Diagrams to discourse and discourse to
diagrams:
uses of visual representation in qualitative
research to support staff de...
Use of diagrams
During this session:
• Are diagrams (or other visual
representations) viable tools to use in
your own practice?
• What are...
Background
• SEDA small grants
research funding
• Full report available:

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
What was done?
Explored academic staff‟s:
– practices in digital literacies,

staff interviews and
surveys

– perspectives...
Why was it done?
• To understand:
– how digital practices emerge;
– to understand what staff are already doing;
– to find ...
Defining digital literacies
functional competence (externus) and capability (internus)

flexible

confident

agile adopter...
Why visuals (diagrams)?

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
The value of diagrams
“A diagram is a visual
representation that shares
the properties of

written text and
representation...
Not just 1000 words: new insights

Harper (2002)
Pic credit: Wikipedia: HikingArtist

Powell&Varga-Atkins

Varga-Atkins & ...
Mmm, useful
…visual modalities, unbound
by the linearity of text (Land,
2011), are especially suited to
explore both self–...
Let us take you through
each stage in our research cycle

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Use of diagrams
The big challenge
• Not to pre-empt
responses
• We wanted participants
to volunteer where they
engaged with
technology

ht...
Use of diagrams
Participatory diagramming (a
“rebus”)

Start

Solution

We posed a learning and teaching „problem‟ and asked
staff to char...
Paired Activity

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Paired Activity. Take 2-3 stickers. Interview your pair
about their use of these selected technologies.
When do you use th...
Diagrammatic elicitation
can be participant- or researcher-led
(Umoquit et al 2013);

= A more
practices

realistic repres...
Diagrams to elicit discourse

Triggers: Visuals/diagrams can elicit ideas that may otherwise
remain unarticulated and prom...
Dilemma of Diagramming:
balance between openness and
structure
use

aware but not use

tried and
rejected

Powell&Varga-At...
Use of diagrams

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Using diagrams to interrogate
discourse

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Diagrams for analysis and
discussion

Initial reflections on
data analysis

Diagrammatic discussions

Powell&Varga-Atkins
...
Use of diagrams

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
From analysis moving to reporting
findings
The
resulting
profile

emergen
t
and more diagrams…
consciou
s

Sharpe and Beetham
(2010)

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
… leading to framework
development

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Use of diagrams
Dissemination – from charts to …

Powell&Varga-Atkins
to …infographics
I see the relevance
Training &
evidence

I see it as my
role
6

Need
training?

0

They are ok!

5
21
8

...
Reflecting on our use of visuals, they
were:

conscious

natural

necessary

emergent

see pic credits in

Powell&Varga-At...
Discussion

Discussion

• Questions

• Can diagrams (or other visual representations)
be suitable tools to use in your own...
Diagrams

Conclusion

Benefits

Challeng
es &
limitation
s

D i s c o u r s e

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
Graphic > < Digital

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 2013 SEDA
References
Beetham, H and Sharpe, R (2011) Learning literacy development framework (JISC
workshop material)
Crilly N., Bla...
Image credits

• Emergent = waves by Reza Ali –
http://www.syedrezaali.com/blog/?p=1214
• Natural = a forest = http://www....
Contact
Sarra Saffron Powell sarrasaf@liv.ac.uk
Tunde Varga-Atkins @tundeva
tva@liv.ac.uk

Powell&Varga-Atkins

15 Nov 201...
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From discourse to diagrams: research project on academic staffs digital literacies

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A presentation that demonstrates the use of diagrams across all stages of a research project at the University of Liverpool. The research explored academic staffs perspectives of and practices in digital literacies.

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  • Need to reference strategy
  • sarraIn this session we demonstrate the ways in which we used visualrepresentation (diagrams) in our educational developer work as researchers in all stages of our research cycle to:Elicit data during interviews;Analyse interview data;Report writing; Disseminating research findings.As well as to communicate ideas between us.From discourse to diagrams, diagrams to discourseWill explain how we use the terms DLs and diagrams in a bit
  • sarra
  • Add web linksara
  • s
  • s
  • Meet the demands of living in a technological age – look at a modelk of this later
  • t
  • tAs a research tool, seemed to offer more bang for your buck
  • TundeWhy visuals? (Harper,=new insight self-REF)=1000 wordsPrevious research experience and practice
  • sParticular relationship between digital literacies and visual modalities
  • s
  • s
  • sThere is an interpretive flexibility with visual stimulus that is not afforded by language
  • sData collection- how we used diagrams in our data collection stageOn
  • sThiswas, clearly, limited and linear – many staff took a multi-directional approach to solving problems that wasn’t captured by this simplistic line. We realised we didn’t want to limit our focus to just teaching activities but wanted to capture a wider range of staff activities. Participants also had varying levels of comfort in terms of sketching their approaches and there was a clear sense that the limitations of an interview setting, made them feel unprepared for the task.(tva:I also think the discomfort came from the fact that they weren’t sure where the technological was meant to come in- as if we had a hidden agenda…they weren’t sure how to ‘please us’ as interviewers)
  • TundeVisual aid encourages dialogue and/or a reaction; We then developed this – a form of diagrammatic elicitation of data which reflected the complexity of academic staff’s activities more realistically – we devised stickers to aid the interview process and where staff mentioned use of technology, we asked them to place stickers in the relevant categories according to their activities.
  • T
  • TundeVisual aid encourages dialogue and/or a reaction; We then developed this – a form of diagrammatic elicitation of data which reflected the complexity of academic staff’s activities more realistically – we devised stickers to aid the interview process and where staff mentioned use of technology, we asked them to place stickers in the relevant categories according to their activities.
  • tMore important is what they say and how they say itDiagram/stickers just a trigger. But discourse is the centre of our analysis!
  • Tunde Stickers allowed us to see that new categories emerged(because they were visual, it was obvious)We then adapted the instrument for our Phase 2 interviews
  • sMoving on to Analysis
  • This was the natural aspect of our visual analysis – and helped us interrogate a large amount of data.
  • sAs was communicating our ideas to each other
  • TMoving on to ReportingWe will show you some of our findingsAnd how the use of diagrams were in a sense our summaries Of our findings in this piece of research.
  • TWe drew the ‘profile’ of each of our intervieweeand attributed what they said about digital literacies to each part.As you see the layers of awareness, rejection, use Have made it to the profiles (our findings from the sticker task)Attitude , awareness and critical reflection were central.
  • Tunde Here we used the pyramid diagram model from Sharpe and BeethamAnd again mapped the def-s of DLs that staff gave against the layersWe found a new layer: something between skills/practicesAgain adv of visual: that it is obvious to show this
  • TundeThis diagram encapsulates quite a few of aspects our findingsAdoption and taking further the diagram by Beetham and Sharpe (2010)Discovery of a layer of skills &amp; practicesAdding critical reflection, access and awareness
  • Now we will discuss how have gone about Thinking about dissemination (and using visualsThink back to the image on an image is 1000words!)
  • This is the sort of typical output you may have in a researchChart with commentaryWon’t go into detailBut questions were on different attitudes to relevance, capabilities to DL
  • TundeHere is something we have come up with instead,We are trying to create more of a narrative (discourse and diagrams together) encapsulated as an infographicsHere we were trying to put the 4 bar charts into a coherent imageTrying to figure out which group is the one we should tackle as ‘eddevers’Not saying the infographics is perfect!!!Experimenting with a way that would lead to effective communication
  • sDecisive (eliciting data)Emergent (interview analysis)Natural (our primary modus operandi as individuals)Necessary (to move beyond the linearity of text and reflect subtle and complex realities)Pic credits to go into ReferencesReza ali – emergent http://www.syedrezaali.com/blog/?p=1214Forest = http://www.layoutsparks.com/1/213309/green-forest-natural-road.htmlConscious: the mind of Mr Soameshttp://controlv.deviantart.com/art/The-Mind-of-Mr-Soames-268423113Necessary: fractal arthttp://steell.deviantart.com/art/Complexity-18857076
  • S t
  • T
  • Tunde Here definitions of digital literacieswere collected.(Using a diagram /petals from other projects, we adapted them slightly)Numbers: def-s in the partic categoryWhat this demonstrates (to oru staff)Is that DLs are not just functional skill sets but beyond, encompassingIdentities (nothing new in terms of findings but nice way to demonstrate it to staff, our audience)
  • I need to finish this
  • From discourse to diagrams: research project on academic staffs digital literacies

    1. 1. Diagrams to discourse and discourse to diagrams: uses of visual representation in qualitative research to support staff development of digital literacies Sarra Saffron Powell / Tünde Varga-Atkins University of Liverpool Research funded by SEDA Small Grants SEDA conference, 15th Nov 2013, Bristol
    2. 2. Use of diagrams
    3. 3. During this session: • Are diagrams (or other visual representations) viable tools to use in your own practice? • What are the merits and limitations of visual approaches in supporting your critical reflection on your own perceptions and practices? Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    4. 4. Background • SEDA small grants research funding • Full report available: Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    5. 5. What was done? Explored academic staff‟s: – practices in digital literacies, staff interviews and surveys – perspectives of those practices within a discipline specific context. – individual and institutional enablers and constraints – explored the role of critical reflection in relation to developing digital literacies. Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    6. 6. Why was it done? • To understand: – how digital practices emerge; – to understand what staff are already doing; – to find out what the university could do to help support staff in enhancing students‟ development of digital literacies. – the role of critical reflection in the development of digital literacies • To promote the digital literacies agenda and improve the student experience Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    7. 7. Defining digital literacies functional competence (externus) and capability (internus) flexible confident agile adopter capable critically reflective Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    8. 8. Why visuals (diagrams)? Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    9. 9. The value of diagrams “A diagram is a visual representation that shares the properties of written text and representational images, but cannot be reduced to either” (Blackwell, 2001, p.1). http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/earlymodernphil/fi les/2013/04/descartesoptics.jpg Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    10. 10. Not just 1000 words: new insights Harper (2002) Pic credit: Wikipedia: HikingArtist Powell&Varga-Atkins Varga-Atkins & O‟Brien (2009) 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    11. 11. Mmm, useful …visual modalities, unbound by the linearity of text (Land, 2011), are especially suited to explore both self–perception and practices, whilst depicting the multimodal, multi-directional complexities of those practices in context of developing digital literacies. Credit: Adeen Flinker, UC Berkeley Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    12. 12. Let us take you through each stage in our research cycle Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    13. 13. Use of diagrams
    14. 14. The big challenge • Not to pre-empt responses • We wanted participants to volunteer where they engaged with technology http://rob-colvin-art.tumblr.com/post/61121517694/the-bigchallenge-by-rob-colvin-acrylic-and Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    15. 15. Use of diagrams
    16. 16. Participatory diagramming (a “rebus”) Start Solution We posed a learning and teaching „problem‟ and asked staff to chart the their approaches and activities to reach a solution Challenges: varying comfort levels and a feeling of being “under prepared” (Umoquit et al 2008). Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    17. 17. Paired Activity Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    18. 18. Paired Activity. Take 2-3 stickers. Interview your pair about their use of these selected technologies. When do you use these technologies and how? Observe the questions below and be ready to feed back about your experience as interviewer/interviewee. Interviewer How helpful is the visual task in getting your ‘data’? To what extent is the structure offered by the diagram help or hinder? Interviewee How helpful is the visual task in helping you formulate your thinking? To what extent is the structure offered by the diagram help or hinder?
    19. 19. Diagrammatic elicitation can be participant- or researcher-led (Umoquit et al 2013); = A more practices realistic representation of academic staff‟s range of digital Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    20. 20. Diagrams to elicit discourse Triggers: Visuals/diagrams can elicit ideas that may otherwise remain unarticulated and promote general discussion. (Gaskell, 2000 in Crilly et al 2006) Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    21. 21. Dilemma of Diagramming: balance between openness and structure use aware but not use tried and rejected Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    22. 22. Use of diagrams Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    23. 23. Using diagrams to interrogate discourse Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    24. 24. Diagrams for analysis and discussion Initial reflections on data analysis Diagrammatic discussions Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    25. 25. Use of diagrams Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    26. 26. From analysis moving to reporting findings The resulting profile emergen t
    27. 27. and more diagrams… consciou s Sharpe and Beetham (2010) Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    28. 28. … leading to framework development Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    29. 29. Use of diagrams
    30. 30. Dissemination – from charts to … Powell&Varga-Atkins
    31. 31. to …infographics I see the relevance Training & evidence I see it as my role 6 Need training? 0 They are ok! 5 21 8 Point to evidence about embedded practices; example definitions and embedded practices in a disciplinary context 0 0 I have the capabilities Powell&Varga-Atkins 2 ?? Excluding non-academic staff and missing responses, n=54
    32. 32. Reflecting on our use of visuals, they were: conscious natural necessary emergent see pic credits in Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    33. 33. Discussion Discussion • Questions • Can diagrams (or other visual representations) be suitable tools to use in your own practice? • What are the merits and limitations of visual approaches in supporting your critical reflection on your own perceptions and practices? Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    34. 34. Diagrams Conclusion Benefits Challeng es & limitation s D i s c o u r s e Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    35. 35. Graphic > < Digital Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    36. 36. References Beetham, H and Sharpe, R (2011) Learning literacy development framework (JISC workshop material) Crilly N., Blackwell A. F., Clarkson P. J., (2006) Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli. Qualitative Research, 6(3) 341-66. Harper, D. 2002. Talking about pictures: A case for photo elicitation. Visual Studies 17, no. 1:13–26. Land R., (2011) Speed and the Unsettling of Knowledge in the Digital University, Digital Difference, (series Educational Futures Rethinking Theory and Practice) (50) 61-70 Powell, S. S.; Varga-Atkins, T. (2013) „Digital Literacies: A Study of Perspectives and Practices of Academic Staff‟: a project report. Written for the SEDA Small Grants Scheme. Liverpool: University of Liverpool. July. Version 1. Powell S. S., Varga-Atkins, T. (2013) „Using visual metaphors to promote critical reflection on digital practices and perspectives‟: Workshop Guidance Umoquit, M., Tso, P., Varga-Atkins, T., O‟Brien, M., & Wheeldon, J. (2013). Diagrammatic Elicitation: Defining the Use of Diagrams in Data Collection. The Qualitative Report, 18(60), 1–12. Varga-Atkins, T and O'Brien M. (2009) From drawings to diagrams: maintaining researcher control during graphic elicitation in qualitative interviews. International Journal of Research and Method in Education, vol. 32(1), April,53-67 Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    37. 37. Image credits • Emergent = waves by Reza Ali – http://www.syedrezaali.com/blog/?p=1214 • Natural = a forest = http://www.layoutsparks.com/1/213309/greenforest-natural-road.html • Conscious: “The mind of Mr Soames” http://controlv.deviantart.com/art/The-Mind-of-Mr-Soames268423113 • Necessary: fractal art http://steell.deviantart.com/art/Complexity18857076 Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
    38. 38. Contact Sarra Saffron Powell sarrasaf@liv.ac.uk Tunde Varga-Atkins @tundeva tva@liv.ac.uk Powell&Varga-Atkins 15 Nov 2013 SEDA
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