2“Aim of organic farmingis to develop viable and sustainable agriculture”Environmentally sustainableEconomically profitableSocially acceptable
3ScenarioIndia has about 43,000ha land under organicfarming, which is only0.03% of total Ag. Land.Organic Ag. Started longback in 1900.India has 1,426 certifiedorganic farms.Produce annually 14,000tones of OF.OF started in Kandhamalfor Turmeric Production.About 66% soil are acidicLow organic matterPoor physical propertiesINDIA ORISSAMajor exports are of rice,wheat, raw tobacco, spices, cashew nut-in-shell, oil meals, sugar and molasses,fresh and processed fruits, vegetables, meat and meat preparations and marineexports.
4The environmental problems started due to excessive,injudicious, imbalanced application of chemical fertilizers andpesticides becoming a matter of concern with modern farming.Intensive agricultural practices during last four decades haveproved detrimental to the natural resource base and theenvironment, hence a search for alternate agriculture was felt.International Federation for Organic Agriculture Movement(IFOAM) was initiated in France with five members during 5thNovember, 1972.Thereafter the recommendations of the Atlanta Conference of1981 on “Organic Farming” have acted as catalysts in thetriggering interest in Organic Agriculture systems across the world.
5Organic InitiativeConcern for health and EnvironmentPreference of organic foodOrganic farming hailed as the panacea for manyproblemsResearch works based on the principles oforganic farming with a holistic approach are verymeager. However, lot of work has been done onsome of the components in an isolated manner.
6After green revolution more food grains produced due to useof new HYVs, chemical fertilizer and pesticides.Food grain production has been increased many fold, butindiscriminant and recurrent use of chemicals has led to thepollution of own water, air and food.Increased the soil acidity, salinity and alkalinity leading to theunproductively of the soil.Decreasing the population of beneficial micro organism in soiland water.Result the ecological balance is affected knowingly or unknowingly our environment gradually becomes unfit forupcoming generation.So organic farming gaining importance with an objective of anclean environment and maintaining soil productivity.
7Organic farming is the cultivation of crops naturallywithout impairment the climate and productivity of the soil.Farming with culture of living organism“Organic agriculture is a unique production managementsystem which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystemhealth, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soilbiological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods inexclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.Organic Farming is defined as production system, whichavoids or excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers, growthregulators, pesticides and livestock feed additives.
RAINBOW REVOLUTION……Green revolution – 4 fold increase in food grains (50 to 210 mt)Yellow revolution - 5 fold increase in oilseeds (5 to 25 mt)Blue revolution - 7 fold increase in fish (0.75 to 6.6 mt)Red revolution – 4 fold increase in fruits & veg. (38 to 160 mt)White revolution - 5 fold increase in milk (18 to 100 mt)Forth coming revolutions:Grey…………..Brown…………..Golden…………..Silver……………Pine…………..Round……………Black ……………..Food chain……..……
10Produces high quality, nutritious food that contributespreventive health care and well-being.Improve the physical structure, Chemical properties of thesoil.It improves the biological properties of the soil (enrichment ofmicro-organisms, addition of growth hormones such asauxins and gibberellic and addition of enzymes, such asphosphates, cellulose, etc.).Soil health restoration for better land husbandry.Ecological balance as well as productivity of life supportingsystem.Maintain soil fertility and productivity.Neutralize the soil PH.Promote microbial activity.It attracts deep-burrowing earthworms already present in thesoil.
11Management Practices forRainfed AgricultureProper TillageChoice of crops and varieties (Crop rotation, CropDiversification & Cover cropsTimely sowing of cropsOptimum plant populationWeed ManagementPest managementProper use of low-cost organic fertilizerAlternative land useDry land HorticultureAgro-forestry ModelTimely Harvesting
12MAJOR PROBLEMSFloodErratic rainfallCrop Pests & DiseasesPoor irrigation facilityPoor availability of agri-inputsLack of up to date informationPoor risk bearing capacityGrazing by AnimalsShortage of labourMigrationSmall size of land holdingPoor soil & water conservation measures
13Cropping PatternProfitabilityEnvironmentQuality of LifeSustainabilityEconomically viableSocially acceptablePractically feasible Environmentally sustainableDiversityAdaptabilityReduce input costMultiple enterpriseEnvironment awarenessInformation awarenessFinancial support serviceKnowledge sharing and blendingHolistic
14Forms of Organic FarmingFYMCompostGreen ManuringAzollaVermin compost & vermi washNight soilMolassesGreen AlgaeGnut cake, Neem cake, karanja cake & Mustard cakeUse of fish mill, blood meal and bone mealIntensive farming
17Facets of Organic Farming SystemBiological FarmingNature farmingPermacultureEcological AgricultureLow External Input Supply Agriculture (LEISA)Integrated Intensive Farming System (IIFS)
181. Biological FarmingUse selected fertilizersAdoption low input approaches to use ofherbicides & insecticidesUse indicator plantsUse trap cropsUse ITKs
192. Nature FarmingSystem developed in Japan by MokichiOkada (1930)and he was given moreemphasis on soil health through compostrather than organic fertilizers.More use of microbial preparation.Emphasis on tradition nature farming.(California & Hawaii)
203. PermacultureContraction of permanent AgricultureLand use planning philosophySite-specific eco-logical farming system isamenable to permacultureDesigned with eco-logical human habitand food production system
214. Ecological AgricultureFarming region & individual farms must betreated as ecological system.It reduces the pressure on land and water.No adverse effect on Ag. Production andnutritive value.Accelerate ecological production.Use of organic inputs i.e. compost,vermicompostSuccessful implementation & expansion offarming areas.
225. Low External Input SupplyAgriculture (LEISA)Less use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides& herbicides.More emphasis on cultural practices, INM& IPM.Uses locally available resources.
236. Integrated Intensive FarmingSystemAgricultural IntensificationCrop diversificationValue addition through integrated farmingincluding livestockPiscicultureAgro-forestry modelIntensive use of farm resourcesPromotion LISA & SAREP (Low input sustainableagriculture & Sustainable Ag. Research & Education Programme)
24• FYM is the traditional manure and is mostly readilyavailable to the farmers.• Farm yard manure is a decomposed mixture of Cattledung and urine with straw and litter used as beddingmaterial and residues from the fodder fed to the cattle.• Good quality FYM is most valuable organic matterapplied to the Soil.• Traditional method of preparing & storing FYM causesnutrient losses.• Well rotten FYM should apply to the field about three tofour weeks before sowing.
25Value of FYMImprove the soil tilthand aeration.Increase the waterholding capacity ofsoil.Stimulate the activityof micro-organisms.Supply organic matterto the soil.Nutrient content (dry weight basis)Organicsource% N %P2O5%K2OC:NFYM 0.4 – 1.5 0.3 –0.90.3 –1.931Compost 0.5 - 1.0 0.4 –0.80.4 –1.230Biogasslurry1.41 0.92 0.84 19
26Farm Yard ManureHeap MethodPit MethodBox Method
27Pit MethodNo ofAnimalsPit Size)Length (ft) Width (ft) Depth (ft)2 to 5 20 3 35 to 10 25 3 to 6 311 to 20 30 4 3More than 20 30 5 3
29Composting is the process of a quicklyutilizable condition for improving andmaintaining soil fertility. Compost is thecomposition of all waste materials.
30Why to make and why to usecompost?Because...It is a well balanced fertilizer.It is not costly to make.The heating phase destroysweed seeds and disease germs.It suppresses soil bornedisease germs.It raises the pH in acid soils.It increases soil organicmatter content.
31How to make compostCollect thecompostingmaterialChoose a shady location• Pile up seperately• Collect plenty of plantmaterial• Chop coarse materHumidify the materials• Pile up loosely in layers• Cover with earth or strawWhen temperaturedeclines.• Outside materialgoes inside.Set up the heapearth layerFrom bottom up:N-rich materialCoarse C-rich materialTwigs and branchesTurn the heap1st after 2–3 weeks2nd after 3 monthsLet it rest to maturefor 3 months earth layer1.0 –1.5 m1 – 2 mearth layer
32C/N-ratios of compostingmaterialsLow C/N high N content Nitrogen content Carbon to nitrogen(% of dry matter) ratio (C/N ratio)Chicken manure 3 to 6 10 to 12Young grass hay 4 12Cassava leaves 4 12Farmyard manure 2 to 3 14Groundnut straw 2 to 3 20Medium C/N medium N contentCrotalaria 2 26Cassava stems 1.3 40Fallen leaves 0.4 45Maize stalks and leaves 0.7 60 to 70High C/N low N contentWheat or rice straw 0.4 100Sugar cane trash 0.2 150Saw dust 0.1 500
33Magic Compost-IMaterials required:Cow dung: 1 kgCow urine: 1 literJaggery or curd or oil cake: 50 gramOne mud pot or plastic bucket with lid.One piece of polytheneOne small rope
34It is good for all types of plants, crops & soil. But the quantitycan be decided based on the crops stages, age of plant.It can be given 3-4 times in paddy field during growth stageat one week interval at least.One part of magic tonic can be added with 5-10 part ofwater for all the crops.In case of fruit trees and flowers 2-5 parts of water can beadded and then applied.The ideal way of applying is to provide the magic tonic a fewcm or inch away from the spread of roots by little digging thesoil & cover it again.Best time to apply is evening or late after noon. It should notbe applied directly over leaves and avoid using duringdaytime. Apply a bit of ash at the root of the plant ifvegetative growth is more.
35Magic Compost-IIKitchen waste like tea, fish skins andothers,vegetable residues.Flower waste from vessel or praying roomJaggery or curd: 50 gramWaste from garden like small grasses.Two pots/buckets & a piece of polythene &rope Ash.
36• It is good for all types of plants, crops & soil. But the quantity can bedecided based on the crops stages, age of plant.• It can be given 3-4 times in paddy field during growth stage at one-week• interval at least.• One part of magic tonic can be added with 5-10 part of water for all thecrops.• In case of fruit trees and flowers 2-5 parts of water can be added andthen• applied. The ideal way of applying is to provide the magic tonic a few cmor• inch away from the spread of roots by little digging the soil & cover itagain.• Best time to apply is evening or late after noon. It should not be applied• directly over leaves and avoid using during daytime.• Apply a bit of ash at the root of the plant if vegetative growth is more.• This is very good for urban area also, where getting cow dung and urineis a problem and waste management is an issue. This can be used inpot culture effectively.• Similarly the villagers who don’t have animals but want to create theirown manure can produce in this way round the year.
37Magic Compost-IIIMaterials required:Cow dung: 1 kgCow urine: 2 literJaggery or curd or oil cake: 50 gram3 types of leave having bitter taste, pungentsmell, milk or gums excreting together of 1kgCrushed garlic of 50 gram,Powdered or paste of turmeric of 50 gramOne mud pot or a plastic bucket with lid.One polythene and small rope.
38After one month, add two times water to the mixtureand filter it to plastic bottle or glass bottle.Then add one spoon of milk & half spoon ofturmeric powder and close the bottle.After one week add 3-7 times water and sprayincrops as pesticide.This can be used and kept for 6 months time.Whatever residue after filtration is left can again berecycled in preparation of the same pesticide again.
393. Bio-fertilizerMicrobial biofertilisers are biologically active (living ortemporarily inert) inputs and contain one or moretypes of beneficial microorganisms such as bacteria,algae or fungi.Every microorganism - and hence each type ofbiofertiliser - has a specific capability and function.It would be relevant to mention that vermi-compost isnot a biofertiliser as is propagated by some, butmerely an improved form of compost.There are broadly seven types of biofertilisers:
40Bridging fertilizer demand and supplygapsMaintaining soil fertility andbiological qualitySustaining crop productivityReducing ground water andenvironment pollution
421) RhizobiaRhizobia is a group of bacteria that fixes nitrogen inassociation with the roots of leguminous crops.Rhizobia can fix 40-120 kgs of nitrogen per acreannually depending upon the crop, rhizobiumspecies and environmental conditions.They help improve soil fertility, plant nutrition andplant growth and have no negative effect on soil orthe environment.Every leguminous crop requires a specificrhizobium species
432) AzotobacterAzotobacter is also a group of nitrogen-fixingbacteria but unlike rhizobia, they do not form rootnodules or associate with leguminous crops.They are free-living nitrogen fixers and can be usedfor all types of upland crops but cannot survive inwetland conditions.In soils of poor fertility and organic matter,azotobacter needs to be regularly applied.In addition to nitrogen fixation, they also producebeneficial growth substances and beneficialantibiotics that help control root diseases.
443) AzospirillumLike azotobacter, azospirillum species also do notform root nodules or associate with leguminouscrops.They are, however not free-living and live insideplant roots where they fix nitrogen, and can beused in wetland conditions.This group of microorganisms also producesbeneficial substances for plant growth, besidesfixing atmospheric nitrogen.Azospirillum does well in soils with organic matterand moisture content, and requires a pH level ofabove 6.0.
45Blue-green algae or cyanobacteria are free-living nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic algae thatare found in wet and marshy conditions.Blue-green algae are so named for theircolour but they may also be purple, brown orred.They are easily prepared on the farm but canbe used only for rice cultivation when the fieldis flooded and do not survive in acidic soils.
465). Azolla CultivationPit covered by polythene.Allow 10-15kg soil inside warpedout polythene pit and equallydistributed the surface.Mixed 2 kg decomposed cowdung +30gm SSP+ 10 litter waterand fill the tank with up to 10 cmwater.Add ½ kg or 1kg azolla seeds.Harvest ½ kg or 1kg azolla after7 to 10 days.Every 5 days interval put 1kgcow dung & 20 gm superphophate can increase theAzolla yield.Depth-.2 m2m-Length2 m-WidthAzolla Tank
48Inoculum production Simple, efficient and easilyadaptable Divide field into small plots Maintain 5-10 cm standing water
49AdvantagesAzolla is a free-floating water fern that fixes nitrogen inassociation with a specific species of cyanobacteria.Azolla is a renewable biofertiliser and can be mass producedon the farm like blue-green algae.It is a good source of nitrogen and on decomposition, asource of various micronutrients as well.Its ability to multiply fast means it can stifle and controlweeds in (flooded) rice fields.Azolla is also used as a green manure.It contains 90 to 92 per cent water & 50 -60 per cent proteinAzolla yield per acre is about 3000 qt.It is a high-quality feed for cattle, Goat, Sheep, Pig, Rabbitand poultry.Azolla increases 15 to 20 per cent milk production.Minimize the expenditure of stall feed of livestock.
506) Phosphate-solubilisingMicroorganismsThese are a group of bacteria and fungicapable of breaking down insolublephosphates to make them available to crops.Their importance lies in the fact that barely athird of phosphorous in the soil is actuallyavailable to the crop as the rest is insoluble.They require sufficient organic matter in thesoil to be of any great benefit.
517) MycorrhizaMycorrhiza is a sweeping term for a number ofspecies of fungi which form a symbiotic associationwith the plant root system.Of these, the most important in agriculture isvesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza or VAM.Plants with VAM colonies are capable of higheruptakes of soil and nutrients and water.VAM strands acts as root extensions and bring upwater and nutrients from lateral and verticaldistances where the plant root system does notreach.
52NITROGEN BIOFERTILIZERSSRNO.NAME OFBIOFERTILIZERFUNCTION /CONTRIBUTIONLIMITATION BENEFICIARIES(Crops)1 RHIZOBIUM(symbiotic)1. Fixes 50-100 kg N /haFixation only with legumes.Visible effect not reflected intraditional area. Needoptimum P & Mo. Demandsbright sunlight. Greatdemand for phosphorus.Pulse legumes,Oilseed legumes,Fodder legumes,Forest legumes2. Increase yield from10-35%3. Leaves residualnitrogen2 AZOTOBACTER 1. Fixation of 20-25 kgN / haDemands high organic matter. Wheat, maize,cotton, sorghum,sugarcane, pearmillet, rice,vegetables andseveral othercrops2. 10-15% increase inyield(non-symbiotic) 3. Production of growthpromotingsubstances3 AZOSPIRILLUM 1. Fixation of 20-25 kgN / haDemands high organic matter Wheat, maize,cotton, sorghum,sugarcane, pearmillet, rice,vegetables andseveral othercrops2. 10-15% increase inyield(associative) 3. Production of growthpromotingsubstances
53Sl NAME OFBIOFERTILIZERFUNCTION /CONTRIBUTIONLIMITATION BENEFICIARIES(Crops)4 BLUE GREENALGAE(BGA)1. Fixation of 20-30kg N / haEffective only insubmerged rice.Demand brightsunlight.Flooded rice.2. 10-15% increasein yield(phototropic) 3. Production ofgrowthpromotingsubstances5 AZOLLA(symbiotic)1. Fixation of 30 -100 kg N / haSurvival difficult athightemperature.Great demandfor phosphorus.Only forfloodedrice.2.Yield increase 10-25%
54PHOSPHORUS BIOFERTILIZERSS NAME OFBIOFERTILIZERFUNCTION /CONTRIBUTIONLIMITATION BENEFICIARIES (Crops)6 Phosphatesolubilizingmicroorganisms(Bacteria/fungi)1. SolubilizesinsolublePhosphates.Bacteria can be usedin neutral toalkaline soils andfungi can functionbetter in acidicsoil.All types ofcrops.2. Yield increase 10-20%7 VAM 1. Enhance uptake ofP, Zn, S Fe, Cuand waterCan be maintainedonly on growingplants.Forest trees(obligatesymbionts)2. Promotes uniformcrop, increasegrowth and yield
55BiofertilizersBiofertilizers may broadly be classified into thefollowing four groups.- N2-fixearso Symbiotic, eg., Rhizobium inlegumes and Anabaena azollae inAzollao Associative, eg. Azospiriliumo Free-living, e.g., Azotobacter, BGA- P-solubilizers, e.g., phosphate solubilizingbacteria, fungi and actinomycetes- P-mobilizers, e.g., Vesicular arbuscularmycorrhizae (VAM)- Organic matter decomposers, e.g.,cellulolytic bacteria.
56Use of Plant Products for Pest ControlAzadirachtin is the most popular insecticideisolated from the seeds, wood, bark, leaves andfruits of neem tree, Azadirachta indica A.Neem leaf bitters, neem seed bitters (5%) and neemoil (3%) are effective against green leaf hopper,BPH, WBPH, thrips, leaf folder and cut worm.Polygonum hydropiper (water papper) BPH, Caseworm.Though enough reports are available on the efficacyof neem products, there are also reports on theirinefficiency in controlling the insect pests of rice.
57Vermicomposting is a modified and specializedmethod of composting - the process usesearthworms to eat and digest farm wastes and turnout high quality compost in two months or less.Vermicompost is not a biofertiliser as is touted bysome, merely improved compost.Vermicompost is the end-product of the breakdownof organic mater by some species of earthworm.Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich, natural fertilizerand soil conditioner. The process of producingvermicompost is called vermicomposting .
58Remember…• Tender Loving Vermicompost is 100% organic,safe, non-toxic, and odor-free.• Tender Loving Vermicompost will not burn even themost delicate plants.• Tender Loving Vermicompost helps plants growfaster and stronger. It increases the size of the fruitor flower.• Added to potting mix or soil, Tender LovingVermicompost will out last and out perform anycommercial fertilizer.
59BYGON OF EARTHWORMSAbout 3000 Species areavailable in WORLD, 500hundred are available inIndia and ORISSA hasrecognized about 40 species
684. MulchingAll these techniques are different but somewhatinterrelated.Mulching is the use of organic materials (plasticmulch is expensive and non-biodegradable) tocover the soil, especially around plants to keepdown evaporation and water loss, besides addingvaluable nutrients to the soil as they decompose.Mulching is a regular process and does requiresome labour and plenty of organic material, but hasexcellent effects, including encouraging the growthof soil fauna such as earthworms, preventing soilerosion to some extent and weed control.
69Residues % N % P % KRice 0.61 0.09 1.15Wheat 0.48 0.07 0.98Maize 0.58 0.09 1.25Potato 0.52 0.09 0.85Groundnut 1.65 0.12 1.23Sugar cane 0.45 0.08 1.20Nutrient content of crop residues
705. Green manuringGreen manuring is an age-old practice prevalent sinceancient times. A crop like dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata),sunnhemp or horsebean is sown (usually) just before themonsoons. A mix is also possible.Just around flowering (30-45 days after sowing), the crop iscut down and mixed into the soil after which the seasonsmain crop is sown.Green manuring is beneficial in two ways - firstly it fixesnitrogen, and secondly the addition of biomass (around fiveto ten tons/acre) greatly helps in improving the soil textureand water holding capacity.Green leaf manuring can also be carried out if sufficientleguminous tree leaves are available.
71Green manuresCommon green manures are,- Sunhemp, Dhaincha, Cowpea, Mungbean andGuar contribute 8-21 t green manure and 42-91 kg N/ha.For lowland waterlogged situation- Sesbania spp.Several workers have reported that the substitutionof 50-120 kg N/ha is possible with green manuring inrice.
726. Cover CroppingCover cropping is normally carried out also withnitrogen-fixing crops that grow fast and require littleor no inputs like water or additional manuring.While cover crops can yield some returns, they aremostly used for covering the soil in the fallowmonths, adding nitrogen to the soil, suppressingweeds, preventing soil erosion and later used asbiomass or fodder.Velvet bean is an example, and it finds use as afodder crop and biomass generator.Another useful cover crop is Dolichos lablab, whichis a source of fodder and food.
737. Crop rotation and PolycultureOne of the most important aspects of organic farming is thestrict avoidance of monoculture, whether annuals orperennials.Besides the proverbial "putting all eggs into one basket",monoculture systems are unhealthy for the ecosystem theyare a part of.The prime requirement for any natural ecosystem to thriveand be healthy is diversity.Traditional farmers till date follow the systems of croprotation, multi-cropping, intercropping and polyculture tomake maximum use of all inputs available to them,including soil, water and light, at a minimum cost to theenvironment.The home gardens of Kerala are an excellent example.
748. Crop rotationCrop rotation is the sequence of cropping wheretwo dissimilar type of crops follow each other - afew examples include cereals and legumes, deep-rooted and short rooted plants and where thesecond crop can make use of the manuring orirrigation provided some months earlier to the firstcrop (eg. rice + wheat, rice + cotton).The combinations possible are endless and willdepend to a great deal on the local situations.
759. Multi-cropping• Multi-cropping is the simultaneous cultivationof two or more crops.• In Indian agricultural tradition, farmers havebeen known to sow as many as 15 types ofcrops at one time.• An example of multi-cropping is Tomatoes +Onions + Marigold (where the marigoldsrepel some of tomatos pests).
7610. Inter-croppingInter-cropping is the cultivation of another crop inthe spaces available between the main crop.A good example is the multi-tier system of coconut+ banana + pineapple/ginger/leguminousfodder/medicinal or aromatic plants.While ensuring biodiversity within a farm, inter-cropping also allows for maximum use of resources.All these are forms of polyculture and biodiversityand help in keeping pest populations in control.Fallen leaves and other crop residues incombination add more value to the soil or compostheap they become a part of, again because of thenutritional mix.
7711. Effective MicroorganismsAs the name suggests, it makes use ofmicroorganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria,photosynthetic bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungiand ray fungi.These microorganisms are both aerobic andanaerobic and are not genetically modified.EM, like Biodynamics can be useful in manydifferent ways on the farm, including improving soilhealth, as a pest repellent and prophylactic, incomposting, and in animal feeds, animal health andhygiene, aquaculture, etc.Different EM cultures are used for agriculture,animal husbandry, and aquaculture.
7812. Integration of systemsIn nature, the whole is greater than the sum ofits parts and the key to the success of anynatural system is diversity.Diversity adds complexity to the farm systemlending it greater stability. There are economicand productivity benefits too.A larger and more permanent example ofintegration could be: annual crops + tree crops +dairy cows + honey bees.
7913. Living FencingHaving a living fence around the farm hasmultiple benefits.Besides protection from trespassers andcattle, a living fence also provides a buffer,and with a sensible choice of plants, evensome revenue.It does however take two to three years todevelop.
80What is bio-pesticide ?• Chemicals of plant origin, plant parts, theirextracts• Microbials as such like virus, bacteria,nematode, fungi, rickkettssia, protozoa• Microbial toxins• Predators and parasites
81Plant parts, extracts asBiopesticides• Plants which are used as bio-pesticidesare neem, mahaneem,karanja,begunia,mahua,custardapple,tulsi,chrysanthemum,ryania,sabadilla,tobacco,thuja,piper,onion,eucayptus, palmarosa, lemon grass, clove,ginger grass, citronella,castor etc.• Either their extracts of parts or oils oroilcakes are used as bio-pesticides
82Neem as bio-pesticide• Mention of neem in Kautilya’s Arthasastraduring 4th century BC• Susruta during 1000 AD used neem forpreparation of medicines• In ancient days neem was used for preparationof ayurvedic, unani and homeopathy medicines• Neem Research in India started in 1962 byPradhan (neem kernel powder showedantifeedant property against locust)
83Why neem plant product is used aspesticide?• Neem plant parts contain a wide numberof limonoids (a group of phytochemicals)called terpenoids out of whichAzadirachtin,Epinimbin,Nimbin,Salanin,Deacetylnimbin,Deacetylsalanin,Azadiradionetc are important.• Most important is AZADIRACHTIN whichhas insecticide property
84• Antifeedant action against locust,bph,wbph,glh,cutwormgundhibug through NSKE ,stored grain pests by leafpowder,lepidopterous larvae by neem oil application• Repellent action against stored grain pests• Growth deformities in DBM,tobacco caterpillar,epilachnabeetle• Oviposition deterrent effect on fruit fly, tomato fruit borer,tobacco caterpillar• Contact toxicity against aphids,termites,caterpillars• Sterilant in okra fruit borer• Fungicidal and nematicide property by oil cake application• Dong and Zhao(1996) studiedantifeedant,stomach,contact,growth inhibition effects• Stark (1997) studied antimoultimg,precociousmetamorphosis and irregularity in reproduction effectsVarious uses of Neem
85Virus as bio-pesticide• Viruses are sub-microscopic entitiescapable of self-duplication which derivetheir nutrition from host ribosome and arecapable of causing disease in hostresulting in death or severe ailment inhost.
86Characteristics of virus• Viruses controlling insects fall into 3 categories. They arenuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), cytoplasmicpolyhedrosis virus (CPV) and granulosis virus GV)• Viruses are host specific in nature• Resistance against viral preparations have not beenencountered with.• Compatible with certain insecticides, neem oil.• Do not cause any health hazard• They are eco-friendly and non-destructive in nature• Provide long term control• NPV is most widely used in insect pest management
87Mode of action of virus• Viral preparations are sprayed on the crop• Virus particles stick to the foliage• The insect feeds on the foliage• The viral particles enter the stomach• NPV spreads in nucleus, CPV spreads incytoplasm and GV spreads in fat bodies• On full proliferation, the organelles split• Viral particles come to blood and attack otherorganelles• Insect move to highest point of plant and die in ahanging manner
88Examples of use of virus in insectcontrol• Ha NPV is used to control H armigera ondifferent crops at a dose of 250-500 LE/ha• Sl NPV is used to control tobacco caterpillar ondifferent crops at a dose of 250-400 LE/ha• GV is used to control rhinoceros beetle incoconut• Viruses are also used against red hairycaterpillar, bihar hairy caterpillar and othercaterpillars and coleopterous insects
89The following strategies should befollowed for adoption of organic farming.1. Site selection/land consolidationPlaces which have history of producing ricewith out using chemical inputs or with minimumintervention, should be preferred.2. Cooperative/Community approachIn view of the fragmentation of land-holding, thecommunity approach is a must for the organicfarmers.3. Availability of organic inputsEasy availability of organic inputs is the pre-requisite for organic farming. The farmers, indue course, have to produce their own organicinputs.The suitability/adaptability of different greenmanure crops should be tested. Contd…
904. Selection of crop and cultivarsWhether grown for domestic consumption orexport purpose.Selection of crops suited for a particularlocation.5. Quality of organic inputsThe organic inputs are sold in different brandnames, no standards are yet available.Quality control laboratory should be set up tostandardize the quality.6. Cropping system approachThe cropping system approach will be moreremunerative in organic farming.Selection of shallow and deep-rooted crops inthe rotation.Part of the crop residue should be returned tosoil/fed to cattle or be used for compositing.Contd…
917. Developmental and promotional activitiesIncentive and encouragement for the productionof quality organic manure bio-pesticide, bio-fertilizer and green manuring crop should beconsidered.Effort should be made for the development ofnew pesticide of plant origin. The use of bio-agents need to be promoted.8. Certification and accreditationCost of inspection and certification is costprohibitive.It should be simple and at a lower cost.9. Sales and marketingOrganic farming is labour intensive.So, it will be more remunerative if the farmer geta premium price for their produce.
92“Without new technology, we won’t be able toprovide food for 6.4 billion people (worldwide)”---------Dr. Norman BorlaugSasanka LenkaConsultantE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org