Indigenous literacy in méxico


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Describes de effort in indigenous literacy in Mexico, by INEA.

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  • “ The… discussion of he nature of language proficiency and the length of time required to develop peer-appropriate levels of conversational and academic skills have immediate relevance for two practical issues. First, support for language and academic development is still beneficial (and frequently necessary) even after students have attained conversational fluency ... [in a second language]. Exiting children prematurely from bilingual... programs may jeopardize their academic development, particularly if the mainstream classroom does not provide an environment that is supportive of language and content development.”
  • As Bialystok and Hakuta (1994: 2) summarized it “Second languages... develop under an extremely heterogeneous set of conditions, far more diverse that the conditions under which children learn their native language. Cultures may vary in their practices of language socialization of infants and toddlers, but outcome of first-language acquisition remains universal. This cultural identification and absolute fluency, however, is not guaranteed outcome do second-language learning".
  • Indigenous literacy in méxico

    1. 1. INDIGENOUS LITERACY IN MÉXICO: CRITICAL ISSUES ABOUT THE SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING Learning Conference 2007 Johannesburg, South Afric, July 2007
    2. 2. MÉXICO COUNTRY Extension : 2 millions Km 2 105 MILLIONS OF HABITANTS 77% urban population 23% rural population 12 millions of indigenous people 22 millions en USA
    3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCLUDED* Source: Conteo de población 2005. INEGI <ul><li>Population: 15 years old & older: </li></ul><ul><li>68 millions (100%) </li></ul><ul><li>Adults without basic education: </li></ul><ul><li>30.1 millions (44%) </li></ul><ul><li>Illiterate: 5.7 millions (8.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 6th. Grade: 9.8 millions </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 9th. Grade: 14.5 millions </li></ul>
    4. 4. INDIGENOUS PEOPLE <ul><li>12 millions: 11% of total population </li></ul><ul><li>62 ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>More than 130 diversified languages </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteratte: 33% (National 8.4%) </li></ul>
    5. 5. POLITICAL FRAMEWORK <ul><li>INEA, for more than two decades, has made constant educative efforts, directed to the population young and adult native of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays INEA develops an institutional policy towards the indigenous population, that takes shape in the Indigenous and Bilingual Educational Model for the Life and Work (MEVyT-IB) </li></ul>
    6. 6. WHAT CHARACTERIZES THE EDUCATIVE MODEL <ul><li>Includes three educative levels: initial, intermedium and advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Offers two routes of learning in the initial level, depending on the linguistic condition of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the intercultural approach </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates bilingual and pedagogical strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Allows to choose and transit across diverse levels and modules </li></ul><ul><li>Favors the educative continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Orientated to lifelong learning </li></ul>
    7. 7. MIB Let’s live better! MIB 2 Numbers and calculations Initial level Intermedium level MIBES 1 Beginnig to read and write in my language MIBES 3 Read and write In my language MIBES 2 Speak Spanish MIBES 4 Beginning to read and write In Spanish MIB 1 Using the writing language ( two languages ) Curricular organization MIBES route , Spanish like second language: monolingual people
    8. 8. Initial level Intermedium level MIBI 1 Beginning read and write in my two languages MIBI 2 Write and read in my two languages MIB 1 Using the writing Language ( two languages ) MIB Let’s live better! MIB 2 Numbers and calculations MIBI rout e: bilingual integrated: efficient bilingual people MIB 3 I write my language + 2D
    9. 9. LITERACY <ul><li>Initial level=literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Much more than only to decipher and to repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Notion of functional literacy focuses on how these skills are applied in relevant ways* </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy as transformative: an active process of learning involving social awareness and critical reflection* </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is viewed as a continuum of skills* </li></ul>Basic education Inicial level *UNESCO. Literacy for life. 2006
    10. 10. SECOND LANGUAGE <ul><li>The teaching of indigenous language contributes so much to the learning of the second language (linguistic transference) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of the oral communicative competition of the second language, is previous requisite for the acquisition of abilities of reading and writing in this language </li></ul><ul><li>The education of one second language in its oral and written aspects depart of a functional and communicative approach </li></ul><ul><li>The learning of the second language occurs like a gradual process of c ommunicative competitions development </li></ul><ul><li>When the learned write in the mother tongue language and speak in one second language, then it is possible to read and to write this second language </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>The competitions that allow a person to communicate efficiently: to speak, to understand, to read and to write, are developed in different spaces and moments </li></ul><ul><li>The situations in which one or another language as well as one or another code (spoken or written) are used, are determined by the specific context in which the persons lives and works </li></ul><ul><li>The learning of one second language is not equivalent to the translation from a language to another one, but that it implies the recognition of the meaning and senses that keep the languages in concrete situations. </li></ul>
    12. 12. THE METHODOLOGICAL WAY <ul><li>To recognize the spaces of use of the languages (indigenous and spanish) in real communicative situations </li></ul><ul><li>To consider the structural characteristics of the spanish and the indigenous language </li></ul><ul><li>To identify and to recognize the linguistic elements of the second language, the context in which it is used and possible meaning of the words in the new language in real communicative situations </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Identificación of the young or adult person with the communicative situation </li></ul><ul><li>Oral/written text/dialogue presentation (with discussion and anticipation activities in mother tonque language) </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of the oral text/situation </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection both languages about (structure, meanings, phonetic) </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of the text/dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>New text/dialogue production </li></ul>THE PROCESS
    14. 14. CRITICAL ISUUES <ul><li>The bilingualism can be only apparent. Really, m any persons only use elementary aspects of the second language in some practical daily situations </li></ul><ul><li>The persons need 4 or 5 years of study of the second language to learn in this second language in efficient way*, but the educational processes of bilingual literacy cannot be so extensive. </li></ul><ul><li>In the indigenous communities do not exist literate environments </li></ul><ul><li>We need simple but very thin instruments of valuation </li></ul><ul><li>We need both languages with simultaneous work in an extensive framework of basic education </li></ul><ul><li>We need develop rich literate environments both mother tongue languages and Spanish </li></ul>*In the meaning of Cummins, 1994
    15. 15. CRITICAL ISSUES <ul><li>There is sufficient evidence about the linguistic transference, but the times of literacy in mother tongue language are very small </li></ul><ul><li>There is sufficient evidence about the existence of different ways of thinking and different styles of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>In cultural contexts specific solutions are needed, but the public politics are orientated to the massive solutions </li></ul><ul><li>We need to re-formulate the criteria of curricular development and of literacy evaluation, in order to recognize it as a process along the basic education and to favor formally his continuous development </li></ul><ul><li>Different styles of education are needed to deliver to every specific person the possibility of learning and of growing in social and cognitive terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual programs must be alert and sensitive to social and individual differences in order to provide the most adequate pedagogical assistance to help persons acquire the second language; they need to function adequately in a multilingual setting as well as to perform efficiently at educative spaces. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>THANKS! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>