Global Culture and Cultural Flows<br />
Cultural Differentialism<br />Tracie Dean<br />
Cultural Differentialism<br />Culture diversity is a form of cultural differentialism<br />Cultural differentialism emphas...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Culture differentialism defines culture as a clearly bound entity with a specific geological...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Each country has its own language, values, norms, symbols, etc.<br />A society which is not ...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Cultures cannot easily mix without causing disruption<br />Differentialism implies a cultura...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order is a theory p...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Huntington’s thesis argues that a Sino-Islamic connection is emerging in which China will co...
Cultural Differentialism<br />Huntington also sited some of the factors contributing to this conflict that both Christiani...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Sean Gillaspy<br />
Cultural Hybridization<br />Cultural Hybridization – Mixing of cultures leading to unique combinations of those cultures t...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Glocalization, meaning interpenetration of the global and the local to produce unique outcomes...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Creolization, which is the combination of languages and cultures that were formerly unknown to...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Hybridization, which are external flows interacting with internal flows producing a unique cul...
The Cultural “Landscapes” of ArjunAppadurai’s 5 Global Flows<br />Ethnoscapes, which are movements, real or imaged, of mob...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Technoscapes, which are fluid, global configurations of technology and the wide range of mater...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Financescapes, which are high-speed national movements of funding around the world<br />Exampl...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Mediascapes, which contain information and images capable of global technological transmission...
Cultural Hybridization<br />Ideoscapes, which are flows of images, primarily political in nature<br />Example:  state spon...
Cultural Convergence<br />Sarah Arnold<br />
Cultural Convergence	<br />Cultures are subject to many of the same global flows and become increasingly more alike.<br />...
Cultural Imperialism<br />Cultural imperialism is the concept of one or more cultures imposing on another and destroying i...
World Culture:<br />The spread of global models (politics, business, education, family, religion, etc.) leading to cultura...
McDonaldization<br />McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominat...
McDonaldization:Beyond Fast Food<br />Higher education<br />Church<br />Social work<br />Sex<br />The system and principle...
Globalization of “Nothing”<br />Implies a growing convergence based on the notion that nations are increasingly characteri...
Four Sub-Types of Nothing<br />Non-places: settings with no distinctive content (malls, chain stores)<br />Non-things: obj...
Grobalization<br />Imperialistic ambitions on the part of corporations, nation-states, organizations to impose themselves ...
Sports & Globalization<br />First global sport was tennis (late 1800s)<br />Modern Olympic games first held in Athens in 1...
Sports: The limited role of the U.S.<br />The U.S. is not a hegemonic power when it comes to sports (more players flow in ...
Local, glocal, grobal<br />glocal + grobal = unique product influenced by the “scapes” of an area.<br />British grobalized...
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Transcript of "Sarah sean-tracie-global culture and cultural flows"

  1. 1. Global Culture and Cultural Flows<br />
  2. 2. Cultural Differentialism<br />Tracie Dean<br />
  3. 3. Cultural Differentialism<br />Culture diversity is a form of cultural differentialism<br />Cultural differentialism emphasizes the fact that cultures are essentially different and are superficially affected by global flows<br />The process of globalization has involved the spread of religion which has impacted civilization for the past 2,000 years<br />
  4. 4. Cultural Differentialism<br />Culture differentialism defines culture as a clearly bound entity with a specific geological location<br />Diverse cultures clearly have distinctions which allows observers to identify a specific component of a culture from another (i.e. French culture or Chinese culture each is distinct from one another) <br />
  5. 5. Cultural Differentialism<br />Each country has its own language, values, norms, symbols, etc.<br />A society which is not homogenous has a few subcultures and countercultures which can sanctioned<br />Culture is clearly territorially bound. As culture adapts to its environment it changes very slowly and is long lasting<br />
  6. 6. Cultural Differentialism<br />Cultures cannot easily mix without causing disruption<br />Differentialism implies a cultural purity that globalization threatens<br />The Culturist differentialist argument emphasizes the inherent differences between cultures and the destabilizing effects of cultural globalization <br />
  7. 7. Cultural Differentialism<br />Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order is a theory proposing that people’s cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post Cold War world <br />This theory was originally formulated in a 1992 lecture, then later developed in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article titled “The Clash of Civilizations” in response to Francis Fukuyama’s 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man<br />
  8. 8. Cultural Differentialism<br />Huntington’s thesis argues that a Sino-Islamic connection is emerging in which China will cooperate more closely with Iran, Pakistan, and other states to augment its international position<br />Huntington also states that civilizational conflicts are “particularly prevalent between Muslims and non-Muslims”<br />
  9. 9. Cultural Differentialism<br />Huntington also sited some of the factors contributing to this conflict that both Christianity (upon which Western civilization is based) and Islam share:<br />Missionary religions, seeking conversion of others<br />Universal “all or nothing” religions, in the sense that only their faith is the correct one<br />Teleological religions, that is, that their values and beliefs represent the goals of existence and purpose in human existence<br />Huntington has stated that all civilizations should adopt Western values which is another way of saying Western universalism<br />
  10. 10. Cultural Hybridization<br />Sean Gillaspy<br />
  11. 11. Cultural Hybridization<br />Cultural Hybridization – Mixing of cultures leading to unique combinations of those cultures that are not reducible to either global or local cultures<br />Example: the Muslim Girl Scouts, where the uniform and traditions are combined (Girl Scout Uniform with traditional Hijab head scarf<br />
  12. 12. Cultural Hybridization<br />Glocalization, meaning interpenetration of the global and the local to produce unique outcomes in different geographic areas<br />Example: Salsa traditions, and how widely they vary around the world in each country where they are practiced, such as the U.S., Cuba, and Venezuela. In PR, the “New York” style is preferred, etc.<br />
  13. 13. Cultural Hybridization<br />Creolization, which is the combination of languages and cultures that were formerly unknown to each other<br />
  14. 14. Cultural Hybridization<br />Hybridization, which are external flows interacting with internal flows producing a unique cultural hybrid that combines their elements<br />Example: Thai boxing, Asian Rap, Chinese Tacos, Kosher Pizza<br />
  15. 15. The Cultural “Landscapes” of ArjunAppadurai’s 5 Global Flows<br />Ethnoscapes, which are movements, real or imaged, of mobile groups and individuals<br />Examples: tourists, refugees, and guest workers<br />
  16. 16. Cultural Hybridization<br />Technoscapes, which are fluid, global configurations of technology and the wide range of material that moves freely and quickly, at the internet’s pace, around the world<br />Examples: files, emails, information on websites<br />
  17. 17. Cultural Hybridization<br />Financescapes, which are high-speed national movements of funding around the world<br />Example: the rapid pace at which the global recession of 2008 spread around the world<br />
  18. 18. Cultural Hybridization<br />Mediascapes, which contain information and images capable of global technological transmission<br />Examples: Online blogs, independent films, newspapers and magazines<br />
  19. 19. Cultural Hybridization<br />Ideoscapes, which are flows of images, primarily political in nature<br />Example: state sponsored or rebel sponsored information seeking political sway in a certain area of the world<br />
  20. 20. Cultural Convergence<br />Sarah Arnold<br />
  21. 21. Cultural Convergence <br />Cultures are subject to many of the same global flows and become increasingly more alike.<br />Examples:<br />In Iran:Starcups and Kabooky Fried Chicken <br />In the US: Bath and Body Works a copy of a British chain<br />SUBWAY in 34,679 Restaurants in 98 Countries<br />From Subway’s International Homepage: <br />“Wherever SUBWAY® restaurants are located, the core menu stays relatively the same — with the exception of some cultural and religious variations. World travelers can expect the same high quality of ingredients regardless of what nation they are visiting. You can enjoy a footlong Turkey Breast Sub, with your choice of a variety of vegetables and condiments served on bread baked right in the restaurant in Jamaica, then travel to New Zealand and get the same footlong Turkey Breast Sub!”<br />
  22. 22. Cultural Imperialism<br />Cultural imperialism is the concept of one or more cultures imposing on another and destroying its local culture.<br /> -Traditional crafts and jobs<br /> - ex: Indian sari weavers and professional letter writers replaced by mass production and technology.<br /> - Deterritorialization: culture is no longer constrained by geography<br />
  23. 23. World Culture:<br />The spread of global models (politics, business, education, family, religion, etc.) leading to cultural convergence.<br />The result is isomorphism, or great uniformity throughout the world.<br />
  24. 24. McDonaldization<br />McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more of the world.<br />Five Basic Dimensions of McDonaldization:<br />Efficiency: social norms for both workers and consumers<br />Calculability: emphasis on speed in prep and consumption<br />Predictability: products, settings, employee and customer behavior basically the same globally<br />Control: comes from technologies, resulting in a less customized experience for the consumer<br />Irrationality of rationality: The idea that rationality leads to irrationality. <br />For example: <br />efficiencies are replaced by inefficiencies (long lines, long waits)<br />dehumanization for employees and customers (eating in the car)<br />increasing global homogeneity because of the system (same product different country)<br />
  25. 25. McDonaldization:Beyond Fast Food<br />Higher education<br />Church<br />Social work<br />Sex<br />The system and principles of McDonaldization can work to varying degrees, but they often provoke resistance and can help lead to greater differences in certain parts of the world.<br />
  26. 26. Globalization of “Nothing”<br />Implies a growing convergence based on the notion that nations are increasingly characterized by various forms of “nothing.”<br />Nothing- social forms lack distinctive content (chains)<br />Something- rich in distinctive content (local)<br />
  27. 27. Four Sub-Types of Nothing<br />Non-places: settings with no distinctive content (malls, chain stores)<br />Non-things: objects with no distinctive content (chain store products, credit cards)<br />Non-people: employees associated with non-places (telemarketers)<br />Non-services: services with no distinctive content (ATMs)<br />
  28. 28. Grobalization<br />Imperialistic ambitions on the part of corporations, nation-states, organizations to impose themselves across the globe to grow profits.<br />Capitalism, McDonaldization, and Americanization are all driving forces in grobalization and the spread of nothingness (increasing convergence).<br />
  29. 29. Sports & Globalization<br />First global sport was tennis (late 1800s)<br />Modern Olympic games first held in Athens in 1896.<br />Originally 13 nations, now over 200 participate.<br />Media broadcasts to vast audience (4 billion in 2004).<br />Global corporations and brands as sponsors.<br />Soccer is the most global. Its teams and stars, such as Manchester United and David Beckham, are bigger than U.S. sports teams/stars.<br />Global sports companies: Nike, Adidas, Reebok. Logos are recognized worldwide.<br />
  30. 30. Sports: The limited role of the U.S.<br />The U.S. is not a hegemonic power when it comes to sports (more players flow in rather than out of the U.S.)<br />Baseball: slow to spread because of owner monopoly and because it was so closely tied with American values. It was also not spread via colonialism.<br />Japan: the baseball played in Japan looks the same but is different in nature.<br />Increased number of Japanese players in MLB.<br />-American football is almost exclusive to the U.S.<br />-Basketball is becoming more global and the U.S. has more competition at the Olympic Games. Also, more foreign players are coming to the U.S. to play, and lesser U.S. players often compete for teams abroad.<br />- However, the commercialization of sports was first evident in America (entertainment, celebrity, sports broadcasting).<br />
  31. 31. Local, glocal, grobal<br />glocal + grobal = unique product influenced by the “scapes” of an area.<br />British grobalized cricket (nothing) and India has glocalized it (something).<br />The self-contained and highly local cannot be globalized (Gaelic football and hurling).<br />
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