Control and coordination, Brain and its functions
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Control and coordination, Brain and its functions



how brain controls and coordinates our body, central nervous system, neurons and its types, brain and its parts with function.

how brain controls and coordinates our body, central nervous system, neurons and its types, brain and its parts with function.



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Control and coordination, Brain and its functions Control and coordination, Brain and its functions Presentation Transcript

  • Control & Coordination
  • The Nervous System Neurons Central Nervous System Brain •Spinal Cord • Peripheral The Senses Nervous System
  • OO BODY A collection of systems SYSTEM Several organs working together; each system has one major role ORGAN A distinct body part that carries out one or more main functions TISSUE A group of similar cells that carry out a specialized job CELL ORGANELLE The basic building block of all living things, plant or animal Specialized structures inside a cell that have specific functions
  • Helps the body adjust to changes in your environment
  • Stimulus Any change inside or outside your body that brings about a response Homeostasis Regulation of steady conditions inside the body
  • Neurons Building blocks of the nervous system 100 billion neurons in your brain alone 30,000 on a pinhead They communicate with each other thousands of times a second. Bundles of neurons make up nerves
  •  Central Nervous System = Brain + Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System = Nerves to rest of body
  • 3 Types of Nerve Cells Sensory Neurons Receive information form a sensory receptor and send impulses to the CNS Interneurons Relay impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons Motor Neurons Carry impulse from the CNS to muscles and glands through out the body
  • Parts of a Neuron 3 MAIN PARTS  Dendrites - receive messages from other neurons  Cell Body – nucleus is found here  Axon - sends messages to other neurons
  • Dendrites Parts of a Neuron Cell Body Axon
  • Space between each neuron Neurotransmitters are the messengers that travel across each synapse They are chemical signals that neurons use to talk to each other, which is what makes your brain work. They help determine how you feel, think and act.
  • Neurotransmitters  Serotonin - involved in mood (such as helping you to feel happy), sleep, mental health, blood pressure and heartbeat.  Dopamine - important in helping to regulate physical movement, pleasure, and thought.  Missing in patients with Parkinson's Disease.
  • Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine - involved in regulating muscles, memory, mood, sleep, and organs (like the heart). – Lowered amounts associated with Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Central Nervous System (C.N.S.)
  • Cerebrum  Largest part of the brain  Interprets impulses from the senses Responsible for:  thinking and learning  creativity  five senses  memory and emotion  problem-solving  decisions
  • Cerebellum  Coordinates voluntary muscle movement  Helps maintain balance  When a ball is thrown to you, the cerebellum coordinates the proper response to prevent injury
  • Brainstem  Controls involuntary actions  Connects the brain to the spinal cord  Regulates heart rate, breathing, swallowing, blinking, and more Made up of: the midbrain Pons medulla
  •  Made up of bundles of neurons  Carries impulses to and from the brain  Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the Central Nervous System (C.N.S.) Fun fact:  The spinal cord is about 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (P.N.S.)  Connects the C.N.S. with the rest of the body • sensory nerves take impulse from stimulus (sensory receptors) to the CNS • motor nerves take impulse from the CNS to the muscles and glands that take action.
  • Reflex  REFLEX An involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord  Like when the doctor uses the rubber mallet on your tendon below your knee  Movement when someone unexpectedly throws something at you
  • Reflex Arc When the body receives a painful stimulus (stepping on a nail, touching a hot surface, etc), the body responds super-fast. Path of reflex arc: STIMULUS sensory receptor sensory nerve spinal cord (interneuron) motor nerve muscle RESPONSE An impulse continues up to the brain to be interpreted by the cerebrum, BUT, meanwhile the affected area has already produced a response!
  • Senses Vision Sensory Receptors Rods sense brightness Cones sense color The retina, in the back of your eye, has cells that are sensitive to light. They connect directly to your brain.
  • Senses Hearing  Sound waves make your eardrum vibrate.  Small bones in your ear vibrate (hammer, anvil, stirrup)  Vibrations go through the snail-like cochlea, which turns them into nerve impulses to your brain.
  • Taste  10,000 taste buds in your mouth  Your tongue picks up four types of taste: • • • • sweet sour bitter salty  Sweet and salty are least sensitive  Bitter ones are most sensitive Senses
  • Senses Smell  Odor particles drift into your nose  Stimulate sensory receptors – olfactory cells – in nasal passages  Sensory receptors send impulses to your brain to be interpreted.
  • TOUCH There are at least six types of touch receptors in your skin: • Hot • Cold • Pain • Pressure • Touch • Fine touch Senses