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     just-in-time-by-sashi-prabhu just-in-time-by-sashi-prabhu Presentation Transcript

    • Just-In-Time “Eliminate Waste”
    • Flexible Resources
      • Multifunctional workers
        • Operate more than one machine & jobs
      • General-purpose machines
        • Machines that are not highly specialized
    • Cellular Layouts
      • Manufacturing cells
        • Often U-shaped or linear
        • Work flows through cell in one direction and experiences little waiting
    • Pull System
      • Coordinating production and delivery of materials and components
      • Traditionally, inventory has been used as a cushion against lapses in coordination and inventory can be huge
      • Pull system a la at US supermarkets
    • Pull System
      • Do not order more product than can be used
        • (or items that can be sold)
      • Reversal of normal ‘ push’ system
    • Kanban Production Control System
      • Japanese word for ‘card’
      • Associated with fixed-quantity inventory system
      • Two-bin system Kanban
    • Small-Lot Production
      • Requires less space and capital
      • Produces small amounts at a time
        • Processes can be moved closer together
        • Transportation between stations is simplified
      • Quality problems are easier to detect
      • Reveals errors and bottlenecks
        • video
    • Lead Time
      • Processing time
        • Can be reduced by reducing number of items processed and the efficiency or speed of the worker
      • Move time
        • Can be decreased if machines are moved closer together, method of movement simplified, routings are standardized, or need for movement eliminated
        • Con’t
    • Lead Time
      • Waiting Time
        • Can be reduced through better scheduling of materials, workers, machines and sufficient capacity
      • Setup Time
        • Reduction of setup time is important to JIT
    • Quick Setups
      • Separate internal setup from external setup
        • Internal setup requires the machine to be stopped
        • External setup can be done while machine is running
      • Convert internal setup to external setup
        • Prepare as much as possible in advance (preheating injection mold, standardizing die heights, centering die, etc)
    • Quick Setups
      • Streamline all aspects of setup
        • Organize workplace properly locating tools near points of use
        • Keep machines and fixtures in good repair
        • Simplify or eliminate adjustments
          • precoding desired settings, using locator pins, etc.
      • Perform setup activities in parallel or eliminate
        • Add a person, standardize components, parts, materials
    • Uniform Production Levels
      • Smoothing production requirements on the final assembly line
        • Better forecast
        • Mixed production throughout the day in small quantities on all production facilities.
    • Quality at the Source
      • For JIT to work, quality has to be high
        • No extra inventory to buffer against defective units
      • Producing poor-quality items and reworking items or rejecting them is wasteful
      • Workers are responsible for inspection
      • NEVER pass along defective item
    • Quality at the Source
      • Jidoka
        • Authority to stop production line if quality problems are encountered
      • Andons
        • Call lights activated by switches
      • Undercapacity scheduling
        • Making time to plan, train, solve problems, maintain work environment
    • Quality at the Source
      • Visual control
        • Quality improves when problems are made visible and workers have clear expectations of performance
        • Kanbans, andons, process control charts, tool boards, material handling routes clearly marked, demos, instructional photos, performance data
    • Quality at the Source
      • Poka-yoke
        • Foolproof device or mechanism that prevents defects from occurring
      • Kaizen
        • Continuous improvement
    • Total Productive Maintenance
      • Breakdown maintenance
      • Preventive maintenance
      • Total Productive Maintenance
        • Accurate records on time between breakdowns
        • Frequency of breakdowns
        • Costs of breakdowns
        • Determine a preventive maintenance schedule
        • Employee involvement
        • Zero defects
    • Supplier Networks
      • Working with suppliers to improve responsiveness and quality
      • Trends:
        • Locate near the factory
        • Use small, side-loaded trucks and ship mixed loads
        • Consider establishing small warehouses near to the factory.
        • Use standardized containers and make deliveries according to a precise delivery schedule
        • Become a certified supplier and accept payment at regular intervals rather than upon delivery
    • Benefits of JIT
      • Reduced inventory
      • Improved quality
      • Lower costs
      • Reduced space requirements
      • Shorter lead time
      • Increased productivity
    • Benefits of JIT
      • Greater flexibility
      • Better relations with suppliers
      • Simplified scheduling and control activities
      • Increased capacity
      • Better use of human resources
      • More product variety