Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Long term & short term effects of climate 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Long term & short term effects of climate 2

820

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
820
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Long and Short Term Changes in Climate By : Sarah Ramanathan Keiren Alam Chantal Liu Manal Rahim
  • 2. <ul><li>For the past millions of years, our climate has had many significant changes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Earth's climate are triggered by changes in Earth's  energy balance.    </li></ul>Introduction
  • 3. <ul><li>Long term changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continental drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in Earth's orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short term changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Air and Ocean Currents  </li></ul>
  • 4. Long Term Changes in climate (millions of years - hundreds of thousands of years) Chantal & Manal
  • 5. <ul><li>Plate Tectonics = Theory of explaining slow movement of large plates of Earth's crust </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Drift - Theory that Earth's continents used to be one supercontinent named Pangaea. </li></ul>Changes Due to Continental Drift
  • 6. <ul><li>225 Million years ago: Pangaea (Permian period) </li></ul><ul><li>200 Million years ago: Laragia and Gondwanaland (Triassic period) </li></ul><ul><li>135 Million years ago: Jurassic period </li></ul><ul><li>65 Million years ago: Creations period. </li></ul>
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. <ul><li>Continents move = ocean currents and wind patterns change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects heat transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affects distribution of land mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothern Hemisphere (includes Canada) has most land mass. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Fewer large bodies of water = coldest winters & warmest summers </li></ul><ul><li>More large bodies of water in Southern hemisphere = more moderate climate </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures weren't like this in Permian period </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>More mountains (caused by movement of Earth's plates) affects Local & regional climates </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing of mountains over time can also cause regional climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These changes have occurred in Canada because we have new/old mountain regions (Rockies and Appalachians) </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Scientists have found that over time the energy the Sun produces over time can also change </li></ul><ul><li>Changes of area cause complications in production of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 produced in volcanoes & mid-ocean trenches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost by slowly being absorbed into oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas w/ high overall temperature most likely had greenhouse warming due to volcanic CO2 </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Long-Term Cycles in Climate <ul><li>20 000 years ago, Earth had last ice age. </li></ul><ul><li>Temp was 10 degrees lower than today </li></ul><ul><li>Canada covered in ice sheet 3 km thick </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Sea levels dropped as oceans froze over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land under oceans were exposed, revealing hidden bridges to continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals crossed over to new habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major changes in temp happen in regular cycles </li></ul>
  • 15. Recurrence of Interglacial Periods and Ice Ages <ul><li>Every 100,000 years, interglacial periods and ice ages occur </li></ul><ul><li>Ice age (glacial period): long term reduction of Earth’s temperature = glaciers and ice sheets covering Earth </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Interglacial periods: period of warmer temperature that separates periods of time in an ice age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interglacial periods involve movements of glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes temperatures to keep rising and falling depending on whether glaciers are advancing or retreating </li></ul>
  • 17.  
  • 18. Why these Interglacial Periods &Ice Ages Keep Happening <ul><li>Engineer/astronomer Milutin Milankovitch developed theory on reason for these climate changes </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s orbit around sun changes on three main ways/cycles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eccentricity (changing shape) of Earth’s orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s Tilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction (wobble) of tilt </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>Eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of Earth’s orbit around sun changes </li></ul><ul><li>Goes from almost circular to more elliptical (flattened circle/oval-like) </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Caused by Jupiter and Saturn’s gravities </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs approximately every 100,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s current cycle is more elliptical (oval-like) </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>Earth’s Tilt </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s current tilt = 23.5 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt is responsible for its changes in seasons </li></ul>
  • 22. In a cycle close to 42,000 years, Earth tilts back and forth on its axis from 22.1 degrees to 24.5 degrees
  • 23. <ul><li>Scientists believe that changes in Earth’s tilt are cause for glacial cycles occurring </li></ul><ul><li>When Earth’s tilt is larger (closer to its 24.5 degrees max): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciations end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes warmer summers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt currently decreasing </li></ul>
  • 24. Direction (wobble) of tilt (Axial Precession) <ul><li>In order to grasp the idea, think of a spinning top </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>As it spins, it wobbles around/changes direction while spinning on same point </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt is similar </li></ul><ul><li>As Earth’s spins on its axis, it slowly wobbles </li></ul><ul><li>The angle of its tilt remains approximately the same but its directions changes </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle of roughly 26,000 years </li></ul>
  • 26.  
  • 27. Short Term Changes in Climate (decades - thousands of years) Sarah & Keiren
  • 28. Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Volcanic eruptions can cause Earth’s climate to change temporarily </li></ul><ul><li>rocks, dust, and gases are sent out high into atmosphere. </li></ul>
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. <ul><li>Suns energy reflects back out to space (from sulfur dioxide particles) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s surface shaded. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of cooling depends on amount of dust put in air, and time of cooling-on size of particles. </li></ul>
  • 32. Changes in Sun’s Radiation <ul><li>suns radiation amount drops, Earth gets less energy </li></ul><ul><li>(less heat = Earth cools down) </li></ul><ul><li>suns radiation higher = more energy </li></ul><ul><li>No scientific reason yet why radiation </li></ul><ul><li>and over shorter time scales. </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>Uneven heating of Earth causes convection currents that create prevailing winds and ocean currents. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents have a strong effect on climates of nearby land </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents can be caused by winds </li></ul><ul><li>Cold ocean currents cool air above </li></ul><ul><li>Warm ocean currents heat air above </li></ul>Ocean Currents
  • 34. Ocean currents can have a major effect on the weather The global conveyor belt begins around the North Pole and then works its way down, traveling through all of the oceans before circling back
  • 35. <ul><li>Air on Earth's surface is in constant motion called air currents </li></ul><ul><li>Air currents affect air quality and ocean currents, and weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Air currents caused by three main processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impurities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul></ul>Air Currents
  • 36.  
  • 37. Thank You
  • 38. Bibliography <ul><li>Nelson Science Perspectives 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson Education Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Pages 348-353 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/NatSci102/lectures/climate.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>Windows to the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>2010 National Earth Science Teachers Association </li></ul><ul><li>200-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/cli_seasons.html </li></ul><ul><li>Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution </li></ul><ul><li>Shelley Dawicki </li></ul><ul><li>March 28, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=9779&tid=282&cid=3638&ct=162 </li></ul><ul><li>Long term climate </li></ul><ul><li>hypertext   G. H. Rieke </li></ul><ul><li>http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/NatSci102/lectures/climate.htm </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>Long term climate </li></ul><ul><li>hypertext   G. H. Rieke </li></ul><ul><li>http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/NatSi102/lectures/climate.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.phy6.org/stargcc/Sconcat2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://room106vjh2.blogspot.com/2010_09_01_archive.html </li></ul><ul><li>Black, Ken. &quot;How does Ocean Temperature affect Air Temperature?&quot; WiseGeek. Web. 10 Jan 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Regional District. &quot;Global Ocean Currents.&quot;. Web. 10 Jan 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Hayhoe, Christy, Douglas and Katharine. Energy Transfer within the Climate System: Air and Ocean Circulation . Perspectives 10. Canada: Nelson Eduacation Ltd, 2010. 344-348. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-supported Classroom of the Future </li></ul><ul><li>September 30, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vclimate.html </li></ul>

×