An Information system is a set of people, procedures, and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization.
An information system (IS) is typically considered to be a set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (processes), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective.
For example: Today’s end users rely on many types of Information Systems (IS). Some are simple manual information systems, where people use tools such as pencils and paper, or machines such as calculators and typewriters.
A computer based information system uses the resources of people (end users and IS specialists), hardware (machines and media), and software (programs and procedures), to perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities that convert data resources into information products
Components of I S Fig. 13.1: The Components of an Information System
Types of Information System Information Systems Operations Support System Management Support System Transaction processing systems Process control systems Office automation systems Management information systems Decision support systems Executive information systems
A transaction processing system (TPS) collects, stores, modifies and retrieves the transactions of an organization. Examples of such systems are automatic telling machines (ATMs), electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS – also referred to as POS). There are two types of transaction of processing:
Batch processing : where all of the transactions are collected and processed as one group or batch at a later stage.
Real-time processing : where the transaction is processed immediately
Continued… Transaction Processing System Sales and Marketing Manufacturing & Production Finance & Accounting Human Resource System Order Processing. Advertising Sales Statistical Analysis Ordering Raw Material Wage System Attendance Application Accounting Budgeting General Ledger
The term office automation refers to all tools and methods that are applied to office activities which make it possible to process written, visual, and sound data in a computer-aided manner.
An office automation system (OAS) facilitates everyday information processing tasks in offices and business organizations. These systems include a wide range of tools such as spreadsheets, word processors, and presentation packages.
Office Automation Systems are software packages such as MS Office which include word processors, spreadsheets, databases, presentation software, email, internet, desktop publishing programs and project management software.
Continued… A Continuum (scale) of Human Control and Automation Fig: Human Control and Automation
The MIS is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations, the management, and the decision-making function in the organization.
Management Information System (M.I.S.) is basically concerned with processing data into information, which is then communicated to the various Departments in an organization for appropriate decision-making.
A DSS can be defined as a computer based information system that aids a decision maker in taking decisions for semi-structured problems.
A DSS is an interactive, flexible and adaptable computer based information system that utilizes decision rules, models and model base coupled with comprehensive database and the decision maker’s own insights, leading to specific, implementable decisions in solving problems.
An EIS, executive Information System is a form of MIS designed for upper management and provides information which might help them make decisions on a strategic level about future directions or issues concerning managers.
An executive information system (EIS) is a highly interactive system that provides managers and executives’ flexible access to information for monitoring operating results and general business conditions. These systems are sometimes called executive support systems (ESS). EIS attempts to take over where the traditional MIS approach falls short.
EISs provide executives with internal and competitive information through user-friendly interfaces that can be used by someone with little computer-related knowledge. EISs are designed to help executives find the information they need whenever they need it and in whatever form is most useful.