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Historyandtypespsych[1] Historyandtypespsych[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Intro to Psychology What is psychology? The history of psychology Types of psychologists
  • Announcements I no longer require tutoring to earn a 100% in this class. Class participation and attendance are 50%, Tests 25% and essays 25% My tutoring hours are Monday and Wednesday after school. Unless I know you are coming, I will leave after 10 minutes. You can always email me anyway. You can text me 214-455-2145 I’m supposed to be in the building by 8:15. If I know you want tutoring, I’ll be here. I’ll probably be here anyway.
  • Chapter 1 note cards What is psychology? What is the APA? What’s the difference btwn psychiatrist and psychologist? What’s a forensic psychologist? A industrial/organizational psych? What’s a counselor? What is trephination? Psychology came from what disciplines? Who is William Wundt and structuralism? Who is William James and functionalism? What is the psychodynamic perspective of psychology? Behavioral perspective of psych? Cognitive perspective of pscyh? Humanistic perspective of psych? Sociocultural perspective of psych? Evolutionary perspective of psych? Biological/neuroscience perspective of psych? 16 note cards
  • What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. The APA, the American Psychological Association is the largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology.
  • What are different types of psychologists? (8 types) Clinical psychologists – work in clinics or hospitals or private practices treating mental disorders. They have a PhD.
  • School psychologists Work for school districts to treat students for mild disorders like depression and grief. Sunset’s is Jessica Cintron. They have a PhD.
  • Counseling psychologists Treat mental disorders with “insight” therapy. They treat mental disorders without medicine. They have a PhD.
  • Counselors Do not really treat mental disorders. Usually do not have a PhD. Counselors use talk therapy for everyday problems like marital counseling, family counseling, career counseling, mild depression, grief counseling.
  • Psychiatrists (shrinks) Psychiatrists are MDs (doctors) who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders. They treat disorders with medicine and a little counseling.
  • Sports/performance psychologists Work for major league sports teams to maximize performance and minimize performance anxiety.
  • Forensic psychologists They testify in court to determine if a defendant is fit to stand trial. If a defendant is termed “insane” then no. “sanity” is a legal term, not a psychological one. They also study criminal behavior like serial killers
  • Industrial/organization psychologists Work for large corporations to maximize employee output and profit. Have similar duties to interior designers, architects. They might work for human resources.
  • Review questions: Carlos just moved to Duncanville from a small town and his parents were just divorced. He’s been having a hard time with life. Carlos might see a a. Psychiatrist b. Clinical psychologist c. Counselor d. Moe Sizlak
  • 6. Mr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Mr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Mr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
  • A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education
  • 2. In contrast to a clinical psychologist, a psychiatrist is more likely to a) engage in an eclectic b) use a biomedical treatment c) recognize the importance of group therapy with patients having the same disorder d) treat clients in community mental health centers exclusively
  • Major Perspectives of Psychology (a preview)
  • Ancient Roots Archaeologists have found evidence of trephination – Stone Age humans carving holes in the skull to release evil spirits.
  • Trephening
  • The Greeks Plato and Democritus theorized about the relationship between thought and behavior.
  • Phrenology Old quacks used to predict personality based on the bumps on your head.
  • However, thinking about psychology is different than scientifically studying it.
  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Founder of Structuralism – studied consciousness using the technique of introspection, studying your own thoughts Psychology began in Germany. But most is here in USA, today First to do psych experiments.
  • William James (functionalism) This approach says our mind is a product of our environment Influenced by Darwin Influenced Behaviorists. Consciousness cannot be studied.
  • The History & Scope of Psychology
  • Psychology’s Perspectives The Big Seven
  • Neuroscience Perspective Biology explains everything!. If you could not remember the names of your parents and went to a psychologist who adheres to the neuroscience perspective, what might they say?
  • Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism. We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors. Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors’ survival. How could this behavior ensured Homer’s ancestors survival?
  • Psychodynamic Perspective Fathered by Sigmund Freud. Our behavior comes from unconscious drives. Usually stemming from our childhood. What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?
  • Behavioral Perspective Focuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors. Focus on rewards and punishments. If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
  • Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think (or encode information) How do we see the world? How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think. Meet girl Get Rejected by girl Did you learn to be depressed Or get back on the horse
  • Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how your culture affects your behavior. Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.
  • Humanistic Perspective Focuses on positive growth Attempt to seek self-actualization (be all you can be) (think hippies) Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic Therapist!!!
  • Psychology came from Neurology and philosophy
  • Don’t forget to write your answers on a separate piece of paper to grade when you’re done! 1. Wilhelm Wundt and the structuralists studied questions still asked today primarily by a) behavioral psychologists b) cognitive psychologists c) psychodynamic psychologists d) humanist psychologists
  • 2. With which definition of psychology would John Watson and B. F. Skinner most agree? a) Psychology is the science of behavior. b) Psychology is the science of mental processes. c) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. d) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes specific to
  • 3. The question “Is intelligence more influenced by heredity or experience?” deals with a big issue in psychology known as a) stability vs. change b) mind-body dualism c) rationality vs. irrationality d) nature vs. nurture
  • 4. If Aristotle and Locke, who both believed that what we know is acquired from experience, were alive today, they would best agree with the a) behavioral approach b) psychoanalytic approach c) humanistic approach d) psychodynamic approach
  • The world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology is the a. World Psychology Organization b. American Psychological Society c. American Psychological Association d. Psychologists of North America
  • According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of a. observable behavior b. conscious experience c. unconscious motivation d. the functions of behavior e. self concepts
  • Which of the following statements gives the best explanation of the birth of psychology? A. a man by the name of Wilhelm Wundt established the first research laboratory in the late 1800’s B. A man by the name of Wilhelm Wundt began to perform hypnosis on individuals in the late 1800’s C. A man by the name of Sigmund Freud established the first research laboratory in the late 1800’s D. A man by the name of Sigmund Freud began to perform hypnosis on individuals in the late 1800’s
  • 5. Which psychological approach is most concerned with the importance of encoding, storage, and retrieving information a) information technology b) behavioral approach c) biological approach d) cognitive approach
  • 6. Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
  • 7. A good definition of psychology is: a. the understanding of unconscious processes b. the study of the human mind c. the scientific study of human behaviors d. the exploration of personality traits e. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  • 8. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the current thinking about evolutionary psychology? a) It is a widely accepted approach to the study of human behavior. b) It is a simplistic rehash of ideas proposed by Charles Darwin over 140 years ago. c) It is a radical perspective supported by a small group of “revolutionary” scientists. d) It is a thought-provoking, innovative perspective that is rapidly gaining influence.
  • 9. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called a) developmental psychology b) abnormal psychology c) applied psychology d) cognitive psychology
  • 10. Functionalism is the historical school of psychology that focused its attention on a. unconscious processes and their effect on behavior b. cognitive associations and how those impact learned actions c. the effect of relationships between parents and children on behavior d. the belief that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function e. the individual structures that make up the mind and how each affects and determines behavior
  • 11. William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily influenced by a) Charles Darwin b) Sigmund Freud c) John Watson d) B. F. Skinner
  • 12. Historically, most of psychology’s research has been conducted in a) China b) Japan c) Mexico d) the United States
  • 13.Wundt’s technique of reporting one’s conscious mental experiences is known as a. introspection b. structuralism c. functionalism d. psychodynamism e. humanism
  • 14. According to behaivorists, behavior is governed primarily by a) heredity b) personal motives c) the environment d) unconscious desires
  • 15. A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education
  • Chapter 1 Answer Key 1. B 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. D 6. B 7. E 8. D 9. C 10. D 11. A 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. B