PersonalityThe sum total of ways in which an individual reactsand interacts with others. Personality Determinants • Heredity • Environment • Situation
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.Personality Types• Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)• Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)• Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)• Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)
Locus of ControlThe degree to which people believe theyare masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Self-Esteem (SE)Individuals’ degree of likingor disliking themselves.Self-MonitoringA personality trait that measuresan individuals ability to adjusthis or her behavior to external,situational factors.
High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions – Use less information to make decisions – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions – Require more information before making decisions – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
Type A’s2. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;3. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;4. strive to think or do two or more things at once;5. cannot cope with leisure time;6. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.Type B’s2. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;3. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments;4. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;5. can relax without guilt.
1) Power DistanceThe extent to which a society accepts that power ininstitutions and organizations is distributedunequally.low distance: relatively equal distributionhigh distance: extremely unequal distribution
3) AchievementThe extent to which societal values arecharacterized by assertiveness, materialism andcompetition.3) NurturingThe extent to which societal values emphasizerelationships and concern for others.
4) Uncertainty AvoidanceThe extent to which a society feels threatened byuncertain and ambiguous situations and tries toavoid them.High ----low
5) Long-term OrientationA national culture attribute that emphasizes thefuture, thrift, and persistence.5) Short-term OrientationA national culture attribute that emphasizes thepast and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillingsocial obligations.
“Judgment concerning objects, people & events” – Determinant of behavior – Are learned – Define our perception of aspects of world – Are close to our personality – Can be changed
Attitudes Cognitive component The opinion or belief segmentEvaluative of an attitude. (thought process)statements orjudgments Affective Componentconcerning The emotional or feeling segmentobjects, of an attitude.people, orevents. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
1) Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.2) Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.3) Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
4) Perceived Organizational Support (POS)Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.5) Employee EngagementAn individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization.
Exit VoiceBehavior directed toward Active and constructiveleaving the organization. attempts to improve conditions. Loyalty Neglect Passively waiting for Allowing conditions to conditions to improve. worsen.
Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,”Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprintedwith permission.
Satisfaction and Productivity – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. – Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. – They are less likely to turnover which helps build long- term customer relationships. – They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.