4   Rules and responsibilities    • Alcohol            • Turning    • Drugs, medicine    • Freeways      and driving      ...
4         Rules and responsibilitiesSo what are the rules of driving?    The rules listed here are only aThere is more to ...
ALCOHOL                                                     The effects of                                    BLOOD ALCOHO...
dangers in the traffic                                 The risk of being involved in a    Some of the factors that lead to...
• general health – if you are in    amount of alcohol in your                 So work out your travel       poor health, y...
of what BAC your usual pattern          You will be asked to blow into a    permit driver or a full driver.of drinking lea...
DRUGS, MEDICINE                Illegal drugs                       consequences – for instance,                           ...
Medicines                            • some strong painkillers.        How to reduce the risk of a                        ...
If you are worried about   THE LAW ABOUT                  are to do their job in a                the effect that your    ...
Children                             children weigh 32 kg and are      away from the dashboard as                         ...
Pregnant women                      SPEED LIMITS                 Built-up areas     Seat belts protect both pregnant      ...
Speed limited areas                  School speed zones                                       On roads                    ...
Safe speeds for                     Light or heavy traffic               Green lights can                                 ...
Wear sunglasses and use the sun        Slippery roads                      Dirt roadsvisor in your car.                   ...
How quickly do you                ROAD SIGNS                    Regulatory signs     think you can stop?                  ...
Follow these traffic signs      Stop and Give Way signs             Keep left unless overtakingThese are signs showing whi...
Warning signs                                                 Intersection Warning signs     These signs alert you of     ...
There are many types of        Intersection control   Changing road layoutintersections.                 warning signs    ...
Advisory speed signs             Changing conditions      Railway level crossings     Advisory speed signs are            ...
Pedestrian signs                 Road work signsThese signs warn drivers of      These are usually temporarypedestrians cr...
Direction signs                  ROAD MARKINGS                Centre of the     These standard green signs                ...
FIGURE 7                            FIGURE 8                         FIGURE 9Broken white lines                  Double co...
Lane markings        Broken white lines separate                                                              lanes of tra...
Roads without                         Special purpose                                  marked lanes                       ...
Tram lanes                         Bicycle lanes                       Transit lanes     For trams and public buses only. ...
Traffic lane arrows                             Painted traffic                                                islandsArro...
Give Way line                    Stop line markings –                                      markings –                     ...
TRAFFIC                      Traffic lightsCONTROLS ATINTERSECTIONS  Half of all crashes  happen at intersections.        ...
Traffic lights with arrows                                 Traffic lights for trams,     Traffic lights with arrows make  ...
Pedestrian signals                  GIVE WAY RULESTurning vehicles must always                                           T...
Giving Way to                     In slip lanes                     At children’s crossings     Pedestrians               ...
In shared zones                   When making a U-turn              Giving way toIn a shared zone shared by both   You mus...
Giving way at     When the law refers                                         intersections (except     to VEHICLES, this ...
If you are turning right at an                        intersection without traffic                        lights or signs ...
Giving way at                     These diagrams show how to     T-intersections                   give way at T-intersect...
FIGURE 28                  FIGURE 29                   FIGURE 30When you turn right        The red vehicle must give   Som...
Giving way at      roundabouts      When entering a roundabout,      you must give way to:      • all vehicles already in ...
Giving way on     A ROUNDABOUT is                divided roads     an intersection with           When a two-way road is d...
Turning from a                                  Other driving      divided road                                    situati...
Changing lanes                       Zip mergingWhenever you change lanes            If you are on a road wherefrom one ma...
Police directions                   TURNING                    Making turns      You must always follow      instructions ...
Making right turns                                                   Making left turns                                   F...
advisable that you stay in the    Hook turns                                       same lane as you go from one           ...
To make a hook turn,                                                                    you must:                         ...
A cyclist may make            a hook turn at any            intersection – not            just at hook turn            int...
Turning and one way roads FIGURE 42                                                                  FIGURE 44            ...
Making turns at                        Turning left                          Turning right      roundabouts               ...
Where arrow(s) are            marked on the road            before or in a roundabout            you must drive in the    ...
FREEWAYS                      Entering a freeway             Exiting a freeway      As freeway speeds are         • Adjust...
Overtaking lane                      Stopping                           TollwaysBe extra alert on freeways as        You m...
SHARING THE                 Co-operative driving                                         ROAD SAFELY                 We al...
Remember that co-operation is                Co-operative driving       Keeping your coolnot just limited to other car    ...
Sharing the road with             Signalling your moves                     Here are some of the ways you      other motor...
Watch other vehicles’ indicators                                        2 Using your brake lightsand make sure they are do...
4 Using your headlights              High-beam headlights              Don’t be dazzled by high-beam        and tail light...
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Part4 v8
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Part4 v8

1,480 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,480
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Part4 v8

  1. 1. 4 Rules and responsibilities • Alcohol • Turning • Drugs, medicine • Freeways and driving • Sharing the road safely • The law about seat belts • Parking • Speed limits • Penalties • Road signs • Legal responsibilities • Road markings • Crash responsibilities • Traffic controls • First aid after a crash at intersections • Test yourself questions • Give Way rules 63
  2. 2. 4 Rules and responsibilitiesSo what are the rules of driving? The rules listed here are only aThere is more to driving than summary of some of the road rulesjust knowing the road rules. motorists must know. For moreHowever, knowing the basic road information visit our homepage:rules is essential. at www.vicroads.vic.gov.au You can also purchase a copyAs a car passenger, you should be of Road Rules – Victoria, or thewatching drivers and traffic relevant Acts and Regulationspatterns, noticing mistakes other (see Resources to help you,road users make. page 175). Road law,In the diagrams shown in this it’s more thansection, the vehicles are coloured what yougreen and red. In all cases, the know…it’sred vehicle B must wait for the how you usegreen vehicle A. it that is so important 65
  3. 3. ALCOHOL The effects of BLOOD ALCOHOL alcohol on driving Learner and probationary CONCENTRATION (BAC) is a measure of the Alcohol affected drivers: drivers must not drive with amount of alcohol you • feel overconfident resulting any alcohol in their blood. have in your blood. It is measured by the in risk taking on the road This zero BAC also applies number of grams of • are often unaware of the level to all restricted motorcycle alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. of their driving impairment licence holders, drivers of For example, a BAC • have slower reflexes and taxis, buses and other of .05 means .05 grams muscle co-ordination making large vehicles, professional or 50 milligrams of it less likely that the driver alcohol in every will be able to stop or swerve driving instructors and 100 millilitres of blood. in an emergency some full licence holders • are less able to process who have previously had information and make a drink driving conviction. appropriate decisions as their vision, hearing and brain are All other full licence all adversely affected. holders must be less than A driver who has been drinking .05 BAC. struggles to accurately judge speeds and distances and will often fail to respond to potential66
  4. 4. dangers in the traffic The risk of being involved in a Some of the factors that lead to environment. The ability to crash increases dramatically if a different BAC include: cope with more than one thing the driver has been drinking • gender – a woman drinking at a time is greatly reduced (for alcohol. The graph shows the the same amount of alcohol example, steer a course within a average relationship between as a man of a similar size will lane, respond to traffic signals the risk of having an accident have a higher BAC and avoid a pedestrian who and the amount of alcohol in suddenly steps onto the road). the blood. For inexperienced • body size – a person of small drivers the risk at any BAC build will have a higher BAC What are the risks level will be even higher. than a larger person drinking the same amount of alcoholRISK OF ACCIDENTS 30 Factors affecting BAC • food consumption – food 25 Alcohol affects different people slows down the absorption of 20 in different ways and can even alcohol so, if you have not 15 affect the same person on had a substantial meal before 10 different occasions in different drinking, you will reach a 5 0 ways. You can drink the same higher BAC more quickly .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 amount of alcohol on different BAC (BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION) • rate of drinking and the types days and have different BAC RELATIVE CHANCE OF of alcohol consumed – the readings each time. CRASHING AT VARIOUS BACS quicker you drink and the greater the alcoholic content of the drink, the sooner you will reach a higher BAC 67
  5. 5. • general health – if you are in amount of alcohol in your So work out your travel poor health, your liver is less bloodstream or speed up the arrangements before you effective in dealing with the processing of the alcohol by start drinking. alcohol you drink your liver. The liver does this in • Share a taxi with friends. its own time. • use of other drugs – • Take public transport. combining alcohol with It is important to drugs increases the risk of remember that if you • Organise with a friend to take motor vehicle crashes even HOT TIP have a lot to drink the turns driving. You and your if the alcohol is consumed in night before, you are likely to still friend will need to agree not small doses. have alcohol in your blood the to drink when driving. next morning. The effect of alcohol can also • Organise to stay the night. exaggerate the mood you are If you are having a party, help • Arrange to be picked up by a in, and make you feel more your guests to avoid drinking relative or friend who hasn’t tired if you are already tired. and driving. been drinking. Only time reduces your Public breath tester BAC level How to avoid drinking and driving You can measure your BAC Your body takes time to get rid level by using a public breath of alcohol. No amount of coffee, • Plan ahead. It is more tester. These are located in exercise, cold showers, fresh difficult to plan how to get some hotels and are useful to air or vomiting will help. Whilst home if you have had alcohol determine your BAC level. these may make you feel more to drink – remember, your You would need to do this a alert, they don’t change the judgement will be impaired. number of times to get an idea68
  6. 6. of what BAC your usual pattern You will be asked to blow into a permit driver or a full driver.of drinking leads to, and how small device. It will immediately Learner and probationarylong it takes for your BAC to give an indication of the alcohol drivers who record a BACreturn to zero. Do not attempt in your blood – if any. If you reading between zero and .05to do this if you are intending haven’t been drinking there is will have their permit or licenceto drive. no problem. If you have a suspended for at least one month. positive result, you will be If you record a BAC of .05 or If you drive after drinking asked to do a second test on over you will lose your licence your driving will suffer – HOT TIP so remember, the safest another breath testing for at least 6 months for a first instrument. This reading will be offence. For a BAC higher thanBAC is zero even when you have a used as evidence if you are over .10 the periods are longer. Heavyfull licence. the legal limit. fines can also be imposed.Breath testing procedures Drivers admitted to hospitalPolice can request the driver of after any kind of road crash area vehicle to undergo a breath required to provide a breath REFUSING A BREATHtest at any time. There are test or allow a blood sample to TEST IS AN OFFENCE.many breath testing stations or be taken. Your licence will be cancelled and you willbooze buses patrolling Victorian be disqualified fromroads. You may also be stopped driving for at leastby police in other vehicles and Penalties 2 years if convicted.asked to undergo a breath test. The penalties for exceeding theThousands of drivers are BAC laws are tough - regardlessrandomly tested every week. of whether you are a learner 69
  7. 7. DRUGS, MEDICINE Illegal drugs consequences – for instance, having to stop suddenly or to AND DRIVING Illegal drugs such as ecstasy, respond to the actions of other cannabis (marijuana) and vehicles or pedestrians. Your Medicines and illegal drugs that can affect safe driving heroin can affect your ability to ability to concentrate and are detected in over 25% of safely control a vehicle. maintain attention, make Victorian driver fatalities. Drugs like speed or ecstasy can decisions and to react to In Victoria it is an offence make you feel as if you are a unexpected events is greatly to drive a motor vehicle better driver. Unfortunately, as reduced. Important road signs while impaired by a drug. In your confidence goes up, your may be missed. 2003, the law was driving skills go down, making changed to also allow In an emergency situation, the you a danger to yourself and risk of a crash is increased, and police to undertake everyone else on the road. your ability to avoid the crash is roadside saliva testing of It is extremely dangerous when reduced. Combining even small drivers and riders, to the effect wears off, as you are amounts of cannabis and detect the presence of speed (methamphetamine) likely to experience sudden, alcohol causes much greater and THC, the active uncontrollable sleep. impairment than either one on ingredient of cannabis, Some illegal drugs present its own. which indicates recent special problems. Cannabis, for cannabis use. Driving with example, can make you unable these drugs in the blood or to respond quickly enough to saliva is an offence and what other drivers are doing. penalties (including licence This can have serious loss) will apply.70
  8. 8. Medicines • some strong painkillers. How to reduce the risk of a crash when on medication Not everyone will experience If you’re out ofMany prescription medicinesand some medicines bought the effects of a drug in the • Do not use alcohol with shape, yourover the counter from a same way. When you start your medicines. using a new medicine which driving will bepharmacist can impair your • Keep to the prescribeddriving and increase the risk of may affect your driving, it is as well doses.crashes by affecting your: best not to drive until you understand and have • Do not treat yourself with• mood experienced what effect it additional medicines or other• concentration actually has on you. Most remedies. Always check with medicines have no effect on your doctor or pharmacist.• coordination, and safe driving. Your doctor or • Do not use other people’s• reaction time. pharmacist will be able to give medicines. you advice about this.Some examples of prescription • Read the labels on all yourmedications that can affect medicines and heed theirdriving are: advice. Check with your• sleeping tablets doctor or pharmacist if the label on your medicine states• muscle relaxants that the medicine may cause• sedatives drowsiness.• antihistamines (such as in hay fever or cold and flu medicines) 71
  9. 9. If you are worried about THE LAW ABOUT are to do their job in a the effect that your HOT TIP medicine has on your SEAT BELTS crash. You should never driving, stop your driving – not put more than one person Wearing a seat belt is the your medicine! in a restraint. most effective measure for Stop driving and contact your reducing serious injury in a Adult seat belts are not doctor or pharmacist if your medicine: crash. It is because seat designed to protect small • affects your reflexes belts are so effective that bodies in a crash. Children all drivers and passengers need restraints that • affects your ability to concentrate should wear a seat belt specifically fit their size • makes you sleepy or drowsy or appropriate restraint and weight. • gives you blurred or regardless of where they It is illegal to travel in the double vision. sit in the vehicle. This load area of any vehicle If you have to continue to use includes children and (for example a van or station medication that affects your pregnant women. driving in some way, plan ahead wagon) unless using a before you drive, or use Seat belts must be properly constructed seat alternative transport such as and correctly fitting seat securely fastened and taxis or public transport, or call on a friend to drive you. properly adjusted if they belt or child restraint.72
  10. 10. Children children weigh 32 kg and are away from the dashboard as recommended if children are possible.Drivers must ensure that: using a lap only seat belt. If a vehicle has air bags in other• babies under one year old are positions, consult the vehicle carried in an approved child Restraint Fitting owner’s manual for advice on restraint, correctly installed Stations can help you positioning restraints. and adjusted to fit the baby HOT TIP fit a child restraint. More information about• passengers under 16 years Phone 1300 360 745 choosing and using restraints are properly restrained by for the nearest location. and Restraint Fitting Stations a seat belt or by a child is available from VicRoads restraint suitable for their Customer Service Centres size and weight. Restraints and and the VicRoads web site:Child restraint guidelines: air bags www.vicroads.vic.gov.au• infant restraints are suitable A rearward facing restraint for babies up to 9 or 12 kgs should not be used if the restraint is in a position where• child car seats are suitable it will be hit by an exploding for children 8 to 18 kgs air bag.• booster seats are suitable for Children using forward facing children between 14 to 26 kgs car seats or boosters in the• child harnesses can be used front seat of a vehicle should do without a booster until so with the seat pushed as far 73
  11. 11. Pregnant women SPEED LIMITS Built-up areas Seat belts protect both pregnant The speed limit in a built-up Speed limit signs tell you area is 50 kilometres per hour women and their unborn babies. The belt will not harm the maximum speed you (km/h) unless signed the baby if the lap part of the can drive in normal otherwise. belt is below the bulge, the sash conditions. You must passes between the breasts and the buckle is fastened down by always obey them by not the hips. An unborn baby is exceeding the speed shown. more at risk in a crash if a seat belt is not worn. Buckling up takes seconds – serious A BUILT-UP AREA is crashes take lives. where there are buildings and/or houses next to the road or there is street lighting at intervals not over 100 metres apart for a distance of 500 metres or more.74
  12. 12. Speed limited areas School speed zones On roads where theThere are other signs which Lower speed zones are being speed limit isdesignate speed limits for whole introduced outside all Victorian 80 km/h orareas (networks of roads) schools. above,which have a sign on each road 40 km/h andinto the area. Permanent 60 km/h 40 km/h static or electronic variable signs zones outside will be used to alert drivers to the schools on lower speed limit. most 50 km/h Shared zones roads. Shared zones have a speed limit of 10 km/h or as indicated on the Shared Zone sign. In a Time based shared zone, drivers must giveFreeways and 40 km/h way to pedestrians.country roads zones outside schools onThe speed limit on freeways and 60 km/houtside built-up areas in Victoria and 70 km/his 100 km/h unless signs tell roads.you otherwise. Some mainstreets in rural town centreshave 50 km/h speed limits. 75
  13. 13. Safe speeds for Light or heavy traffic Green lights can change to red different needs If there is a lot of traffic, slow down to the average speed of A green light may turn red There is no one best speed. everyone else and watch out for before you enter an intersection, Speed limit signs tell you the hazards. Pedestrians often weave so drive at a speed that will allow maximum speed you must not through cars stuck in peak hour you to stop. drive beyond. You have to decide ‘crawls’. what is a safe speed within the Country roads specified limit. and animals Here are some factors you Shops, parked cars and people When you see animals – should consider. Where there are shops, there beware. They are unpredictable are people and cars. Electronic and can wander or dart onto the Unpredictable surfaces variable signs at selected strip road. Farmers often move sheep The risk of losing control of a shopping centres indicate or cattle and you need to slow vehicle can increase as a result reduced speed limits at high risk down while you are passing (see of deterioration in the road such times. Be alert. Children can run Sharing the road with animals, as potholes, wheel ruts or out from between parked cars, page 133). grooves, slippery surfaces and and parked cars can pull out The time of the day loose gravel. Always try to be from the kerb suddenly. Watch aware of the road surface your speed, slow down and try It can be difficult to see the road conditions and if necessary to anticipate what others may do. ahead when you are driving into adjust your driving technique bright sunlight at dawn or dusk. and speed according to the You will need to slow down. conditions.76
  14. 14. Wear sunglasses and use the sun Slippery roads Dirt roadsvisor in your car. Slippery roads can be caused by Dust from oncoming vehicles If the vehicle in rain, mud, frost or ice. Not all may conceal unexpectedWeather conditions areas that are slippery when wet hazards, such as other vehicles, front of yoursDriving in heavy rain, frost or are signposted – watch out for a dip or corner. Dirt roads can stops suddenly,snow can be very dangerous – it others. Rain makes all roads become very slippery when wetmay be difficult to see and roads slippery. When rain first begins, or corrugated. Mud thrown onto and you aremay be slippery. You need to oil and dirt are washed to the windows can reduce visibility.slow right down, or in some surface. Until further rain Slow down and drive at a speed travelling too fastcases, pull over off the road and washes these away, skidding can appropriate for conditions or too close –wait for the conditions to occur. Slow down and always because road holding is reducedimprove. Take care when mist or keep your distance from the and stopping distances are you will not befog affects visibility. vehicle in front in poor greater. conditions of any sort. able to avoidYou may need to use hazard Road edgewarning lights or rear fog lights a crash!(see Driving in dangerous Road works If you need to move a wheel offconditions or situations, page 119). the bitumen, such as when At roadwork sites the number of passing an oncoming vehicle on lanes is often reduced to protectCurving roads a narrow road, don’t panic, road workers. Temporary speed pulling the wheel quickly to getSlow down before entering a limit signs are erected to guide back on the road may lead tocurve or bend, then accelerate traffic through the work site at over correction and potential lossa little to drive out. It can be safe speeds. All drivers must of control. Slow down, brakedangerous to brake in a curve or obey the speed limits. gently if needed, take your timebend; you may lose control of and steer normally back onto theyour vehicle. bitumen when safe to do so. 77
  15. 15. How quickly do you ROAD SIGNS Regulatory signs think you can stop? These signs tell you what you Road signs are there to Speed makes a big difference must or must not do. You are to your ability to stop. If you provide information to help committing an offence if you double your speed, you cover keep you and others safe disobey these signs. They are almost 4 times the distance usually black and white, on the road. before you stop. sometimes with red indicating danger or a restriction. At 60 km/h you may cover up to 67 metres before you can stop. At 100 km/h you may cover up to 142 metres before you can stop. You must keep left However, some regulatory This makes a significant signs are black and yellow: difference to your chance of being involved in an accident. Beware – pedestrians crossing78
  16. 16. Follow these traffic signs Stop and Give Way signs Keep left unless overtakingThese are signs showing which These signs enable drivers to Where this sign is shown, or ondirection you must, or must get through intersections and multi-lane roads where thenot take. other places safely (see Giving speed limit is over 80 km/h, way to vehicles at intersections, you must not drive in the right page 95). lane unless overtaking another vehicle, turning right, making a U-turn, avoiding an obstruction, or when traffic is congested.You must not turn left Hand held signs Hand held signs are often used at work sites. They may also be found at school crossings.You must not enter this road Be prepared to obey the sign.You must turn left You must stop 79
  17. 17. Warning signs Intersection Warning signs These signs alert you of Intersection Warning signs are possible danger ahead. They used to warn you of the type of are usually yellow diamond intersection ahead, particularly shapes with black words or when the intersection is symbols. Take notice of the dangerous or difficult to see. Sharp bends advice these signs give. It usually means slowing down. An INTERSECTION is Curves and bends signs where two or more roads meet and where vehicles Curves and bends signs tell you travelling on different what to expect – from simple roads might collide. curves, to winding sections and A winding section of road sharp bends. A normal bend80
  18. 18. There are many types of Intersection control Changing road layoutintersections. warning signs End of divided roadCross-road intersection Traffic lights ahead Two lanes are for oncoming trafficT-intersection Stop sign aheadStaggered side road junction Roundabout ahead 81
  19. 19. Advisory speed signs Changing conditions Railway level crossings Advisory speed signs are When approaching railway level sometimes used with other crossings – slow down and be warning signs. prepared to stop. The advisory speed sign shows the maximum speed that is safe to drive in good conditions. Hollow/dip in the road Rail crossing ahead Uncontrolled crossings ahead Slippery when wet Advisory speed sign used with curve warning sign Uncontrolled rail crossing on Gravel road side road82
  20. 20. Pedestrian signs Road work signsThese signs warn drivers of These are usually temporarypedestrians crossing the road. signs warning drivers to slow down and drive carefully because there are road works Workers on the road ahead ahead. Consider the safety of road workers when approaching road works.Pedestrians crossing Left lane ends, prepare to move You may proceed slowly (merge) into another laneChildren crossing Slow down and be prepared to stop 83
  21. 21. Direction signs ROAD MARKINGS Centre of the These standard green signs road lines It is important to be able with white lettering are Many roads are painted with common throughout the state. to ‘read’ the white or broken white lines and single They give information such as yellow markings on the continuous lines in the centre of road names, destinations along road. Road markings can the road. a route and distances to the destinations. create regulatory requirements which you must obey and are there to provide a safer driving environment. FIGURE 6 Single continuous lines84
  22. 22. FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9Broken white lines Double continuous white lines Double white lines with a broken line closer to youIn Figures 6 and 7 you must You must always keep left ofkeep left of the lines and drive these lines. Do not cross them You may cross these lines toas close to the left side of the to overtake or to do any turn. overtake, or to enter or leaveroad as you can. You may cross You must not park opposite the road, but only overtake ifthese lines to enter or leave the double continuous lines. the road ahead is clear.road, but only overtake if theroad ahead is clear. 85
  23. 23. Lane markings Broken white lines separate lanes of traffic going in the same direction. You may change lanes if you signal, and if it is safe to do so. Remember, you must give way to any vehicle already in that lane. You must drive with your vehicle completely within a lane. FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 Double white lines with a continuous line closer to you Broken white lines separating lanes You must always keep to the left of these lines. Do not cross them to overtake or do any turn. You must not park opposite the continuous line side.86
  24. 24. Roads without Special purpose marked lanes lanes Where there are no lane Special purpose lanes include markings, if there are two or bicycle lanes, bus lanes, transit more lines of traffic travelling in lanes and tram lanes. Signs the same direction, you may and/or road markings are used change from one line of traffic to set aside lanes for special to another if you signal, and if it vehicles. If specified on the is safe to do so. However, you signs other vehicles may use may only pass another vehicle these lanes. Drivers must keep on the left side when it is out of these lanes during the turning right. times marked on the signs or, if FIGURE 12 no time is specified, at all times.Overhead lane signals However, you may travel in these lanes for up to 100 metresIf overhead lane signals are in (up to 50 metres in a bicycleuse, travel in the lanes over lane), only when necessary towhich there is a green or white do so, to enter or leave thearrow. You must stay out of road, or to avoid an obstructionlanes with a red X. or turning vehicle. Some examples of special purpose lanes are shown FIGURE 13 on page 88. 87
  25. 25. Tram lanes Bicycle lanes Transit lanes For trams and public buses only. For cyclists only, and for During times specified on (See Sharing the road with parking unless prohibited by the signs, transit lanes are trams, page 127). signs. If you need to turn left for buses, taxis, motorcycles, Bus lanes from the road, you may drive trams and vehicles carrying along the bicycle lane for not For buses and other vehicles two or more people (T2 sign), more than 50 metres only if it is as specified on a sign. or three or more people (T3 sign). necessary to do so. You should (See Sharing the road with be courteous to cyclists. You buses, page 130). must give way to cyclists in a bicycle lane, and only move into a bicycle lane when it is safe to do so. You may drive in a transit lane for no more HOT TIP than 100 metres if it is necessary to make a turn.88
  26. 26. Traffic lane arrows Painted traffic islandsArrows are painted on the roadat some intersections. They tell Traffic islands are sometimesyou the direction traffic in each painted on the road before alane must go. If two directions right turning lane. You canare shown, you may go either drive over the painted islandway. You must not go in a or stop to wait on it, as long asdirection other than that there are no double linesindicated by the arrows. outlining the island on the left, but you must give way to anyArrows may also be applied to vehicle in a turning lane orbicycle lanes. Sometimes a entering a turning lane from a‘head start’ area is provided so marked lane (see Figure 15 onthat cyclists can be seen by page 90).drivers when stopped at redtraffic lights. FIGURE 14 89
  27. 27. Give Way line Stop line markings – markings – with or without with or without Stop signs Give Way signs FIGURE 15 Red vehicle B must give way to FIGURE 17 green vehicle A FIGURE 16 Red vehicle B must give way to Red vehicle B must give way to green vehicle A green vehicle A (See Giving way to vehicles at (See Giving way to vehicles at intersections, page 95). intersections, page 95).90
  28. 28. TRAFFIC Traffic lightsCONTROLS ATINTERSECTIONS Half of all crashes happen at intersections. Green means you may enter Stay alert and obey the the intersection, but only if you intersection rules. do not block the intersection. Red means you must STOP. Do not enter the intersection. Yellow means STOP unless you are unable to do so safely. 91
  29. 29. Traffic lights with arrows Traffic lights for trams, Traffic lights with arrows make buses and bicycles turns easier. If the arrow Some traffic lights signal a pointing in the direction you white T or B on a black want to go is red, you must background. These are used stop; if the arrow is green you for trams and buses at some may proceed in the direction it intersections. Some traffic is pointing if it is safe to do so. lights may have red, yellow You may turn right and green bicycle lights for use by bicycles. Other road users must wait for the normal green light. You must not turn right You may turn left Tram may go. Bicycle may go. You must wait. You must wait.92
  30. 30. Pedestrian signals GIVE WAY RULESTurning vehicles must always To GIVE WAY means There will be many times that if there is a dangergive way to pedestrians who are when you are driving that that your vehicle couldcrossing the road they are collide with anotherturning into (whether or not your path crosses that of vehicle, person or animalthere is a green ‘walking figure’ you must slow down and, other road users. When this if necessary, stop tofacing the pedestrian). happens, one or more of avoid a collision. If you are stationary, you must the people involved must remain stationary until give way in order to avoid it is safe to proceed. a collision.Traffic control signs Here are some everydayStop and Give Way signs are driving situations whenused for safety control at manyintersections and other places. you will be required to give way.(See Giving way to vehicles atintersections, page 95). 93
  31. 31. Giving Way to In slip lanes At children’s crossings Pedestrians You must give way to any (See Sharing the road with There are a number of driving pedestrians in a slip lane. pedestrians, page 121). situations when you must give way to pedestrians. On the footpath A SLIP LANE is an area When entering the road from a At pedestrian crossings of road for vehicles driveway or adjacent land, you turning left that is You must give way to any separated, at some point, must give way to pedestrians pedestrian on a pedestrian from other parts of the on any footpath, path or nature crossing, and you must not road by a painted island strip you cross to enter the or traffic island. road. You must also give way to overtake another vehicle which has stopped at a bicycles or other vehicles on the pedestrian crossing. footpath, path or nature strip. This also applies when leaving At intersections the road to enter a driveway or When turning left or right at adjacent land. any intersection (except a roundabout), you must give way to any pedestrians crossing the road you are turning into. FIGURE 1894
  32. 32. In shared zones When making a U-turn Giving way toIn a shared zone shared by both You must give way to all vehicles atvehicles and pedestrians, you pedestrians as well as vehicles intersectionsmust give way to pedestrians when making a U-turn.(see Speed limits, page 74). Stop or Give Way signs or At tram stops lines at an intersectionAt Stop or Give Way signs or After stopping at a Stop sign orlines not at intersections When passing a stopped tram line, or when facing a Give Way you must give way to anyYou must give way not only sign or line at an intersection, pedestrians crossing betweento vehicles, but also to any you must give way to any the tram and the left side ofpedestrian at or near the sign vehicle in, entering or the road.or line. This would include approaching the intersectionpedestrians as well as bicycles except:crossing in front of you on a • a vehicle making a U-turnshared path. • a vehicle turning left using a slip lane • an oncoming vehicle turning right if that vehicle is also facing a Stop or Give Way sign or line. 95
  33. 33. Giving way at When the law refers intersections (except to VEHICLES, this T-intersections or includes not only roundabouts) motor vehicles but also horses and If there are no traffic lights or bicycles. signs or lines at an intersection, The Give Way rules apply you must give way to any equally for these smaller vehicle on your right. vehicles. You could be charged just the same for In Figures 20 to 23, failing to give way to red vehicle B must give way a horse or a bicycle FIGURE 19 to green vehicle A as for failing to give way to a truck! Red vehicle B must stop and give way to green vehicle A, which is not facing a Stop or Give Way sign96
  34. 34. If you are turning right at an intersection without traffic lights or signs or lines, you must also give way to oncoming vehicles going straight ahead or turning left (except if they are turning in a slip lane) as well as any vehicle on your right.FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 23 Red vehicle B must give way toFIGURE 21 green vehicle A 97
  35. 35. Giving way at These diagrams show how to T-intersections give way at T-intersections without lights or signs, or when traffic lights have failed or are flashing yellow. A T-INTERSECTION is where two roads meet and one of them ends. FIGURE 27 T-intersections may not In Figures 25, 26 and 27, always form a regular T the red vehicle B must give way to green vehicle A FIGURE 25 The Give Way rule is the same for all T-intersections. When you enter the continuing road from the road that ends, you must give way to vehicles travelling along the continuing road. FIGURE 2698
  36. 36. FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30When you turn right The red vehicle must give Some T-intersections arefrom the continuing road way to the pedestrian modified so that the continuinginto the road that ends, road goes round a corner.you must give way to The road that ends is markedoncoming vehicles by a continuity line and Give Way or Stop lines or signs. In Figure 30, the red vehicle B is leaving the continuing road to enter the road that ends at the intersection. The red vehicle B must give way to the green vehicle A. 99
  37. 37. Giving way at roundabouts When entering a roundabout, you must give way to: • all vehicles already in the roundabout • all trams entering, or approaching the roundabout. Take care to look out for motorcyclists and cyclists already in the roundabout who may be harder to see. FIGURE 31 A roundabout sign Always give way to vehicles already in the roundabout. In this diagram, the red B vehicles must give way to the green A vehicles. Enter only when there is a safe gap in the traffic.100
  38. 38. Giving way on A ROUNDABOUT is divided roads an intersection with When a two-way road is divided a roundabout sign at each entrance, a by a median strip, a Give Way central island and or Stop sign applies to the one or more marked whole of the intersection. lanes, or lines of traffic, all of which have vehicles travelling in the same direction. A MEDIAN STRIP is a You must always keep dividing strip on the to the left of the road designed to central island. separate vehicles travelling in opposite directions. FIGURE 32Cyclists and animal riders The red vehicle B must give way to the green vehicle A.In a roundabout, cyclists andanimal riders have the option ofturning right from the left lane,but they must give way todrivers exiting the roundabout. 101
  39. 39. Turning from a Other driving divided road situations when When turning from a divided you are required road, you must obey the signs to give way on the road you are turning from. Normally a vehicle in U-turn the same position as the red When making a U-turn you vehicle B could continue if it is must give way to all other safe to do so. However in vehicles and pedestrians. Figure 33 the red vehicle B is facing a Stop Here On Red Entering the road Signal sign, therefore it must stop until that signal is green. Whenever you enter the road If there is no sign, you must FIGURE 33 from a driveway or adjacent give way to traffic when entering land, you must give way to all a road from a break in the vehicles and pedestrians. median strip after turning. Entering the traffic stream Whenever you enter the traffic stream from a parked position, or through a break in a median strip, you must give way to all vehicles travelling on the road.102
  40. 40. Changing lanes Zip mergingWhenever you change lanes If you are on a road wherefrom one marked lane or line of there are no lines marked andtraffic to another, you must the road is such that two rowsgive way to vehicles already in of vehicles must merge intothat lane or line of traffic. This one, you must give way to anyincludes whenever you cross vehicle which has any part of itsover any broken line marked on vehicle ahead of yours. This isthe road which indicates that a called zip merging. Note: iflane ends, for example when you cross any lines marked onmerging into freeway traffic. the road, then you are not zip Make a headcheck merging but changing lanes, whenever you are and must give way accordingly. FIGURE 34 HOT TIP changing lanes or pullingout from the kerb, but don’t take Red vehicle B must give wayyour eyes off the road ahead for When two lanes of to the green vehicle A traffic merge into onemore than a second. and there are no lane markings, this is sometimes called ZIP MERGING. 103
  41. 41. Police directions TURNING Making turns You must always follow instructions from a member of Plan your turns well in Signalling your moves the Police Force or authorised advance. Move into the Always use your indicators to person rather than any other let others know you are about correct lane long before traffic control signal or rule. to turn or change lanes. you need to turn. Remember, road users The signal must be given for can make mistakes about Use the indicators to long enough to warn others HOT TIP who should give way. give other road users that you are about to change Never assume the other driver has plenty of warning. lanes or direction. You must seen you or will give way to you. signal for at least 5 seconds Always make eye contact, and when moving from a stationary proceed carefully. position at the side of the road or from a median strip parking area.104
  42. 42. Making right turns Making left turns FIGURE 36 FIGURE 35 Right turns on multi-lane roads FIGURE 37 On some multi-lane roads,To make a right turn you must: arrows painted on the road will To make a left turn you must show you if right turns may also approach the intersection as• approach the intersection as close to the left side of the road be made from other lanes. close to the centre of the as possible, but keep clear of road as possible If road markings indicate how a any bicycle lane. turn is to be made, you must• turn just right of the centre Where there is a slip lane, you make a turn as indicated by the of the intersection. must turn using the slip lane road markings. (see slip lane definition, page 94). 105
  43. 43. advisable that you stay in the Hook turns same lane as you go from one road to the other. Hook Turn signs are Exception to the found at some turning rules intersections in Central Melbourne. The signs Trucks or vehicles over may be at the side of the 7.5 metres long displaying a road or hung from tram Do Not Overtake Turning Vehicle wires, so be alert in sign may use more than one checking for these signs. lane to turn (see Sharing the FIGURE 38 road with trucks, page 131). Left turns on multi-lane roads For a multi-lane road, arrows painted on the road will show you if left turns may also be made from other lanes. But look out for cyclists on your Hook Turn sign left who may be going A driver turning right at an straight ahead. intersection with traffic lights If road markings allow turns and a Hook Turn sign must from more than one lane, it is FIGURE 39 turn right by making a hook turn as shown in Figure 40.106
  44. 44. To make a hook turn, you must: 1 Approach and enter the intersection from as near as possible to the left. Turn and continue 2 Move forward, keeping Wait here until straight ahead clear of any marked foot the lights in the street you crossing, until your vehicle are entering is as near as possible to the have changed far side of the road that you to green are entering. 3 Remain at the position reached under Step 2 until You must be in the the traffic lights on the left lane to make a hook turn. road you are entering Indicate that you have changed to green. are turning right 4 Turn right into the road and continue straight ahead.FIGURE 40Doing a hook turn – turning right from the left lane 107
  45. 45. A cyclist may make a hook turn at any intersection – not just at hook turn intersections. No U-turn sign • at an intersection where there is a No U-turn sign U-turns FIGURE 41 When making a U-turn Where there is no median, it you must: is advisable that the U-turn be made from the left side of the • have a clear view of traffic in road. Remember to watch out either direction for traffic approaching from No Right Turn sign • complete your U-turn without behind you. disrupting other traffic • at a No Right Turn sign You must not make a U-turn: unless there is a U-turn • signal your intention for a • over double lines or where Permitted sign. reasonable time there is a No U-turn sign, • give way to all other vehicles (if the sign is not at an and pedestrians. intersection continue on until you reach an intersection before you make a U-turn)108
  46. 46. Turning and one way roads FIGURE 42 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 43Where there is a median, the Turning into one-way roadsturn must be made from the Turning from one-way roadsright lane. When turning left or right from When turning left or right from a two-way road into a one-way a one-way road into a two-way road, it is advisable to turn into road, you must turn from a the nearest lane. position close to the side you are turning towards. 109
  47. 47. Making turns at Turning left Turning right roundabouts Approach in the left lane and Always approach the A roundabout is considered to stay in that lane. roundabout in the right lane. be a special type of intersection, Signal a left turn on your Drive close to the centre of the so different rules apply. The approach to the roundabout and roundabout and follow the right Give Way rules on page 100 keep the signal on until you lane as you leave. explain what you must do when have left the roundabout. entering the roundabout and Signal a right turn on your who should give way. approach, and signal left, if Going straight ahead practical, just before the exit Sometimes, roundabouts have Approach the roundabout in the you are turning into, keeping more than one lane. You need left or right lane. the signal on until you have left to follow these rules about the roundabout. turning left or right or going Drive in the same lane through straight ahead. the roundabout. Decide before you enter Do not signal on your approach the roundabout if you are to the roundabout, but if HOT TIP going to turn right, left or practical, signal left as you exit. go straight ahead. Cyclists and animal riders may make a right turn from a left lane.110
  48. 48. Where arrow(s) are marked on the road before or in a roundabout you must drive in the direction of the arrow(s). Make sure you obey them.FIGURE 45 111
  49. 49. FREEWAYS Entering a freeway Exiting a freeway As freeway speeds are • Adjust your speed as you • Watch for signs that tell you drive along the entry ramp that you are approaching an often high and the traffic to match that of the exit ramp. Exit lanes are is heavy, there are special freeway traffic. usually on the left. rules that apply when • Clearly indicate your • Maintain your speed and driving on a freeway. intentions. signal your intention to exit well in advance. • Where there is a large enough gap, merge smoothly • Adjust your speed once you with the freeway traffic. have entered the exit ramp. If you miss your exit, continue travelling on the freeway until you reach the next exit. You should not reverse on a freeway.112
  50. 50. Overtaking lane Stopping TollwaysBe extra alert on freeways as You must not stop on a freewaytraffic travels at high speed. except in an emergency. If you TOLLWAYS are sectionsYou must not drive in the must stop, move to the of road where the driverright lane unless overtaking or emergency lane or shoulder must pay to use it.unless all lanes are congested. of the road and put on your Signs are displayed toThis rule also applies to the hazard warning lights. advise drivers that they will soon be enteringright lane used by all traffic, if Variable speed zones the tollway.the lane to the right of that is atransit lane. Electronic variable signs on freeways indicate reduced speed limits at high risk times. A TRANSIT LANE is marked by a Transit Lane sign, and may only be used by public buses, motorcycles, taxis or Start tollway sign where applicable, vehicles carrying at least one You are entering a tolled section or two other people. of road. 113
  51. 51. SHARING THE Co-operative driving ROAD SAFELY We all have places to get to and want to arrive there safely. The As a driver you share the best way to make this happen is road with many other to co-operate and help each other. It doesn’t really hurt or people: waste any time to let somebody in from a side street, when the • other drivers of cars, traffic is crawling along. vans, trucks, buses Other simple strategies include: Advance warning tollway and trams • not blocking intersections entrance sign • pedestrians • always using your signals You are about to enter the when turning or changing tollway from a non-tollway road. lanes If you do not want to enter the • motorcyclists • not following too closely tollway, take the next exit. • cyclists. behind • smoothly controlling your speed rather than driving in a fast start/stop manner • changing lanes correctly • slowing down when approaching road work sites.114
  52. 52. Remember that co-operation is Co-operative driving Keeping your coolnot just limited to other car helps you to be a when drivingdrivers. You are also sharing HOT TIP ‘green driver’. There Road rage is dangerous and Co-operate tothe road with pedestrians, is a relationship between driving illegal. It involves people losingcyclists, motorcyclists, trucks, style and the impact your keep your cool their cool, perhaps in responsebuses and trams. driving has on the environment. to a mistake or action of and you’ll be Drive smoothly and avoid fastThere are times and places another driver. You can avoid start/stop driving – you’ll save a winnerwhen co-operation is essential. road rage easily. fuel and pollute less (and saveThese include places where: money as well!). Even better leave • The fundamental rule is don’t• two lanes have to merge the car at home and walk, ride retaliate – it’s never worth it! your bike or use public transport!• the left lane ends • If you make a mistake while driving, acknowledge it.• extra lanes exist just before and after intersections • Don’t take the mistakes of other drivers personally -• overtaking lanes or divided remember it’s a mistake not a roads end personal attack.• cars are parked and there is • Keep your cool and keep not enough room for two your distance! vehicles to pass. • Drive cooperatively andIn these places, the need consider the other people onfor co-operative driving is at the road!its greatest. 115
  53. 53. Sharing the road with Signalling your moves Here are some of the ways you other motorists Before turning or changing can signal your intentions. lanes you must signal for 1 Using your indicators Keeping to the left long enough to give sufficient warning to other drivers and You must use your indicators On multi-lane roads with a pedestrians. In 60 km/h zones, when: speed limit over 80 km/h, you must keep out of the right lane it is best to signal for at least • turning to the right or left unless you are: 30 metres or about the length of two houses and driveways • changing lanes or line • overtaking before turning or changing of traffic • turning right lanes. • overtaking • making a U-turn Check that your indicator • making U-turns is off after you have made • avoiding an obstruction, or HOT TIP your turn or lane change • pulling into and out of – it may not have turned off by parking spots • traffic is congested. itself. If it is left on, other drivers • leaving a continuing road You must also keep out of the will think you intend to turn. which curves to the left right lane where a Keep Left Before moving from a stationary or right Unless Overtaking sign applies. position at the side of the road • leaving a roundabout or a parking area in the middle (if practical) of the road, you must signal for at least five seconds. • moving to the left or right from a stationary position.116
  54. 54. Watch other vehicles’ indicators 2 Using your brake lightsand make sure they are doingwhat is indicated. Sometimes an Every time your foot touches The ability toindicator has not cancelled from the brake pedal, your brakethe last turn, or has been put on lights glow, warning other blend in withtoo early. Make sure you drivers you are slowing down. traffic comesindicate in such a way that your Likewise, you will need to slowsignal cannot be misleading. down when the brake lights on with experience the vehicle in front of you are and reflects glowing red. So give lots of warning by braking early and an awareness Use indicators even slowing gradually. if there is no-one else of what around – it’s the 3 Making eye contact person you cannot other drivers see who can be the As well as watching out for most dangerous. reasonably indicators, you can get an idea of what another person might expect do by making eye contact. FIGURE 46 To make sure another driver knows you are there, try and These vehicles are signalling make eye contact, especially at their moves, but could be heading intersections. Look at other for trouble as vehicle A’s signal drivers, they may well be could be misleading. looking at you to see that you know they are there! 117
  55. 55. 4 Using your headlights High-beam headlights Don’t be dazzled by high-beam and tail lights Headlights on high-beam Look to the left side of the road Headlights help you to see at enable you to see further. and drive towards the left of night. Headlights and tail lights Because headlights on high your lane if a car with high- help others to see you in poor beam may dazzle the oncoming beams on is approaching. If light conditions. Your headlights driver’s eyes, you must ‘dip’ dazzled by the lights, slow and tail lights must be on them to low-beam when another down and pull over until your between sunset and sunrise. vehicle is within 200 metres. eyes recover. They must also be on in You must also dip your head- hazardous weather conditions lights when driving 200 metres where there is reduced or less behind another vehicle. visibility. If the street lights are on, your lights should HOT TIP also be on. FIGURE 47118

×