Anam Shahid Jawaria Hameed Mohammad Saud AhmedHani Ather Mariyam Khan Rabab RizviHaseem uz Zaman Moeenuddin Hashim Samra Khan Saroosh Zahid
• Introduction• Pre-war era• Causes of Conflict• Conflict• Impact• Efforts for Resolution
• Kurd 15-20%• Sunni Arab 33%• Shia Arab 60%• Turkomans 5-8%
Iraq and Iran Conflict• Saddam Hussein becomes President- 1979• Shortly after, Iran was established as a Shiite Muslim Theocratic State• Iran encouraged Iraqi people to overthrow Saddam Hussein• War becomes International• UN Resolution passed 1987
After war Iraq faced an economic disaster Kuwait increased production of oil (against OPEC) Iraq waged total war against Kuwait. This war is also known as Gulf War. Saddam was warned by the U.N. to pull out of Kuwait or action would be taken. U.S.A., under the U.N. and following the paradigm of Collective Security, attacked Iraq to save the weaker and smaller state, Kuwait. (Operation Desert Storm)
WHY DID US INVADE IRAQ?
Causes Of Conflict• After the Gulf War, sanctions were placed on Iraq• Iraq Liberation Act of 1998: . 1980: Iraq had used chemical weapons against Iranian troops. . 1988, Iraq’s relocation of Kurds killed an estimated 50,000 to 180,000 Kurds. . Mass ethnic killings have occurred in Iraq on the orders of Saddam Hussein.
Strategic Reasons• Allegations made against the Iraqi government, that it had ties with Al-Qaeda.• These “ties” have still not been proven yet.• According to the US government, Iraq possessed WMDs, so it could be a threat to nations.
PROXY WAR FOR ISREAL• Fought by the U.S. on Israels behalf in order to substantially weaken the Arab front and to neutralize Iraqs threats to Israel• It is not the U.S. but rather Israelthat is most frightened by SaddamHusseins arsenals and is
Political Reasons•United states presidentialelections 2004•The best way for bush to getre-elected. •Bush defeated John Kerry in elections. •United Kingdom general elections 2005
Economic Reasons• Theories suggest that US invaded Iraq because of Oil. Foreign policy analysts suspect that the Bush sought a military presence in Iraq as a way to control Oil supplies.• U.S. officials helped draft a proposed law that would give foreign oil companies the ability to operate in Iraq and to reap the profits from newly discovered oil fields.
IRAQ’S FAILURE• 16 resolutions passed prior 2002.• Iraq failed to comply with 1441 resolution.• Iraq continued to fail to account for substantial chemical and biological stockpiles.• Chemical testing done at the site was unable to show that any anthrax had been destroyed there.
COALITION OF THE WILLING
In November 2002, The Bush Administration briefly used the term "Coalition of the Willing“. Over 48 countries participated in the invasion.
Timeline of USInvasion of Iraq
2002 War AuthorizedThe U.S. Congress authorizes President Bush touse military force against Iraq. Inspections U.N. weapons inspections resume inside Iraq.
2003 –President Bush gives Saddam Husseinand his sons 48 hours to leave Iraq.9:34PM March 19 -- U.S.-led invasionbegins. – US-led invasion topples Saddam Husseins government, marks start of years of violent conflict withdifferent groups competing for power.
MARCH 30, 2003 Donald Rumsfeld-“We know where the WMDs are.” “We know where (the Weapons of Mass Destruction) are. They’re in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat.” April 9, 2003: "Fall of Baghdad," as statue of Saddam Hussein gets toppled in the citys center.
May 1, 2003: On board the USS Abraham Lincoln, President Bush makes his "Mission Accomplished" speech, declaring and end to major military operations. MAY 29, 2003: Bush- “We found the WMDs” 14, 2003: DECEMBER Saddam is captured “Ladies and gentlemen. We got him!” [Bremer] Saddam Hussein is captured by U.S. troops. He surrenders without a fight.
2004• JANUARY 28, 2004: WMD, RIPIraq Survey Group inspector David Kay: “It turns out that we were all wrong, probably in my judgment, and that is most• FEBRUARY 10,disturbing.” 2004:• U.S. Military uncovers letter addressed to senior al-Qaida operatives seeking help in waging a “sectarian war”
• JUNE 28, 2004: U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq. Bush’s response: “Let freedom reign!”• AUGUST 27, 2004: Bush acknowledged for the first time that he made a “Miscalculation of what the conditions would be” in postwar Iraq Duelfer Report: Iraq did not have WMD• NOVEMBER 2, 2004: Bush wins re-election
2005• JANUARY 12, 2005: WMD search in Iraq is declared over• JANUARY 30, 2005: Iraqis vote to form a Transitional National Assembly: •MARCH 31, 2005: Silberman-Robb commission, the Presidential Commission on Iraqi WMD, concludes: “[T]he intelligence community was dead wrong in almost all of its prewar
MARCH 19 “Complete victory” MAY 25 Iraqi Prime Minister Maliki says Iraqi troops will be ready to handle security by end of 2007 JUNE 8 Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaida in Iraq, is killed during a U.S. air raid
• NOVEMBER-December, 2006 SADDAM SENTENCED TO DEATH AND EXECUTED
2007• JANUARY 10, 2007: Bush announces escalation.• JANUARY 26, 2007: FEBRUARY 16, 2007 The White House has “authorized The House opposes escalation. the U.S. military to kill or capture Iranians who are believed to be MARCH 24, 2007: working with Iraqi militias.” “Record high” percentage of Americans believe the Iraq war was not worth fighting.
MARCH 27, 2007: McCain claims progress in Iraq. APRIL 1, 2007: McCain strolls through Baghdad market, accompanied by 100 soldiers, 3 Blackhawks, 2 Apache gunships. APRIL 6, 2007: Pentagon report criticizes Feith‟s office, finds no Iraq-al Qaeda link. APRIL 9, 2007: Tens of thousands of Iraqis gather to protest U.S. presence in Iraq
• APRIL 12, 2007: Iraqi parliament bombed inside Green Zone• APRIL 26, 2007: Senate approves Iraq withdrawal bill.• JULY 4, 2007 Bush tells troops to prepare for more deaths.• JULY 8, 2007: Powell- „I tried to avoid this war.‟
OCTOBER 3, 2007: White House retaliates against UK for withdrawal: „British forces have performed poorly‟ in Iraq. NOVEMBER 8, 2007: Iraq war opposition at all-time high NOVEMBER 24, 2007: U.S. starts first major
2008• JANUARY 15, 2008: The Iraqi defense minister said Monday that his nation would not • APRIL 10, 2008. be able to take full responsibility for its internal security until 2012, Bush says U.S. strategy in Iraq is working but needs more time. • JULY 9, 2008. Iraq’s national security adviser -his government would not sign an• FEBRUARY 6, 2008: agreement governing the Bush administration abandons future role of U.S. troops in long-term “security guarantee” Iraq unless it includes a with Iraq timetable for their withdrawal.
• SEPTEMBER 1, 2008. Iraq takes control of Anbar province from U.S.• SEPTEMBER 9, 2008. President Bush announced that about 8,000 US troops • NOVEMBER 16, 2008. will be withdrawn from Iraq Head, Top Cleric Back Iraq by February 2011 Exit by U.S. • December 14,2008. Iraqi journalist Muntazer al- Zaidi throws shoes at bush
2009 • MARCH 9, 2009. 12,000 U.S. Troops to Leave Iraq. • APRIL 7, 2009. President Obama Visits Iraq. • JUNE 30, 2009. Jubilation as U.S. Combat Troops Withdraw From Cities.
2010• MARCH 26, 2010. Secular Challenger Allawi Claims Iraq Election Win.• AUGUST 31, 2010. Obama Declares an End to Combat Mission in Iraq.• DECEMBER 15, 2010.• Security Council Removes Restrictions on Iraq.
Impact of War on US Global Power and Prestige:• There have been changes made in the attitudes and policies of the US government -the US political class has become more cautious without becoming wiser.• The most obvious effect of the Iraq War has been on US military prestige.
Iraqi Insurgents Killed, Roughly Estimated - 55,000 Number of Iraqi police and soldiers killed: 9411 90,000 to 1 million Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led military forces in Iraq. Number of displaced Iraqis inside Iraq: 2,255,000. More than 2 million people have moved out of Iraq since 19 March, 2009. Non-Iraqi Kidnapped - 306, including 57 killed, 147 released, 4 escaped, 6 rescued and 89 status unknown. ECONOMIC VIEW a. Iraqi Unemployment Rate - 27 to 60% b. Consumer Price Inflation in 2006 - 50%
Environmental Impact• Activities in the Iraq war have released at least 141 million metric tons of carbon( equal to putting 25 million more cars on the road in the U.S.)• Projected U.S. spending on the Iraq war would be enough for all of the GLOBAL investments required in renewable energy generation between 2008 and 2030 to stop current global warming trends.• The $600 billion allocated by Congress for Iraq military operations could have built 9000 wind farms, enough to meet a quarter of U.S. present electricity needs.• In 2006, The U.S. spent more on the Iraq War than the entire world spent on renewable energy investment.
Impact on US Forces• The US military is suffering from the effects of six years of war in Afghanistan and Iraq as part of the US "War on Terror." Heavy casualties, longer deployments and an exhausted force have left troop numbers stretched.
Increase of Jihadists and other terrorists: • "If we were not fighting and destroying this enemy in Iraq, they would not be idle. They would be plotting and killing Americans across the world and within our own borders. By fighting these terrorists in Iraq, Americans in uniform are defeating a direct•Their ownto the American people." threat NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE President Bush on NovemberESTIMATE on “trends on Global 30, 2005,terrorism” stated that the war in Iraq isshaping a new generation of terroristleaders and has become a reason forjihadists to come out in the open.
Destruction of Cultural Heritage• The US and its allies ignored the warnings of organizations and scholars concerning the protection of Iraq s cultural heritage.• Arsonists badly burned the National Library and looters pillaged the National Museum
The US constructed a military base on the site of ancient Babylon. Coalition forces destroyed or badly damaged many historic urban areas and buildings, while thieves have ruined thousands of incomparable, unprotected archeological sites.
Resolving ConflictWhat is conflict resolution? Potential peacemakers in Iraqi civil societyinclude:• Academic institutions• Human rights/civil rights/humanitarianorganizations• Media• Personnel of youth centers• Teachers and educators• Tribal leaders• Women’s group
Balad Al-Salam Movement - Iraqi women seeking peace• The movement was aimed at empowering Iraqi activists (both women and men) as well as non- governmental and governmental organizations in order to create the basic infrastructure that will help preventing violence against women (VAW) in Iraq• The project hopes to strengthen the ability of local partners, NGOs and the Iraqi Government, to raise public awareness on violence in general and more specifically violence against women.
Mercy Hands for Humanitarian Aid• An Iraqi NGO which launched the Peace Activation and Conflict Transformation (PACT) Centre in 2006.• The Centre is dedicated to establish new models which address conflicts within the Iraqi civil society.
Protests against the Iraq War• Demonstrations against the war were mainly organized by anti-war organizations, many of whom had been formed in opposition to the invasion of Afghanistan.• Europe saw the biggest mobilization of protesters, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally.
Polling• Immediately before and after the 2003 invasion, most polls within the United States showed a substantial majority supporting war, though since December 2004 polls have consistently shown that a majority now thinks the invasion was a mistake. In the spring of 2007, surveys generally show a majority in favor of setting a timetable for withdrawal.
ANSWER, NION, UFPJ positions The three largest coalitions which organized demonstrations against the invasion of Iraq in 2003, United for Peace and Justice (UFPJ), Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (ANSWER), and Not in Our Name (NION), have all called for the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops, "out now."