 3. Breathe into the victim until 6. Check to see if victim is now Resuscitation the chest begins to rise breathing by watching for chest rise and fall, whilst at With victim on their back, the same time, checking check airway... pulse. Check for at least 10 1. Tilt the head back fully seconds. to open with airway If the victim is still not breathing... 7. Continue to breathe for victim at 1 breath every 4. Remove your mouth 4 seconds (15 per minute) (make sure the chest falls) 8. After 1 minute, check 5. Give five normal breaths for breathing and pulse, within 10 seconds if still not breathing, continue until the ambulance arrives 2. Cover the victim’s mouth with your mouth blocking Note If performing mouth their nose with your cheek to mouth resuscitation on children, use minimal head tilt and small breaths. For infants, give small puffs and do NOT use head tilt.154
  • 4. Stop heavy bleeding • Always give first aid careHeavy bleeding of any type can In an emergency, when gloves in ways which protect yoube fatal. Heavy external bleeding are not available and you have and the victim fromrequires quick action as follows: to control bleeding: disease transmission. • Use protective barriersTo stop external bleeding: • ask the victim to help by (for example disposable applying pressure or by gloves or face mask)• locate where the blood is placing a dressing or other which are appropriate to coming from the emergency. clean dry cloth between your• apply firm pressure where the hands and the wound • When gloves are not blood is coming from, using available and you have to control bleeding, ask the whatever clean cloth is victim to help you by available, eg. an item of applying pressure, or clothing, to make a pad. placing a dressing or• if possible tie the pad firmly in other clean dry cloth place beween your hand and the wound.• if possible, raise the injured • Wash your hands area. This may reduce or help thoroughly as soon as to stop the bleeding possible after giving first aid. • Avoid touching or being splashed by body fluids where possible. 155
  • TEST YOURSELF Q1 In good conditions, a safe Q3 Driving can best be QUESTIONS following distance is: described as: A at least 1 second behind A an easy task that just The questions you will find the car in front about everyone can do in this section are examples B at least two seconds B a task which most of the type of questions behind the car in front people can learn after a few you will be asked. lessons over several weeks C at least two car lengths from the car in front C a complicated task The actual test questions are not the ones asked in Q2 If the police stop you at a Q4 Supervised learner drivers: random breath test station, this handbook. A are more at risk of being you must take a breath test: involved in a crash (The answers to Test Yourself A when you are asked to causing injury than Questions are upside down at the do so probationary drivers bottom of the next page). B only if you have B have the same risk of been drinking being involved in a crash causing injury as do C only if you have probationary drivers been speeding C are amongst the safest drivers on the roads156
  • Q5 Are your responsibilities B looking quickly over your Q8 The likelihood of a crash the same for a school shoulder to look out the is almost halved after: crossing as for a side windows A 6-8 months of solo pedestrian crossing? C a place behind the driver driving experience A Yes, in both cases you that can’t be seen by using the mirrors B 1 year of solo may drive on after giving driving experience way to pedestrians Q7 To make the most of your C 2-3 years of solo B No, at a children’s learning when you have driving experience crossing you must stop received your learners and remain stopped until permit, it is best to take: Q9 What is the best way to the crossing is completely check the crashworthiness clear of pedestrians A frequent drives with your of a new or used car? supervising driver C No, at a children’s A check cars safety rating at crossing you have to give B the occasional long way only to children drive with your or in the Australian New supervising driver Car Assessment ProgramQ6 A headcheck is: C regular drives with you or the Used Car Safety Rating brochures. A making eye contact with supervising driver, at other road users so that times when the traffic is B ask your parents or you know they have light and it is not raining a friend seen you C ask the person you’re buying the car from Answers: Q1 B, Q2 A, Q3 C, Q4 C, Q5 B, Q6 B, Q7 A, Q8 A. Q9 A 157