Language• Arabic (official),• Kurdish (official),• Turkmen (a Turkish dialect) and• Assyrian (Neo- Aramaic) are official in areas where they constitute a majority of the population),• Armenian. Religion• Muslim (official) 97% (Shia 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%Note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, recentreporting indicates that the overall Christian population may have dropped by as much as 50 percentsince the fall of the Saddam HUSSEIN regime in 2003, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, andLebanon Area• Total: 438,317 sq km country comparison to the world: 59• Land: 437,367 sq km• Water: 950 sq km
Constitution and Stability• Iraq is a constitutional democracy governed with federal system.• The Iraqi constitution of 2005 secures 2005 the basic rights of Iraqi people in many fields.• According to the constitution, The Republic of Iraq is a single, independent federal state with full sovereignty.• The Kurdistan Region is the most secure and stabile region in Iraq.• Although owning less than ¼ land and population of Iraq, the Kurdistan Region attracted 55% of the foreign investment related to the whole country.
Iraq Population 31,129,225 (July 2012 est.) Female, Male, 15363971, 15774254, 49.34% 50.66%(CIA THE WORLD FACTBOOK JULY – est. in 2012)*https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Age Structure 64 years & over. 450516. 2.86% 0 - 14 years. 5959562. 37.80% 15 - 64 years. 9355176. 59.34%(CIA THE WORLD FACTBOOK JULY – est. in 2012)*https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Urbanization 2012 - 15 est. Rural 34% Urban 66%(CIA THE WORLD FACTBOOK JULY – est. in 2012)*https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Etnicity Turkoman, Assyrian & others Kurds 5% 19% Arabs 76%(CIA THE WORLD FACTBOOK JULY – est. in 2012)*https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Religions Muslims Others 1%Christians 3% Sunni 37% Shia 63% Muslims 96% (CIA THE WORLD FACTBOOK JULY – est. in 2012)* https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Demographic Distribution of Religions and Sections
Neighbor CountriesSyria Border with Iraq: 605 km Population:22.300.000 GDP Per Capita : 3.000 $.Urbanization Rate: % 60Jordan Border with Iraq: 181 km Population:6.181.000 GDP Per Capita : 4.500 $.Urbanization Rate: % 78Iran Border with Iraq: 1.458 km Population:74.798,600 GDP Per Capita : 12.100 $.Urbanization Rate: % 71Kuwait Border with Iraq: 242 km Population:2.818.000 GDP Per Capita : 38.900 $.Urbanization Rate: % 97Saudi Arabia Border with Iraq: 814 kmPopulation: 28.120.000 GDP Per Capita :26.500 $. Urbanization Rate: % 83Turkey Border with Iraq: 331 km Population:74.724.000 GDP Per Capita : 10.444 $.Urbanization Rate: % 77
Historical BackgroundFormerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course ofWorld War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UKadministration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as akingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of strongmenruled the country until 2003. The last was SADDAM Husain. Territorial disputes with Iran ledto an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwaitbut was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February1991. Following Kuwaits liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrapall weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verificationinspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAMHusain regime. US forces remained in Iraq under a UNSC mandate through 2009 andunder a bilateral security agreement thereafter, helping to provide security and to train andmentor Iraqi security forces. In October 2005, Iraqis approved a constitution in a nationalreferendum and, pursuant to this document, elected a 275-member Council ofRepresentatives (COR) in December 2005. The COR approved most cabinet ministers inMay 2006, marking the transition to Iraqs first constitutional government in nearly a halfcentury. In January 2009, Iraq held elections for provincial councils in all governoratesexcept for the three governorates comprising the Kurdistan Regional Government andKirkuk Governorate. Iraq held a national legislative election in March 2010 - choosing 325legislators in an expanded COR - and, after nine months of deadlock the COR approved thenew government in December 2010. Nearly nine years after the start of the Second GulfWar in Iraq, US military operations there ended in mid- December 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#2147
Casualties in Iraq war and Insurgency (2003-2012)30000 2900925000 2527520000 1611415000 12104 1142810000 9618 5000 4918 4068 4131 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Economic OverviewOver the past 40 years, the Iraqi economy has witnessed tangible developments ingeneral economic indicators such as GDP, national income, and fixed capital formation,though with ups and downs. This is natural in light of circumstances over the years, mostnotably nationalization of the oil industry in 1972, the first Gulf War in 1980-1988, thesecond Gulf War in 1991, international economic sanctions in 1991-2003, and the fall ofthe regime established in 1968.These events directly affected development in Iraq. Nationalization of the oil industry andcorrection of its prices provided Iraq with sustainable financial strength, leading it to adoptan expansionary spending policy that energized economic activity, stimulated theproduction cycle, and raised consumption levels. The economy thus experienced highrates of growth, which were tangibly reflected in the Iraqi people’s standard of living andallowed them to enjoy economic and social prosperity. At the same time, however, thespending policy of the 1970s caused a host of issues, including increases in the consumerprice index and higher import rates. Overall, the final outcome of the 1970s appears tohave been positive when evaluated using locally and internationally recognized economicand social development measures. Republic of Iraq / Ministry of Planning – National Development Plan for 2010-2014
Economic OverviewBetween 1980 and 2003, Iraq suffered from long wars and severe economic sanctions.Development regressed as a result; economic policies were adopted, to support warefforts and resist sanctions, with no regard for progress in development, thus effectivelyending the positive achievements of the 1970s. The Iraqi economy was trapped in avicious cycle that could only be broken by a shock. That shock occurred with the fall of theregime in 2003. However, the ensuing instability in economic, political, social, and securityconditions threatened, and continues to threaten, development efforts, and the road aheadis still long and difficult.According to Iraq’s 2010-2014 National Development Plan, Iraq must mobilize $186 billionin investment, create 3.5 million new jobs, and cut unemployment by half from 15 percent.Priority sectors include oil, electricity, agriculture, transportation, telecom, education,health care, construction, and the industrial sector. Non-oil sector growth will bedependent on the reconstruction and development of decrepit infrastructure throughoutthe country. Improving electricity generation capacity, which currently stands at around60% of estimated demand, is critical to non-oil sector growth. Republic of Iraq / Ministry of Planning – National Development Plan for 2010-2014
Economic GrowthThe International Monetary Fund (IMF), in its latest World Economic Outlook, makes thefollowing forecasts for Iraq. 13.5 14 11.1 10.8 12 9.9 9.1 10 7 7.9 8 6 6 6 2011 4 2012 2 0 2013 Real GDP Cosumer Curremt Price Inflation Account Balance (% of GDB) Sheekar_BAR_Iraq_2012 www.sheekarrapirsi.com
GDP Last 10 years ( bil $)300250 252.3200 180.6150 129.3 116.6 117.6100 84.7 50 48.5 55.4 34.5 20.5 13.6 25.7 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 est* Sheekar_BAR_Iraq_2012 www.sheekarrapirsi.com
GDP Per Capita Current $$6,000.00 $5,400.00$5,000.00 $4,200.00$4,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,700.00$3,000.00 $3,100.00$2,000.00 $1,978.00 $1,687.00 $802.00 $1,237.00$1,000.00 $949.00 $518.00 $- 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Sheekar_BAR_Iraq_2012 www.sheekarrapirsi.com
Geographic Origin of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq Value ($ mil)11,988 6,878 4,096 3,825 3,694 3,172 3,093 2,959 2829 2184 21.5% 12.4% 7.4% 6.6% 5.7% 5.6% 5.3% 5.1% 3.9% 6.9% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Sector Breakdown of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq Value ($ mil)14,524 12,769 11,196 4,285 2,850 2,433 2,063 1,919 844 1,213 26.1% 22.9% 20.1% 5.1% 4.4% 3.7% 3.4% 2.2% 1.5% 7.7% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Provincial Breakdown of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq15,114 Value ($ mil) 11,099 8,091 5,227 3,536 2,153 1,874 1,720 1,344 1,130 27.1% 19.9% 14.5% 6.4% 3.9% 3.4% 3.1% 2.4% 2.0% 9.4% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Geographic Origin of Foreign Commercial Activities in Iraq (<$1 bil) Value ($ mil)3,694 2,963 2,634 2,294 1,655 1,539 1,184 1,070 1000 904 14.0% 11.2% 10.0% 6.3% 5.8% 4.5% 4.1% 3.8% 3.4% 8.7% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Sector Breakdown of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq (<$1 bil) Value ($ mil)7,029 5,789 4,016 2,063 1,919 1,213 844 482 403 550 27.4% 22.6% 15.7% 7.5% 4.7% 3.3% 8.1% 2.1% 1.9% 1.6% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Provincial Breakdown of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq (<$1 bil)6,356 Value ($ mil) 4,119 2,810 2,219 1,746 1,630 1,110 998 986 893 24.5% 15.9% 10.8% 8.6% 6.7% 6.3% 4.3% 3.9% 3.8% 3.4% 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Value of Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq 2003-2011 ($ billions)605040302010 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2011-Foreign Commercial Activity in Iraq www.duniafrontier.com
Turkey Export to Iraq last 5 years by month1 200 0001 000 000 800 000 600 000 400 000 200 000 0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 Turkiye Istatistik Kurumu http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?alt_id=12
Media in Iraq
Media BriefAccording to the researches done by survey companies TV Channels are the favoritemedia for Iraqi people to get informed.The Iraqi Media in general is developing under the effect of the media in neighboringcountries like Turkey, Lebanon and United Arab Emirates.The proportion of people reading newspapers and magazines is low in the region, exceptthe elites and middle class. Buying daily newspapers for home have not been formed.Radio is popular than newspapers and magazines and has wide target audiences.The media began to develop just after 1991, when Kurdistan region started to establish ade facto autonomous governance despite of Saddam dictatorship.Formerly established as organs of parties, the media enterprises showed a rapiddevelopment in the following years.Generally after 2000 the media of the region started to become professional mediainstitutions.However today the leading media establishments are supported by the leading partiesand/or by the governments.A media part outside this framework continues to be active due to support of opposingpolitical societies.Another part of media pursuing a policy to work without the support of politicalenvironment, is not efficient because of deprivations.
Iraqi Media Under SaddamMedia under Saddam Husains Baath party was severely limited and strictly controlled bythe state. There was one news network called Iraqi News Agency which functioned solelyas a mouthpiece for the regime. Any media other than that under the purview of thegovernment was barred. Satellite dishes were illegal. Although this may have beencircumvented by some of Baghdads elite, the fear of being turned in or found out madethis an uncommon occurrence.The Ministry of Information was charged with control of the media during Saddams rule.At this time, there were only five state-owned daily newspapers, one government TVchannel, and four radio stations. Legislation was in place to assist in the control of themedia by the state, and digressions were not tolerated. Expression was widely restricted,and there were no laws to protect journalists or media professionals http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_Iraq
Iraqi Media After SaddamAfter the end of full state control in 2003, a period of considerable growth occurred inIraq’s broadcast media. Immediately, the ban on satellite dishes was no longer in place,and by mid-2003. According to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations, 15-17 Iraqi-owned television stations, and 200 Iraqi-owned and operated newspapers. Significantly,many of these newspapers emerged in disproportionate numbers to the population oftheir locations.The licenses were issued by the CPA Senior Adviser for Telecommunications. The Iraqiallotment plan consisted of hundreds of FM radio and TV stations allotted to the cities andtowns. The channels in the allotment plan were then open to anyone to apply for alicense for a particular channel.The CPA continued its work as the national broadcasting licensing and regulatoryauthority until June 2004 when the Iraq Communications and Media Commission (CMC)was established as the national regulatory agency that would issue licenses and regulatebroadcasting and telecommunications.
Media Usage 97% 89%100% 90% 52% 80% 42% 70% 60% 34% 50% 33% 14% 25% 16% 40% 17% TV 30% 20% 16% Radio 20% 2% Internet 10% 7% 1% Mobile 0% Weekly News Newspaper Source Daily News Source Daily Entertainment Source Irex Iraq polls May 2012
Weekly Usage Media for News and Information 97100 89 90 80 70 60 50 42 43 40 27 28 31 30 20 22 22 15 20 8 7 3 6 10 0 Irex Iraq polls May 2012
Internet Usage Social Media Usage Non Users I don’t know 25.40%44.40% I don’t use 7.30% Users 55.60% Twitter 5.80% Yahoo 9.80% MSN 14.30% Facebook 48.30% Sheekar_BAR_Iraq_2012 www.sheekarrapirsi.com
Al-Sharqiya TVIt is one of the most popular Iraqi TV channels.Based on Saudi funding, the channel started broadcasting fromIraq in 2004 then moved to Dubai after having securityproblems with the Iraqi government.It is regarded by many as the most popular TV channel mainlydue to its reality TV shows (Wong 2005) and other series thatharshly crticise Iraqi officials and the current situation such228as Night Wolves, Love and War, and An Owned Chair.The channel is known to favour Ayad Allawi.Relatively high program quality according another channels inthe country.
Al-Baghdadia TVPrivate TV channel headquartered in Cairo.The program policy targeting all Iraqi sections at the sametime.The channel became a target for the government and theyfaced many judicial problems and attacks.Pursuing a opposition line towards Iraqi government and theysupported Sunni opposition after the mid-2011.It is offering a common spectrum of programs and it has Al-Baghdadia 2 Channel broadcasting serials commonly.Broadcasting via Nilesat and Hotbird.
Al-Iraqia TVThis is the official television channel in Iraq that is hoped to bea public broadcasting station that is part of the Iraqi MediaNetwork (IMN).It broadcasts in three languages: Arabic, Kurdish, and English.They supported Maliki’s Political views in 2010 elections.Broadcasts news, movies and documentation films on acommon line of policy.Headquartered in Baghdad.Broadcasting via Nilesat and Hotbird.
Al-Rasheed TVIt is an independent TV.It says that the channel follows an approach characterized by‘variety and balance’. It does not ‘pass judgments but presentsevents as they are’. The channel’s slogan is to be ‘devoid ofany sectarian and ethnic influences’.Most of what is aired is Arabic series and documentaries, andthe most famous program that it broadcasts is ‘Comedy Star’that presents Iraqis competing to become comedians.
Al-Furat TVIt is established by the Shiite Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq(ISCI). It first started broadcasting from Iran during SaddamHusseins rule as a propaganda tool to reveal the reality of theformer regime in Iraq. After the US-led invasion, it moved itsmain office to Iraq.It is described as an ‘edifice of truthful and committed media’.Its slogan is a channel of balance and originality’ which isconcerned with the ‘athletic, political, and social religiouscultural and economic affairs of the Iraqi people’, on its website.The channel states that it addresses ‘the Iraqi people with alltheir ethnic and religious groups and sects as well as the Araband Muslim people’.They supported Muqtada AL-Sadr’s political views in 2010elections.
Al-Sumaria TVIt is a well-respected and famous channel broadcasting fromBeirut, Lebanon that was firstly established in September2004.Owned by Iraqi businessmen, it employs about 700 people,and it tries to show an objective account of the events takingplace in Iraq. It has become famous after airing the popular2005 show ‘Iraq Star’ which shows talented Iraqi singerscompeting to win (Hammond 2005). It also produced severalfamous Iraqi TV series that were aired during the Muslim holymonth of Ramadan.According to its website, the channel follows a moderate policythat involves all the sects and groups of the Iraqi society as theonly way for peaceful co-existence. It slogan We Promote lifewhich reflects its policy. Headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon.
Al-Mowselya TVIt was established in 2006.The channel airs from Mosul city and is managed and run byGhazi Faisal. It appears to be supported by Mosul City Council.Its programmes are mainly related to the events happening inMosul that has a Sunni majority.Its slogan is: Iraqi in Origin; its source is Mosul.Broadcasting and being watched from Mosul and local links.
Al-Fayhaa TVThe channel first started broadcasting in July 25, 2004 andwas originally located in Dubai but moved to Sulymaniah innorthern Iraq after the expiry of its license in the UAE.It became a controversial channel from the beginning becauseof its pro-Shiite programs. When the UAE diplomat, Naji Al-Naimi, was kidnapped in Baghdad in 2006, the kidnappersdemanded that the UAE government must stop this channelfrom transmission.The channel mainly focuses on the plights of Shiite duringSaddam’s rule and always brings up the issue of Iraqidetainees held by Saudi Arabia in Rafah Camp since the 1991Gulf War.It usually airs programs and shows that focus on theshortcomings of Arab leaders. Its slogan is ‘freedom of opinionand the responsibility of the stance’.
Al-Qithara TVBroadcasts from Jordan for Iraqi viewers.It is called the ‘channel of Iraqi Tunes’ and is devoted to Iraqimusic and art taken from the different regions of Iraq.Music Channel mostly Iraqi singers
Biladi TVHeadquartered in Baghdad.Broadcasting news, serial movies, cinema and documentaries.It is a Shiite TV channel. According to its website, it ‘reflects thepulse of the Iraqi street without siding with any group or sect inthe society’. It further states that it ‘speaks on behalf of theIraqi people, and it is the voice of all Iraqis from variousorigins’.The channel describes itself as a ‘national, political, and newschannel that airs up-to-date news’. However, the channelusually focuses on issues relevant to the Shiites of Iraq. Thechannel airs Iranian- produced series dubbed into Arabictackling Islamic history.It is run by the Shiite leader of the National ReformationMovement and former Prime Minister and former leader ofDa’awa Party, Ibrahim Al-Jaafri.
Turkmeneli TVIt is supported by Iraq Turkoman Alience.It is a Turkomen TV that airs in Turkomen and Arabiclanguages and is obviously supported by Turkey.The channel uses Latin words instead of Arabic just likemodern Turkish language. Most of the programmes focus onthe issue of Kirkuk and it favours the Turkomen and theirculture by emphasising their rights and concerns.It slogan is Irakin Aydinlik Yüzü’.
Kurdistan TVEstablished in 1998.Pursuing a program policy supporting KDP and representsgovernments views.The news are taken seriously by the viewers.Broadcasts mostly news and documentaries.Broadcasting via Hotbird and Nilesat.
Zagros TVEstablished in 2006.KDP supporter, however not bearing this policy openlybecause it looks somehow governmental.It was the most viewed Tv channel during 2009-2010 due toits liberal and innovative content, but could not renew itselfafter then.Broadcasting mostly Kurdish Sorani dialect.It is on Nilesat and Hotbird.
Kurdsat TVEstablished in 2001.Supporting the PUK of Jalal Talabani, while pursuing a flexibleand liberal program policy.The main audiences located in Sulaimania.Broadcasting via Hotbird and Nilesat.
Geli Kurdistan TVSupporting the PUK of Jalal Talabani.Its programs are mostly propaganda of PUK.It is broadcasted via Hotbird, Nilesat and locally.
Kurdmax TVEstablished on May 2012.Non political independent entertainment channel.2 Serials (Turkish & Korean) a day in Prime time3 sport, 2 film cartoons, 7 serials in weekly schedule.%70 Sorani, %30 Bahdini Dialects.It has most viewed “Evin Jin u Jiyan” Tv Show program in theregion twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays between17:30 and 21:00.
Vin TVEstablished in 2007Music channel, broadcasting entertainment programs in primetime as well.Mostly presenting the programs in Bahdini dialect of Kurdish.The main audiences consisting of young people and women.Broadcasting via Nilesat.
Kanal 4Established in 2009 in Erbil.Partner with Korek TV that is owned by Korek Telecom.It is mostly in Sorani dialect.Broadcasted via Nilesat.
Korek TVEstablished in 2008 in Erbil.Owned by Korek Telecom.Music channel mostly in Sorani.Broadcasting via Nilsaat.
NRT TVEstablished in 2011 as a news channel.Broadcasting in Sorani and Bahdini Dialect.Trying to follow an independent Broadcasting Policy
KNN TVEstablished in 2009.It is supported by the new opposition movement of Goran( Change) criticize the government.Mostly broadcasting in Sorani dialect and being viewed bySulaimania neighborhood.
Speda TVEstablished in 2008.Supported Islamic Movement in 2010 elections.Broadcasting in Kurdish and Arabic.Most viewed in worshipping times.Hotbird, Eurobird, AtlanticBird.