Vehicle tracking system with theft- protectionIntroduction:Vehicle tracking system with theft protection is designed for police to have allinformation of vehicle crossing any traffic signal with control to stop any car anywhere inthe world. The general object of the subject invention is to provide an integrated systemfor tracking motor vehicles. To attain this objective the present invention essentiallycomprises a tamper-proof, electronic vehicular license plate having all electroniccomponents integrated therein, roadside and mobile receivers for detecting vehicles anddecoding the RF transmission, and an information system for making the data useful tolaw enforcement, industry, and private citizens. There are, of course, additional featuresof the invention that will be described hereinafter and which will form the subject matterof the claims appended hereto.A vehicle tracking system with theft protection uses a radio-frequency electronic vehiclelicense plate in conjunction with roadside receivers and information system architecture.The system is used to identify and track vehicles, detecting vehicles operating in violationof the law, and automatically issuing citations. It also has feature that vehicle can be stopby police anywhere in the world using mobile phone.The system comprising of1. RF electronic Registration plate attached to a vehicle, the license plate havingintegrated 12 bit code and transmitting components, the electronic transmittingcomponents capable of transmitting radio-frequency signals containing information aboutthe license plate and the vehicle status.2. DTMF based Fuel locking system which also installed in the vehicle, can be used tolock unlock fuel of vehicle anywhere in the world using mobile phone.3. A series of spaced roadside RF information receivers for detecting vehicles anddecoding the transmission signals into data. Also it checks compliance with vehicleregistration, insurance etc.
HT12E FM or 433MHz Code editor Encoder Transmitter RF Licence plate FM or 433MHZ Receiver HT12D Decoder 16*2 LCD Keypad Display Microcontroller RF Information Receiver Mobile as DTMF Mobile as DTMF Solnoid operated Transmitter Receiver fuel lock DTMF Transmitter and DTMF based fuel lock:
Working:RF Registration plate: In this project an RF circuitry is installed in each and every carwhich continuously transmits 12 bit code. The configuration of code is done using databit of HT12E D8-D11. If any of pins connected to the 5v through resister, HT12E read itas 1. In case of pressing switch IC reads 0. For this purpose we have used HT 12Eencoder. HT 12 E is 2^12 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control systemapplications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bitsand 12_N data bits. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. Theprogrammed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RFtransmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TEtrigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the applicationFlexibility of the 212 series of encoders. The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHzcarrier for infrared systems.DTMF Fuel locks: In the car DTMF based fuel lock is installed which can be activatedor deactivated using mobile phone. Mobile work as a DTMF receiver and encoded hybridfrequency DTMF code tone is decoded by 9170 IC. 8870 Decode DTMF tone andconvert into BCD code, output depending upon which key is pressed at the transmitterside. The table shows encoded output.
Pressed Mobile key D3 D2 D1 D0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 1 6 0 1 1 0 7 0 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 0 9 1 0 0 1 * 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 # 1 1 0 0 This four digit output is directly given 7400 IC. 7400 is two input NAND gate. The 7400 is configured as three inputs AND gate using four NAND gate. The three lower bit of HT9170 is connected to 7400. The three input AND gate gives output high only in case of pressed key is 7 ie all input is high. So when some one press key 7 from remote mobile unit binary 0111 is decoded and applied to 7400, which gives output high. For high output transistor conducts and activate solenoid. The solenoid is used for fuel locking.RF information receiver:As shown in the circuit diagram it consists of HT12D receiver, Microcontroller interfaceand LCD display.
HT 12D Receive 12 bit decoded data transmitted by RF license plate and encode data forfurther processing. The HT12D is 12 bit decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remotecontrol system applications. They are paired with Holtek_s 2^12 series of encoders. Forproper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and dataformat should be chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from aprogrammed 2^12 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RFtransmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continuously withtheir local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes aredecoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate avalid transmission. The 2^12 series of decoders are capable of decoding information’sthat consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Of this series, the HT12D isarranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits.The 12 (only 4 bit used) bit code received by HT12D is further applied to themicrocontroller. Corresponding to each code microcontroller assign a unique Registrationnumber, Owner name and address, License number, Vehicle status (Stolen or not). Theseassigned information is continuously displayed on LCD. All information can also bechecked using keypad.The brain of our project is 89c52 microcontroller. It scans input port code comingfrom HT12D and compare with predefined code if match found display correspondinginformation. The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bitmicrocomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory(PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memorytechnology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction setand pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerfulmicrocomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to manyembedded control applications.
The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes ofRAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interruptarchitecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition,the AT89C52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency andsupports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPUwhile allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continuefunctioning. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator,disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.The display section consists of 16*2 LCD, which used to display Summary of IC beingInserted and result of test being conducted.LCDs can add a lot to your application in terms of providing an useful interface for theuser, debugging an application or just giving it a "professional" look. The most commontype of LCD controller is the Hitatchi 44780 which provides a relatively simple interfacebetween a processor and an LCD.Pin Description:Pins Description1 Ground2 Vcc3 Contrast Voltage4 "R/S" _Instruction/Register Select5 "R/W" _Read/Write LCD Registers6 "E" Clock7 - 14 Data I/O Pins15-16 LED+ LED-The LCD interface is a parallel bus, allowing simple and fast reading/writing of data toand from the LCD.This waveform will write an ASCII Byte out to the LCDs screen. The ASCII code to bedisplayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or eight bits at a time. Iffour bit mode is used, two "nybbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits
with an "E" Clock pulse with each nybble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer.The "E" Clock is used to initiate the data transfer within the LCD.Sending parallel data as either four or eight bits are the two primary modes of operation.While there are secondary considerations and modes, deciding how to send the data to theLCD is most critical decision to be made for an LCD interface application.Eight bit mode is best used when speed is required in an application and at least ten I/Opins are available. Four bit mode requires a minimum of six bits. To wire amicrocontroller to an LCD in four bit mode, just the top four bits (DB4-7) are written to.The "R/S" bit is used to select whether data or an instruction is being transferred betweenthe microcontroller and the LCD. If the Bit is set, then the byte at the current LCD"Cursor" Position can be read or written. When the Bit is reset, either an instruction isbeing sent to the LCD or the execution status of the last instruction is read back (whetheror not it has completed). The different instructions available for use with the 44780 areshown in the table below:R/S R/W D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Instruction/Description4 5 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 Pins0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Clear Display0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 * Return Cursor and LCD to Home Position0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ID S Set Cursor Move Direction0 0 0 0 0 0 1 D C B Enable Display/Cursor
0 0 0 0 0 1 SC RL * * Move Cursor/Shift Display0 0 0 0 1 DL N F * * Set Interface Length0 0 0 1 A A A A A A Move Cursor into CGRAM0 0 1 A A A A A A A Move Cursor to Display0 1 BF * * * * * * * Poll the "Busy Flag" Write a Character to the Display at the Current1 0 D D D D D D D D Cursor Position Read the Character on the Display at the1 1 D D D D D D D D Current Cursor Position The bit descriptions for the different commands are:"*" - Not Used/Ignored. This bit can be either "1" or "0"Set Cursor Move Direction: ID - Increment the Cursor After Each Byte Written to Display if Set S - Shift Display when Byte Written to DisplayEnable Display/Cursor D - Turn Display On(1)/Off(0) C - Turn Cursor On(1)/Off(0) B - Cursor Blink On(1)/Off(0)Move Cursor/Shift Display SC - Display Shift On(1)/Off(0) RL - Direction of Shift Right(1)/Left(0)Set Interface Length DL - Set Data Interface Length 8(1)/4(0) N - Number of Display Lines 1(0)/2(1) F - Character Font 5x10(1)/5x7(0)Poll the "Busy Flag" BF - This bit is set while the LCD is processingMove Cursor to CGRAM/Display A - AddressRead/Write ASCII to the Display D - Data
Reading Data back is best used in applications which required data to be moved back andforth on the LCD (such as in applications which scroll data between lines). The "BusyFlag" can be polled to determine when the last instruction that has been sent hascompleted processing. In most applications, I just tie the "R/W" line to ground because Idont read anything back. This simplifies the application because when data is read back,the microcontroller I/O pins have to be alternated between input and output modes.For most applications, there really is no reason to read from the LCD. I usually tie "R/W"to ground and just wait the maximum amount of time for each instruction (4.1 msecs forclearing the display or moving the cursor/display to the "home position", 160 usecs for allother commands). As well as making my application software simpler, it also frees up amicrocontroller pin for other uses. Different LCDs execute instructions at different ratesand to avoid problems later on (such as if the LCD is changed to a slower unit), Irecommend just using the maximum delays given above.In terms of options, I have never seen a 5x10 LCD display. This means that the "F" bit inthe "Set Interface Instruction" should always be reset (equal to "0").Before you can send commands or data to the LCD module, the Module must beinitialized. For eight bit mode, this is done using the following series of operations: 1. Wait more than 15 msecs after power is applied. 2. Write 0x030 to LCD and wait 5 msecs for the instruction to complete 3. Write 0x030 to LCD and wait 160 usecs for instruction to complete 4. Write 0x030 AGAIN to LCD and wait 160 usecs or Poll the Busy Flag 5. Set the Operating Characteristics of the LCD o Write "Set Interface Length" o Write 0x010 to turn off the Display o Write 0x001 to Clear the Display o Write "Set Cursor Move Direction" Setting Cursor Behaviour Bits o Write "Enable Display/Cursor" & enable Display and Optional Cursor
In describing how the LCD should be initialized in four bit mode, I will specify writing tothe LCD in terms of nybbles. This is because initially, just single nybbles are sent (andnot two, which make up a byte and a full instruction). As I mentioned above, when a byteis sent, the high nybble is sent before the low nybble and the "E" pin is toggled each timefour bits is sent to the LCD. To initialize in four bit mode: 1. Wait more than 15 msecs after power is applied. 2. Write 0x03 to LCD and wait 5 msecs for the instruction to complete 3. Write 0x03 to LCD and wait 160 usecs for instruction to complete 4. Write 0x03 AGAIN to LCD and wait 160 usecs (or poll the Busy Flag) 5. Set the Operating Characteristics of the LCD o Write 0x02 to the LCD to Enable Four Bit Mode All following instruction/Data Writes require two nybble writes. o Write "Set Interface Length" o Write 0x01/0x00 to turn off the Display o Write 0x00/0x01 to Clear the Display o Write "Set Cursor Move Direction" Setting Cursor Behaviour BitsWrite "Enable Display/Cursor" & enable Display and Optional Cursor