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World War 1
 

World War 1

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    World War 1 World War 1 Presentation Transcript

    • 1914-1918
    •  Nationalism  The Slavs and the Austro-Hungarian Empire  Arms Race  Expansion and Strengthening of Armies and Navies  Growing spirit of militarism  Alliance System  Chancellor Bismarck  League of Three Emperors  Germany  Austria-Hungary  Russia
    •  Triple Alliance  Germany  Austria- Hungary  Italy  Triple Entente  Great Britain  France  Russia
    •  Suspicious climate and national rivalries led to a series of crises that brought Europe closer to war  Austrian annexation of Bosnia, 1908  Balkan Wars, 1912- 1913  Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
    •  “Unification or Death”  Pan- Slavic Nationalism  Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Macedonians
    •  July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia  Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s plan of attack meant to bring the war to a swift end  Plan XVII: The French plan of attack  August 1: Germany declares war on Russia  August 3: Germany declares war on France  August 4: Great Britain declares war on Germany
    • Schlieffen Plan (Alfred von Schlieffen) • German troops will be able to move swiftly through Belgium (6 weeks to Paris) • Russia will need 6 weeks to mobilize troops (takes 3!) • Great Britain will stay out of war • QUICK VICTORY! Plan XVII (Joseph Joffre) Germany will not swing out too far West through Belgium “Napoleonic model” of combat (offensive strategy) will secure victory Élan vital (fighting spirit) will secure victory in spite of being outnumbered QUICK VICTORY!
    •  Allies  Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Beligu m, Japan (late August 1914), Italy (1915), United States (1917)  Central Powers  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (late 1914), Bulgaria (1915)  Before the war was over it involved over thirty nations with a combined fighting force of over 65 million.
    •  Stalemate on the Western Front  The First Battle of the Marne  Beginning of Trench Warfare  Battle lines established in 1914 changed little in 3 ½ years  The Eastern Front  More fluid, with frequently shifting battle lines resulting in territory won and lost  Russian victories and defeats
    • Poison Gas Machine Guns Planes Tanks
    • Effects of Poison Gas
    •  A “War of Attrition”  No Man’s Land- the area between enemy trenches  The problem of Rats  Trench Foot
    •  Shell Shock “My nervous state, which I thought ought to last not more than a fortnight, still persists more than three, or almost four, months after being evacuated, though the trembling is a little less.” Case #225 (1919)
    •  Total War  Maintaining National Unity  Regulation of Economic Life  Censorship and Propaganda
    •  Volunteer Groups  Nurses and Nurses Aids  Blurring of Class Lines  Ammunition Factories  A Growing Independence
    •  Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (1868- 1918)  The Bolsheviks  Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)  Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, March 1918
    • The War Vote: 375 to 50 (House) 82 to 6 (Congress)
    •  60 units on Eastern Front freed by Russian withdrawal from war  Germany transfers troops from Eastern Front to West (France)  May 1918=Germans are 50 miles outside Paris  U.S. troops tip the balance toward the Allies  10,000 fresh soldiers sent to France every day  2nd Battle of Marne  German populace hungry and tired of war  Germany forced to face punishing armistice effective November 11, 1918, “11th Month, 11th Day, 11th Hour”
    •  November 11, 1918 Two Minute Silence, Armistice Day (London, 1918)